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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOLUME 67 



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WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1926 



ADVERTISEMENT 

The scientific publications of the National Museum include two 
series, known, respectively, as Proceedings and Bulletin. 

The Proceedings, begun in 1878, is intended primarily as a medium 
for the publication of original papers, based on the collections of the 
National Museum, that set forth newly acquired facts in biology, 
anthropology, and geology, with descriptions of new forms and 
revisions of limited groups. Copies of each paper, in pamphlet form, 
are distributed as published to libraries and scientific organizations 
and to specialists and others interested in the different subjects. 
The dates at which these separate papers are published are recorded 
in the table of contents of each of the volumes. 

The present volume is the sixty-seventh of this series. 

The Bulletin, the first of winch was issued in 1875, consists of a 
series of separate publications comprising monographs of large 
zoological groups and other general systematic treatises (occasionally 
in several volumes), faunal works, reports of expeditions, catalogues 
of type-specimens, special collections, and other material of similar 
nature. The majority of the volumes are octavo in size, but a 
quarto size has been adopted in a few instances in which large plates 
were regarded as indispensable. In the Bulletin series appear vol- 
umes under the heading Contributions from the United States National 
Herbarium, in octavo form, published by the National Museum since 
1902, which contain papers relating to the botanical collections of 
the Museum. 

Alexander Wetmore, 
Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

Washington, D. C, May 26, 1926. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Article 

Am aral, Afranio do. South American snakes in the collec- 
tion of the United States National Museum. No. 2596, pp. 

1-30. December 23, 1925 1 24 

Bartsch, Paul. Three new land shells from Mexico. No. 

2594, pp. 1-5. December 14, 1925 * 22 

New species: Holospira (Holospira) orcutti, H. (H.) monclovana, H. 
{Eudistemma) picta. 

Bassler, Ray S. and Ferdinand Canu. (See Ferdinand 

Canu) '. 21 

Canu, Ferdinand, and Ray S. Bassler. Studies on the 
Cyclostomatous Bryozoa. No. 2593, pp. 1-124. March 
29, 1926 1 21 

New genera: Chartecytis, Multigated, Diplocava. 

New species: Proboscina coarctata, Berenicea parvula, B. grandipora, 

B. faringdonensis, B. filifera, Clinopora quadripartita, Heteropora 
nummularia, Multicrescis galaefera, M. parvipora, M. lamellosa, M. 
mammillosa, M. pulchella, M. (Acanthopora) formosa, Ceriopora 
tenuis, C. ovoidea, C. angustipedis, C. aequipedis, C. solida, C. 
parvipora, C. nummularia, C. lobifera, C. fallax, C. spongioides, 

C. dimorphocella, Defranciopora neocomiensis, Neuropora ramosa, 
N. arbuscula, N. micropora, N. tenuinervosa, Neuroporella hemi- 
spherica, Spinopora neocomiensis, Trigonoecia semota, Cardioeciea 
verticellata, C. faringdonensis, C. pauper, Nematifera incrustans, 
N. reticuloides, Cea granulata, Diaper oecia(f) simplex, D. orbifera, 
Plethopora aptensis, Chartecytis compressa, Multigalea marginata, 
Meliceritites transversa, Ceriocava grandipora, C. junctata, C. 
multilamellosa, C. ingens, C. tenuirama, Diplocava incondita, D. 
inordinata, D. orbiculifera, D. globulosa, Leiosoecia aequiporosa, 
L. grandipora, L. proxima, Clausa cranei, C. zonifera, Repto- 
clausa denticulata, Tretocycloecia(f) multiporosa, T. densa, Latero- 
cavea intermedia, Siphodictyum irregulare, Zonopora compressa. 

New varieties: Stomatopora granulata, var. neocomiensis, Cardioecia 
neocomiensis parvula, C. n. entalophoroides. 

Casanowicz, I. M. The dragon god (Dai-Ja) in Idzumo, 
Japan. A Japanese Tale. No. 2587, pp. 1-4. May 23, 
1925 x 15 

• Date of publication. 

v 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Article 



Cushman, Joseph A. Foraminifera of the genera Siphogene- 
rina and Pavonina. No. 2597, pp. 1-24. March 9, 1926 l . 25 

New species: Siphogenerina mexicana, Pavonina mexicana. 
New varieties: Siphogenerina raphanus, var. tropica, S. striata, var. 
curta, S. dimorpha, var. pacifica. 

Cushman, R. A. Ten new North American Ichneumon-flies. 
No. 2595, pp. 1-13. February 2, 1926 » 23 

New species: Neotypus americanus, Anisobas nearcticus, A. bicolor, 

Apaeleticus americanus, Polycyrtus neglectus Brachycryptus niger, 

Syzeuctus sigmoidalis, S. epischniae, Campoplex digitatus, Cre- 

mastus (Cremastus) sinuatus. 

Gardner, Leon L. The adaptive modifications and the 

taxonomic value of the tongue in birds. No. 2591, pp. 1-49. 

September25, 1925 1 . 19 

Howell, A. Brazier. Asymmetry in the skulls of mam- 
mals. No. 2599, pp. 1-18. December 31, 1925 l 27 

Hyman, O. W. Studies on the larvae of crabs of the family 

Xanthidae. No. 2575, pp. 1-22. June 1, 1925 l 3 

Kellogg, Remington. Supplementary observations on the 

skull of the fossil porpoise Zarhachis flagellator Cope. No. 

2600, pp. 1-18. February 24, 1926 * 28 

MacCallum, G. A. Eggs of a new species of nematoid worm 

from a shark. No. 2588, pp. 1-2. May 9, 1925 * 16 

McAtee, W. L., and J. R. Malloch. Revision of bugs of 

the family Cryptostemmatidae in the collection of the 

United States National Museum. No. 2585, pp. 1-42. 

June 12, 1925 l 13 

New genera: C eratoconiboides, Hoplonannus, Membracioides. 

New species: Ceratocombus (Ceratocombus) areolatus, C. (C.) hes- 
perus, C. (Xylonannus major, C. (X.) cuneatus, C. (X.) vagans, 
Cryptostemma pedunculatum, C. smithi, C. uhleri, Ceratocom- 
boides prima, Schizoptera (Orthorhagus) plana, S. (Odontorhagus) 
bipartita, S. (0.) repetita, S. (0.) clodius, S. (0.) decius, S. (0.) 
commodus, S. (0.) drusus, S. (Kophaegis) cubensis, S. (K.) 
similis, S. (Zygophleps) unica, S. (Cantharocoris) reuteri, S. (C.) 
uhleri, S. (C.) elmis, S. (C.) scymnus, S. (Schizoptera) reticulata, 
S. {S.) hirta, S. (S.) caudata, S. (S.) mexicana, S. (S.) paraguayana, 
S. {S.) pilosa, S. (S.) nigrita, S. (S.) apicipunctata, S. (S.) licinius, 
S. (»S.) vitellius, S. (Lophopleurum) sulcata, S. (L.) bispina, S. (L.) 
tenuispina, Corixidea crassa, C. major, Membracioides parallela, 
Nannocoris cavifrons, N. nasua, N. schicarzi, N. flavomarginata, 
Hoplonannus brunnea, Hypselosoma boops. 

New variety: Ceratocombus areolatus, var. accola. 

i Date of publication. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS VII 

McAtee, W. L., and J. R. Malloch. Revision of the Ameri- 
can bugs of the Reduviid subfamily Ploiariinae. No. 2573, 
pp. 1-153. April 16, 1925 x 1 

New genus: Polauchenia. 

New species: Empicoris orthoneuron, E. winnemana, E. reticulatus, 
E. subparallelus, E. nudus, Stenolemus pristinus, S. pallidipennis, 
S. variatus, S. inter stitialis, S. hirtipes, S. mexicanus, S. spiniger, 
S. perplexus, Deliastes stramineipes, Emesa (Emesa) marmoratus, E. 
(Myiagreutes) minor, E. teslaceus, E. (Rothbergia) testaceus, E. 
(R.) rapax, E. (R.) diffinis, Polauchenia protentor, P. biannulata, 
Ploiaria brunnea, P. sicaria, P. setulifera, P. varipennis, P. granu- 
lata, P. bispina, P. albipennis, P. umbrarum, P. pilicornis, P. un- 
iseriata, P. punctipes, P. similis, P. denticauda, P. aptera, Gardena 
caesonia, G. crispina, G. domitia, G. eutropia, G. marcia, G. messali- 
na, G. pipara, G. pyrallis, G. aggripina, G. faustina, G. poppaea, 
Emesaya banksi, E. incisa, E. lineata, E. modica, E. apiculata, E. 
pollex, E. manni, Metapterus aberrans, M. neglectus, Ghilianella 
bicaudata, G. simillima, G. persimilis, G. longula, G. alveola, G. 
minimula, G. succincta, G. aliena, G. alterata, G. maculata, G. per- 
sonata, G. perversa, G. apiculata, G. ica, G. pachitea, G. colona, G. 
aracataca, G. cuneata, G. gladiator, G. stipitata, G. simi ata, G. 
pendula, G. approximata, G. globulata, G. patruela, G. recondita, G. 
perigynium, G. signata, G. strigata, G. subglobulata, G. uncinata, 
G. mirabilis, G. peruviana, G. annectens, G. truncata, G. (Ploeo- 
donyx) amicula, G. (P.) glabrata. 

New name: Emesaya. 

New subgenera: Stenolemoides, Rothbergia. 

New subspecies: Emesaya brevvpennis australis, E. b. occidentalis. 

Malloch, J. R. (See McAtee, W. L.) 1,13 

Marshall, William B. Microscopic sculpture of pearly 
fresh-water mussel shells. No. 2576, pp. 1-14. March 23, 
1925 * 4 

Mason, Preston W. A revision of the insects of the aphid 
genus Amphorophora. No. 2592, pp. 1-92. September 23, 
1925 * 20 

New species: Amphorophora alni, A. azaleae, A. borealis, A. braggi, 
A. davidsoni, A. hayhursti, A. laingi, A. maxima, A. minima, A. 
mitchelli, A. pallida, A. pergandei, A. reticulata, A. rhododendronia, 
A. takahashii, A. vaccinii. 

New names: Amphorophora cosmopolitana, A. essigwanai. 

Merrill, George P. A new meteoric stone from Baldwyn, 

Mississippi. No. 2578, pp. 1-2. May 22, 1925 x 6 

Notes on the meteoric stone of Colby, Wisconsin. No. 

2574, pp. 1-3. May 23, 1925 1 2 

i Date of publication. 



VIII TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Article 



Muesebeck, C. F. W. A revision of the parasitic wasps of 
the genus Microbracon occurring in America north of 
Mexico. No. 2580, pp. 1-85. May 25, 1925 x 8 

New species: Microbracon punctatus, M. sphenophori, M. pyralidi- 
phagus, M. rudbeckiae, M. tenuiceps, M. tychii, M. pini, M. sesiae, 
M. thurberiphagae, M. pityophthori, M. laemosacci, M. oenotherae, 
M. tachypteri, M. geraei, M. cerambycidiphagus. 

New names: Microbracon cushmani, M. ashmeadi. 

Notman, Howard. A review of the beetle family Pseudo- 
morphidae, and a suggestion for a rearrangement of the 
Adephaga, with descriptions of a new genus and new 
species. No. 2586, pp. 1-34. May 25, 1925 * 14 

New genus: Cainogenion. 

New species: Adelotopus niger, A. puncticollis, A. serie-punctatus, 
Pseudomorpha falli, P. hubbardi, P. tenebroides, P. alutacea, 
P. vicina, P. van dykei, P. consanguinea, P. vindicata, P. arrowi, 
P. confusa, P. champlaini, P. schwarzi. 

A synoptic review of the beetles of the tribe Osoriini 

from the western hemisphere. No. 2583, pp. 1-26. April 

30, 1925 x 11 

New genera: Ouloglene, Oryssomma. 

New species: Ouloglene barberi, Oryssomma schwarzi, Osorius 
hubbardi, O. parviceps, O. breviceps, 0. schwarzi, 0. minor, 
brevipennis, O. laeviceps, 0. carinicollis, 0. exiguus, 0. variolatus 
0. difflcilis, 0. crenulifrons, 0. manni, 0. buscki, O. confusus, 
O. morio. 

Ross, Clarence S., and Earl V. Shannon. The origin, oc- 
currence, composition, and physical properties of the mineral 
iddingsite. No. 2579, pp. 1-19. May 15, 1925 K. 7 

Schwartz, Benjamin. A new species of hookworm from a 
North American raccoon. No. 2598, pp. 1-4. December 2, 

1925 * .- 26 

New species: Uncinaria lotoris. 

Two new larval nematodes belonging to the genus Por- 

rocaecum from mammals of the order Insectivora. No. 
2589, pp. 1-8. May 23, 1925 ' 17 

New species : Porrocaecum encapsulatum, P. americanum. 

Shannon, Earl V. (See Clarence S. Ross) 7 

Springer, Frank. Occurrence of the crinoid genus Apiocri- 

nus in America. No 2590, pp. 1-5. April 8, 1925 l 18 

New species: Apiocrinus tehuantepec. 

The genus Pentacrinus in Alaska. No. 2577, pp. 1-7. 

May 22, 1925 l 5 

1 Date of publication. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS IX 

Article 

Springer, Frank. Unusual forms of fossil crinoids. No. 

2581, pp. 1-137. February 15, 1926 J 1 9 

New genera: Ammonicrinus, Paradichocrinus, Ulrichicrinus. 

New species: Myelodactylus brevis, M. extensus, M. keyserensis, M, 

schucherti, Ammonicrinus wanner i, Camptocrinus praenuntius , C. 

crawfordsvillensis, C. plenicirrus, C. midticirrus, Macrostylocrinus 

recumbens, Acrocrinus praecursor, A. intermedins, Paradichocrinus 

planus, Ulrichicrinus Oklahoma, Zeacrinus girtyi. 

Treadwell, A. L. A list of the annelids collected by Captain 
R. A. Bartlett in Alaska, 1924, with description of a new 

species. No. 2601, pp. 1-3. November 18, 1925 * 29 

New species: Enipo cirrata. 

A new species of polychaetous annelid from Uruguay, 

Aphrodita magna. No. 2584, pp. 1-3. April 11, 1925 x . .. 12 
New species: Aphrodita magna. 

Whitebread, Charles. The Indian medical exhibit of the 
Division of Medicine in the United States National Mu- 
seum. No. 2582, pp. 1-26. July 22, 1925 l 10 

i Date of publication. 

92069—26 2 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATES 

Revision of the American bugs of the Redtjviid subfamily Ploiariinae 

By W. L. McAtee and J. R. Malloch 

Facing page 

1. Structural details of Emesopsis, Empicoris, and Stenolemus 136 

2. Structural details of Stenolemus and Myiophanes 139 

3. Structural details of Deliastes, Panamia, Lutevopsis, and Emesa 140 

4. Structural details of Emesa, Polauchenia, and Ploiaria 143 

5. Structural details of Ploiaria and Gardena 144 

6. Structural details of Gardena and Emesaya 147 

7. Structural details of Metapterus and Ischnonyctes 148 

8. Structural details of Ghilianella 151 

9. Structural details of Ghilianella 152 

Notes on the meteoric stone of Colby, Wisconsin 

By George P. Merrill 

1 . Meteoric stone from Colby, Wisconsin 4 

Studies on the larvae of crabs of the family Xanthidae 

By O. W. Hyman 

1-2. Larvae of crabs of the family Xanthidae 22 

3-5. Xanthid larvae of the genus Neopanope 22 

6-7. Appendages of larvae of the genus Neopanope 22 

8. Xanthid larvae of the genus Neopanope 22 

9. Xanthid larvae of the genus Eurypanopeus 22 

10. Xanthid larvae of the genus Panopeus 22 

1 1 . Xanthid larvae of the genus Xantho 22 

12. Larvae of crabs of the family Xanthidae 22 

13. Xanthid larvae of the genus Menippe £2 

14. Xanthid larvae of the genus Pilumn us 22 

Microscopic sculpture of pearly fresh-water mussel shells 
By William B. Marshall 

1-4. Microscopic sculpture of fresh-water mussels 14 

The genus Pentacrinus in Alaska 
By Frank Springer 

1. The crinoid genus Pentacrinus in Alaska 8 

A new meteoric stone from Baldwyn, Mississippi 

By George P. Merrill 

1. The Baldwyn, Mississippi, meteoric stone 2 



XII LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

The origin, occurrence, composition, and physical properties 

OP THE MINERAL IdDINGSITE 

By Clarence S. Ross and Earl V. Shannon 

Facing page 
1-2. Photomicrographs of Iddingsite-bearing rocks 20 

A REVISION OF THE PARASITIC WASPS OF THE GENUS MlCROBRACON 
OCCURRING IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 

By C. F. W. Muesebeck 

1 . Details of Microbracon 84 

2. Wings of species of Microbracon 84 

Unusual forms of fossil crinoids 

By Frank Springer 

1-26. Unusual forms of fossil crinoids 98 

The Indian medical exhibit of the Division of Medicine in 
the United States National Museum 

By Charles Whitebread 

1. History of medicine exhibits — East gallery 1 

2. Indian medicine exhibit 1 

Revision of bugs of the family Cryptostemmatidae in the 
collection of the United States National Museum 

By W. L. McAtee and J. R. Malloch 

1. Structural characters of Cryptostemmatinae 42 

2. Structural characters of Schizopterinae 42 

3. Wings of Schizopterinae 42 

4. Hypopygial characters of Schizopterinae 42 

The dragon god (Dai-Ja) in Idzumo, Japan (A Japanese Tale) 
By I. M. Casanowicz 

1. The dragon god (Dai-Ja) in Idzumo, Japan. 1 

Eggs of a new species of nematoid worm from a shark 

By G. A. MacCallum 

1. Eggs of Capillaria carcharhini, new species 2 

TWO NEW LARVAL NEMATODES BELONGING TO THE GENUS POR- 
ROCAECUM FROM MAMMALS OF THE ORDER INSECTIVORA 

By Benjamin Schwartz 

1. New larval nematodes of the genus Porrocaecum 8 

Occurrence of the crinoid genus Apiocrinus in America 

By Frank Springer 

1. Apiocrinus and other crinoid genera 6 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS XIII 

The adaptive modifications and the taxonomic value of 
the tongue in birds 

By Leon L. Gardner 

Facing page 

1. Series illustrating multiple tubular tongues, modifications of a general- 

ized type pattern 34 

2. Tongues adaptively modified for an omnivorous diet, fish fare, rap- 

torial feeding, or food strained from water 35 

3. Spearing tongues, tongues of seed and fruit feeders, flower frequenters, 

and rudimentary types 36 

4. Tongues of various water birds 37 

5. Tongues of various birds 38 

6. Tongues of various birds 39 

7. Tongues of Gruiformes and Charadriiformes 40 

8. Tongues of various birds 41 

9. Tongues of various birds 42 

10. Tongues of Caprimulgi 43 

11. Tongues of Passeriformes 44 

12. Tongues of Passeriformes 45 

13. Tongues of Passeriformes 46 

14. Tongues of Passeriformes 47 

15. Tongues of Passeriformes 48 

16. Tongues of Passeriformes 49 

A REVISION OF THE INSECTS OF THE APHID GENUS AMPHOROPHORA 

By Preston W. Mason 

1-18. Aphids of the genus Amphorophora 74-91 

Studies on the Cyclostomatous Bryozoa 
By Ferdinand Canu and Ray S. Bassler 

1-31. Lower Cretaceous Cyclostomatous Bryozoa 94-124 

Three new land shells from Mexico 

By Paul Bartsch 

1. New land shells from Mexico 6 

FORAMINIFERA OF THE GENERA SlPHOGENERINA AND PAVONINA 

By Joseph A. Cushman 

1-5. Species of Siphogenerina 24 

6. Species of Pavonina 24 

Asymmetry in the skulls of mammals 
By A. Brazier Howell 

1. Skull of monkey, Lasiopyga griseoviridis 18 

2. Skull of monkey, Lasiopyga griseoviridis 18 

3. Skull of gorilla 18 

4. Teeth and skull of gorilla 18 

5. Skulls of gorilla and sea lion 18 



XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Facing page 

6. Mandibles of gorilla and sea lion 18 

7. Skull of male sea lion 18 

8. Skull of female sea lion _ _ 18 

Supplementary observations on the skull op the fossil por- 
poise Zarhachis plaqellator Cope 

By Remington Kellogg 

1 . Dorsal view of skull of Zarhachis flagellator 18 

2. Frontal view of skull of Zarhachis flagellator 18 

3. Posterior view of skull of Zarhachis flagellator 18 

4. Lateral view of skull of Zarhachis flagellator 18 

5. Ventral view of skull of Zarhachis flagellator 18 

TEXT FIGURES 

Unusual forms of fossil crinoids 
By Frank Springer 

1. Analysis of calyx of Agassizocrinus 62 

2. (1-9 Zeacrinus; variations in anal area. 1. Z. elegans; 2. Z. comma- 

ticus; 3. Z.girtyi; 4,5. Z. magnoliaejormis; 6,7,8,9. Z. wortheni-. 83 

The Indian medical exhibit of the Division of Medicine in 
the United States National Museum 

By Charles Whitebread 

1 . Priest-doctor's lodge 3 

2. A Blackfoot priest-doctor 4 

3. Indian prophet's lodge 5 

4. Medicine man removing disease 6 

5. Herbalist doctor preparing medicine 7 

6. Medicine man administering to patient 8 

7. Sioux medicine man 11 

8. Animal mask and rattles 12 

9. Amulets and charms 14 

10. Talisman 15 

11. Fetiches 16 

12. Bone tube 17 

13. Maidenhair fern 18 

14. Medicine bowl 19 

15. Indian mortar and pestle 20 

16. Wild-cherry bark 21 

17. Horns 23 

18. Sudatory (sweat) bath 24 

19. Lancets and scarificator 25 

20. Moxa 25 

A new species of polychaetous annelid from Uruguay, 
Aphrodita magna 

By A. L. Treadwell 

1 and 2. (1) Anterior end X 7.5. The large facial tubercle is shown 
under the median tentacle. (2) Fourth parapodium X 2. The elytron 

is bent so as to lie parallel with the vertical face of the parapodium 2 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS XV 

Studies on the Cyclostomatous Bryozoa 

By Ferdinand Canu and Ray S. Bassler 

Facing page 

1. Clinopora quadripartite/,, new species. A, B, longitudinal and trans- 

verse sections, X 16. Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) : Faringdon, 
England 12 

2. Genus Multicrescis D'Orbigny, 1881. A. Multicrescis lamellosa, new 

species. Portion of a transverse section, X 16, with two lamellae. 
Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, Switzerland. B. M. 
galaefera, new species. Meridian section, X 16. The subcolonies 
grow from a lateral tube of an inferior subcolony. Lower Creta- 
ceous (Valangian): Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 14 

3. Genus Multicrescis D'Orbigny, 1852. A, B. Multicrescis landrioti 

Michelin, 1841. A. Portion of a meridian section, X 16, showing 
two superposed lamellae. B. Sketch, X 30, exhibiting annular 
structure of the tubes. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte- 
Croix, Switzerland. C. Multicrescis parvipora, new species. Meri- 
dian section, X 16. The tubes of the enveloping lamellae are per- 
pendicular to the tubes of the primitive zoarium. Each lamella is 
formed of a variable number of subcolonies. Lower Cretaceous 
(Valangian): Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 15 

4. Multicrescis pulchella, new species. A. Transverse section, X 16, of 

a hollow zoarium. The external lamella seems to have had only 
one tube of origin. B. Longitudinal section through the same 
zoarium, X 16, showing the tube of origin which gave rise to the 
external lamella. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, 
Switzerland 17 

5. Ceriopora ovoidea, new species. A. Meridian section, X 16, through 

a zoarium with definite zonal lines. Lower Cretacious (Valangian) : 
Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 20 

6. Ceriopora ovoidea, new species. B. Meridian section of another zoa- 

rium, X 16, in which the zonal lines have been transformed into 
basal lamellae. The main zoarial tubes are oriented in a different 
direction from those of the primitive zoarium. Lower Cretaceous 
(Valangian): Sante-Croix, Switzerland 22 

7. Ceriopora angustipedis, new species. Meridian section, X 16, en- 

tirely across a zoarium. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte- 
Croix, Switzerland 23 

8. Ceriopora aequipedis, new species. Meridian section, X 16. Lower 

Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 24 

9. Ceriopora solida, new species. Meridian section, X 16. Lower Cre- 

taceous (Valangian): Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 25 

10. Ceriopora parvipora, new species. Meridian section, X 16. Lower 

Cretaceous (Valangian): Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 26 

11. Ceriopora nummularia, new species. Longitudinal section, X 16, 

exhibiting the moniliform tubes with large vesicles and the zonal 
lines. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, Switzerland, . 26 

12. Ceriopora lobifera, new species. A meridian section, X 16. The 

zonal lines are transformed sometimes into basal lamellae. Lower 
Cretaceous (Valangian): Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 27 

13. Ceriopora fallax, new species. A meridian section, X 16. The zonal 

lines are transformed into basal lamellae. Lower Cretaceous 
(Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 28 



XVI LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Pacing page 

14. Ceriopora dimorphocella, new species. Portion of a meridian section, X 

16. Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) : Faringdon, England 29 

15. Reptomulticava fungiformis Gregory, 1909. Meridian section, X 16, 

showing superposed cellular lamellae, and the thick walls with large 
vesicles. Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) : Faringdon, England 30 

16. Defranciopora neocomiensis , new species. Meridian section through a 

characteristic specimen, X 16, with potential zonal lines. Lower 
Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 31 

17. Mecynoecia icaunensis D'Orbigny, 1850. A-B. Transverse and longi- 

tudinal sections, X 16. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte- 
Croix, Switzerland 36 

18. Genus Trigonoecia Canu and Bassler, 1922. A, B. Trigonoecia tubu- 

losa D'Orbigny, 1851. A. Longitudinal section, X 16, of the hollow 
zoarium, showing cylindrical tubes with dorsal gemmation. B. 
Transverse section of a branch, X 16. Lower Cretaceous (Valan- 
gian) : Sainte-Croix, Switzerland. C, D. Trigonoecia neocomiensis 
D'Orbigny, 1853. Portion of a longitudinal section, X 16, showing 
the triparietal gemmation and the club-shaped tubes. D. Trans- 
verse section, X 16, exhibiting the polygonal form of the tubes. 
Lower Cretaceous (Valangian): Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 38 

19. Genus Cardioecia Canu and Bassler, 1922. A, B. Cardioecia neocomi- 

ensis D'Orbigny, 1853. Longitudinal and transverse sections, X 16. 
Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, Switzerland. C, D. 
Cardioecia verticillata, new species. Longitudinal and transverse 
sections, X 16. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, 
Switzerland. E, F, G. Cardioecia faring donensis, new species. 
E, F. Two transverse sections, X 16, with the median lamella short 
and curved in the second. G. Portion of a meridian section, X 16, 
showing the form of the tubes. Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) : Far- 
ingdon, England 41 

20. Nematifera reticulata D'Orbigny, 1853. Longitudinal and transverse 

sections, X 16. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, 
Switzerland 45 

21. Mesenteripora marginata D'Orbigny, 1853. Transverse section, X 16. 

Lower Cretaceous (Valangian): Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 48 

22. N otoplagioecia faringdonensis Canu and Bassler, 1922. A, B. Two 

transverse sections, X 16. C. Longitudinal section, X 16, showing 
the club-shaped tubes, the pseudofacettes, and the vesicular walls. 
Lower Cretaceous (Aptian): Faringdon, England 49 

23. Cea gramdata, new species. A, B. Longitudinal and transverse sec- 

tions, X 16. Lower Cretaceous (Aptian): Faringdon, England 50 

24. Fasciculipora flabellata D'Orbigny, 1853. A. Longitudinal thin sec- 

tion, X 16. B. Meridian thin section, X 16, in the vicinity of a 
bifurcation. C. Zooecial walls, X 35, showing the arrangement of 
vesicles. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, Switzerland- 51 

25. Genus Plethopora Hagenow, 1851. A, B. Plethopora malmi Hennig, 

1894. A. Zoarium, X 2.6. B. Longitudinal section magnified, 
showing zooecial tubes (z) and the nematopores (/) (A, B, after 
Hennig, 1894). Upper Cretaceous of Sweden. C, D. Plethopora 
aptensis, new species. C. Longitudinal section, X 16, showing the 
nematopores with thickened walls and the large axial tubes. D. 
Transverse section, X 16, exhibiting the base of the salient fascicles 
with open tubes and the thin zone of nematopores. Lower Creta- 
ceous (Aptian): Faringdon, England 52 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS XVII 

Facing page 

26. Plethoporella ramulosa D'Orbigny, 1853. A. Longitudinal section, 

X 8, in a zoarium containing a partially enveloping subcolony, the 
initial tube of which is at r. B. Portion of fig. A, X 16. C. Part 
of longitudinal section, X 16, through a tuberosity where the tubes 
are broader. D. Portion of a transverse section, X 16. E. Tan- 
gential section, X 16, showing the larger tubes of the tuberosities 
and the other smaller tubes. Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) : 
Royan, France 54 

27. Chartecytis compressa, new species. A meridian section, X 16, show- 

ing the special method of ramification of the branches. B. Longi- 
tudinal section, X 16, illustrating the peripheral gemmation. C. 
Transversal thin section, X 16. D. Zooecial walls, X 45, showing 
the minute central vesicles. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte- 
Croix, Switzerland 55 

28. Relenoa campicheana D'Orbigny, 1853. Longitudinal section, X 16, 

showing the cylindrical tubes and the intrazoarial gemmation. 
Lower Cretaceous (Valangian): Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 56 

29. Radiofascigera ramosa D'Orbigny, 1853. A. Longitudinal section, 

X 16. The tubes are thickened at their extremity. B. Transverse 
section, X 16. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, 
Switzerland 59 

30. Multifascigera campicheana D'Orbigny, 1853. Transverse section, X 

4, showing the origin of a superior subcolony. Lower Cretaceous 
(Valangian); Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 61 

31. Multigalea canui Gregory, 1909. Longitudinal section, X 16. Lower 

Cretaceous (Aptian) : Faringdon, England 62 

32. Lobosoecia semiclausa Michelin, 1845. A. Transverse section X 16. 

B. Longitudinal section, X 16, at the extremity of a branch. The 
tubes are widened and have dorsal gemmation. Cretaceous: Le- 
mans, France 63 

33. Meliceritites transversa, new species. A. Transverse section, X 16, 

made between the orifices. The peristomes were in transverse 
somewhat oblique rows which causes the helicoidal arrangement of 
the peripheral tubes. B. Transverse section, X 16, cutting some 
orifices. C. Longitudinal section, X 16. The clear tubes are cut 
along the median axis while the shaded ones are cut tangentially to 
their walls, this arrangement resulting from the disposition of the 
peristomes in transverse rows. At the center is a long tube which 
may branch. Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) : Faringdon, England 65 

34. Ceriocava junctata, new species. Transverse section, X 16, through 

a solid cylindrical branch. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte- 
Croix, Switzerland 68 

35. Ceriocava multilamellosa, new species. A. Transverse section of 

specimen D, X 16. B. Transverse section, X 16. C. Section 
through a branch, X 16, in which the exterior lamella is engendering 
an adventitious branch. D. Longitudinal section (see also A), X 
16, in which the orifices are arranged in quincunx. E. Longitudinal 
section, X 16, at the extremity of a branch. F. Longitudinal sec- 
tion, X 16, through a multilamellar branch. Lower Cretaceous 
(Valangian): Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 69 



XVIII LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Facing page 

36. Diplocava incondita, new species. A. Longitudinal section, X 16, 

through a specimen with two joined branches. B. Longitudinal 
section, X 16, through the extremity of a branch in which the tubes 
have facettes. The walls are hollow and moniliform. Lower Cre- 
taceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 72 

37. Diplocava inordinata, new species. Longitudinal section, X 16, ex- 

hibiting the variations in diameter of the tubes at their extremity. 
Lower Cretaceous (Valangian): Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 73 

38. Diplocava globulosa, new species. A. Meridian section, X 16, show- 

ing the many enveloping lamellae. B. Tangential thin section, X 
16. Dimorphism occurs. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte- 
Croix, Switzerland 74 

39. Genus Leiosoecia Canu and Bassler, 1920. A-B. Leiosoecia proxima, 

new species. A. Longitudinal section, X 16, through a specimen 
with an extra lamellar layer. B. Transverse section, X 16, of the 
same specimen. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, 
Switzerland. C. Leiosoecia aequiporosa, new species. Transverse 
thin section, X 16. Lower Cretaceous. D. Leiosoecia grandi- 
pora, new species. Longitudinal thin section, X 16, showing the 
rarity of mesopores. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, 
Switzerland 76 

40. Leiosoecia constanti D'Orbigny, 1850. A. Longitudinal section, X 16, 

showing the zonal lines and the undulated tubes with their dia- 
phragms. B. Portion of a transverse section, X 16, illustrating 
the polygonal form of the tubes. Lower Cretaceous (Valangian) : 
Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 78 

41. Clausa zonifera, new species. A. Longitudinal section, X 16. The 

dactylethrae are produced by dichotomous branching of the walls 
(peripheral gemmation). B. Transverse section, X 16. The dis- 
persion of the small tubes among the large ones show that gemma- 
tion occurs at all distances from the central axis by regular periph- 
eral dichotomous branching. Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) : Faring- 
don, England 80 

42. Tretocycloecia densa, new species. A, B. Longitudinal sections, X 16. 

The mesopores are almost closed by thick tissue. Lower Cretaceous 
(Aptian): Faringdon, England 83 

43. Laierocavea dutempleana D'Orbigny, 1853. A. Meridian section, X 16, 

through a growing branch, showing the lozenge-shaped areas. B. 
Longitudinal section, X 16, with an accessory exterior lamella at 
the left. C. Meridian section, X 16, showing mesopores only in 
the lateral faces. D. Transverse section, X 16, through a normal 
branch. E. Longitudinal section, X 16, illustrating the cylindrical 
tubes with triparietal gemmation around a central tube. Lower 
Cretaceous (Aptian) : Faringdon, England 84 

44. Genus Siphodiclyum Lonsdale, 1849. A-E. Siphodictyum irregidare, 

new species. A. Transverse section, X 16, showing the polygonal 
tubes. B. Another transverse section, X 16, exhibiting the central 
axis. C. Tangential section, X 16, illustrating the arrangement of 
the vacuoles around the orifices. D. Longitudinal section, X 16. 
The vacuoles perforate the epitheca all around the zoarium. E. 
Longitudinal section, X 16, showing the cylindrical tubes and the 
vacuoles perforating the epitheca. Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) : 
Faringdon, England. F-H. Siphodictyum gracile Lonsdale, 1849. 
F. Transverse section, X 16. G. Meridian section, X 16. H. 
Longitudinal section, X 16, with the vacuoles perforating the thick 
epitheca. Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) : Faringdon, England 88 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS XIX 

Facing page 

45. Sparsicavea irregularis D'Orbigny, 1851. A. Transverse section, X 16. 

B. Longitudinal section, X 16. Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) : Far- 
ingdon, England 91 

46. Genus Corymbopora Michelin, 1845. A. Corymboporaf cupula D'Or- 

bigny, 1853. Meridian section, X 16. Cretaceous (Cenomanian) 
Le Mans, France. B, C. Corymbopora neocomiensis D'Orbigny, 
1853. B. Transverse section, X 8. The tubes are polygonal with 
walls adjacent and larger at the zoarial center. C. Longitudinal 
section, X 16, in a branch with three pinnules. The walls of the 
tubes are moniliform. Cretaceous (Valangian) : Sainte-Croix, 
Switzerland 92 

A NEW SPECIES OF HOOKWORM FROM A NORTH AMERICAN RACCOON 

By Benjamin Schwartz 

1-3. Uncinaria lotoris, new species. 1, Anterior end of worm viewed 
from the side. 2, Surface view of the anterior end of the worm, 
from the side, showing the sutures. 3, Posterior end of female. 
a., anus; d., dorsal ray; e. d., externo-dorsal ray; e. L, externo- 
lateral ray; gub., gubernaculum; I. v., latero-ventral ray; m. L, 
medio-lateral ray; p. I., postero-lateral ray; sp., spicule; v. v., 

ventro-ventral ray 2 

4. Uncinaria lotoris, new species. Posterior end of male 3 

A LIST OF THE ANNELIDS COLLECTED BY CAPTAIN R. A. BaRTLETT 

in Alaska, 1924, with description of a new species 

A. L. Tread well 

1-4. Enipo cirrata, 1. Anterior end X 12.5; 2, 15th parapodium X 22.5; 

3, parapodium from somite 52 X 22.5; 4, ventral seta X 250 2 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN BUGS OF THE REDUVIID 
SUBFAMILY PLOIARIINAE. 



By W. L. McAtee and J. R. Malloch. 

Of the United States Biological Survey. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Begun in an effort to get additional light on certain problems not 
solved by then-existing literature, this study has gradually grown to 
the proportions indicated by the title. That we have been able to 
go so far is due in large part to generous loans of material for which 
we record our great appreciation. The initial basis of the work was 
the very good collection of Ploiariinae in the United States Na- 
tional Museum, but we have been favored with loans of large num- 
bers of specimens by the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, through E. T. Cresson, jr.; the Carnegie Museum of Pitts- 
burgh, through Dr. W. J. Holland; Cornell University, through 
Dr. J. C. Bradley ; and the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle de 
Paris, through Dr. E. L. Bouvier. Smaller, but none the less appre- 
ciated, lots of material have been received from the Universitetets 
Zoologiske Museum, Copenhagen, through William Lundbeck; the 
Riksmuseets Entomologiska Afdelning, Stockholm, through Dr. B. 
Y. Sjostedt; the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
through Dr. F. E. Lutz; the British Museum of Natural History, 
London, through C. J. Gahan; and the Bishop Museum, Hono- 
lulu, through O. H. Swezey. Dr. Walther Horn, of the Deutsches 
Entomologisches Institut, generously sent us, with other specimens, 
the type of Phasmatocoris spectrum Breddin. Individuals who have 
kindly loaned us valuable material are Dr. E. Bergroth, who sent us 
the types of all his American species; Nathan Banks, H. G. Barber, 
J. R. de la Torre Bueno, William T. Davis (including the type of 
Ghilianella productilis Barber), W. Downes, Dr. Carl J. Drake, 
J. S. Hine, Dr. H. S. Parshley, and Dr. Miles S. Pennington. Assist- 
ance in reporting on the characters of specimens in their care has 
been given by Nathan Banks, of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge; W. E. China, of the British Museum; and 
C. W. Johnson, of the Boston Society of Natural History. The 



No. 2573. — Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 67. No. I. 

94993—25 1 

1 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

collections of the Boston Society, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
and Field Museum of Natural History have been examined also by 
one of the authors during the progress of the work. 

THE GROUP TREATED. 
(Subfamily Ploiariinae; Family Reduviidae.) 

Insects of the subfamily Ploiariinae, in common with all other 
Reduviidae, have a longitudinal groove between the fore coxae 
which is invariably microscopically transversely striate, and in which 
the tip of the beak generally lies when at rest. This groove is called 
by some writers a " stridulatory groove " but whether it is really so 
we are unable to say. However, it is highly characteristic, as it is 
not present in any other family of Heteroptera known to us except 
the Phymatidae. 

Absence of ocelli, and j)resence of anteriorly opening coxal cavities, 
and of usually very elongate fore coxae are the principal distinguish- 
ing characters of the Ploiariinae but neither is sufficient in itself for 
their recognition. The Saicinae also lack ocelli but the fore coxae 
are less elongate than in most Ploiariinae, the beak is armed with 
upwardly directed spines and the lower surface of the head is pro- 
vided with two or more strong bristles. These spines and bristles 
are absent in the Ploiariinae. The Bactrodinae look considerably like 
Ploiariinae but differ structurally from them in characters more im- 
portant even than do the Saicinae. The Bactrodinae have less elon- 
gate coxae than most Ploiariinae, possess ocelli, and the head is in- 
serted not on the front or at most on the anterior margin of the 
prothorax but on the dorsum of that sclerite distinctly posterior to 
the front margin. 

Expressing the most characteristic differences between these sub- 
families in key form we have : 

1. Anterior coxal cavities opening straight downward ; ocelli none ; underside 

of head with downwardly projecting, and beak with upwardly projecting, 

bristles or spines Saicinae. 

Anterior coxal cavities opening forward and downward ; bead and beak 
without such armature 2 

2. Ocelli absent ; head scarcely pedicillate, lower anterior border of prothorax 

scarcely produced beyond upper margin, on which the head is inserted. 

Ploiariinae. 
Ocelli present ; head pedicillate ; lower anterior border of prothorax produced 
distinctly beyond the upper margin, behind which the head is inserted. 

Bactrodinae. 

The antennae in Ploiariinae are very long and slender, 4-seg- 
mented, sometimes with a pseudo-suture near apex of fourth seg- 
ment which is often pointed and more or less angulate or curved; 
the beak is elongate, curved downward and backward, usually 



aut. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 3 

swollen at base, and acute at tip, and distinctly 3-segmented. The 
thorax is variously formed and the wings may be either large, re- 
duced, or absent. The basal abdominal tergite is situated on the 
posterior part of thorax and the basal sternite is absent, a fact that 
should be borne in mind in counting the abdominal segments. The 
male hypopygium opens more or less dorsally, and the apical tergite 
sometimes entirely covers the orifice. 

The fore wings of the Ploiariinae (as also those of some other 
Eeduviidae) constitute an exception to a commonly accepted cri- 
terion to the Heteroptera in that they are of uniform texture 
throughout. The venation has not been homologized with that of 
other insects and the names applied by us to the cells and veins are 
arbitrary terms, which however, are clearly defined in the explana- 
tion of plate 1. 

The fore legs of Ploiariinae are adapted for capture of prey by 
closure hinge-wise of the fore tibia and tarsus against the lower 
surface of the fore femur. The opposing surfaces of the front fem- 
ora and tibia are nearly always armed with spines or setulae, the 
arrangement of which is characteristic, as a rule, in each genus, 
minor variations in them indicating subgeneric or specific groups. 
The fore tibia has a rather conspicuous transverse slit (figs. 13, 18, 
136, and 145) on the anterior surface near apex which is surrounded 
by dense pilosity. The fore tarsi present a range of differentiation 
not found in any group of similarly related forms known to us. In 
the case of this strictly predaceous subfamily, it is natural to sup- 
pose that evolution has been in the direction of efficiency in the most 
important raptorial organs, the front legs. In our opinion, the fore 
tarsus in its most generalized form consists of distinctly separated 
segments the terminal one with two equal claws. We assume the 
course of evolution to be from that condition through forms with 
poorly defined, heavily chitinized segments with one large and one 
small claw to a highly specialized stage in which the fore tarsus is 
thorn-like, the joints entirely fused, and wholly without differenti- 
ated claw. The mid and hind tarsi are invariably 3-segmented and 
being used in the normal manner, not for grasping prey, are not 
specialized. 

IS TRIBAL DIVISION OF THE PLOIARIINAE ADVISABLE? 

Attempts have been made to define tribes of Ploiariinae. two of the 
principal efforts along this line being by Stal 1 and by Distant. 2 
Put in the form of indented dichotomous keys these schemes are 
herewith appended. 

1 Enum. Hemip., vol. 4, 1S74, pp. 92-94. 

2 Fauna Brit. India, Rhynchota, vol. 2, 1904, pp. 201-216. 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

TRIBES OF PLOIARIINAE ACCORDING TO STAI-. 

A 1 . Front femora armed for their whole length beneath with long, slender 

spines, all or most of them setiform ; hind femora surpassing apex of 

abdomen ; front tibia and tarsus together usually subequal in length to 

front femur, rarely distinctly shorter; body usually winged. 

B \ Front tarsi short, segmented, flexible or sub-flexible, two-clawed, scarcely 

or not at all longer than hind tarsi ; front tibia a little shorter than 

femur ; hemelytra of species known to me marked with fuscous ; 

scutellum and post-scutellum armed apically with spines. 

PLOIARIARIA. 
Ploiaria (=Empicoris). 
Malacopus. 
Stenolemus. 
B 2 . Front tarsi long, scarcely or not at all shorter than tibia, one segmented 
or composed of three connate segments, subcurved, subcompressed, as 
seen from the side usually distinctly tapering toward apex, provided 
with two unequal contiguous or subcontiguous claws, or with one claw ; 
front tibia much shorter than femur, sometimes only about half as 
long; first joint of antenna long; hemelytra scarcely or only very 

pale fuscous marked. 

LEISTARCHARIA. 

Orthunga. 
Tinna. 
Cerascopus. 
Luteva. 
A 8 . Front femur unarmed beneath toward the base or in front of middle ; half 
or less than half its length, apically, armed with unequal spines ; front 
tibia and tarsus together shorter than femur ; body much elongated ; 
head with the small eyes scarcely or only slightly wider than apex of 
thorax. 
C \ Postocular part of head perceptibly tapering posteriorly, quite slender 
behind ; hind femur distinctly, sometimes far, surpassing apex of abdo- 
men ; legs very long. 

EMESARIA. 

Gardena. 

Ghilianella. 

Emesa. 

Ischnobaena. 

C *. Postocular part of head scarcely or only slightly narrowed posteriorly, 

abruptly rotund coarctate at base; hind femur attaining or slightly 

surpassing apex of abdomen ; head armed between the antennae with 

an usually very distinct tubercle or more often with a spine ; tylus 

usually projecting as a spine. 

METAPTERARIA. 

Barce. 

Metapterus. 

Ischiionyctes. 

Bargylia. 

In criticism of the foregoing arrangement we would point out that: 
1. The spines of the front femur of numerous species included under 
Stal's first major division are not setiform, but on the contrary, 
strongly chitinized. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALAjOGB. 5 

2. Failure of the character of relative length of joints of front leg is 

admitted in the key. 

3. " Usually winged " is an expression not applicable to Cerascopus. 

4. Reference to color markings of hemelytra is entirely out of place 

in a key to tribes and especially when both sections are the same 
in this respect. 

5. Ploiaria in the sense of Ploiariola (=Empicoris) is the inex- 

plicable but frequent error of using the name of this monobasic 
genus for a species not the genotype nor congeneric with it. 

6. There are no one-segmented tarsi in the genera named by Stal 

in his Leistarcharia. 

7. Orthunga and Tinna are Saicinae not Ploiariinae. 

8. Cerascopus=Ploiaria and we include Luteva as congeneric. 

9. Head with eyes scarcely wider than apex of thorax is a character 

not in contrast with that of certain forms in the first division of 
key, species of Ploiaria for instance. 

10. The attempt to define the tribes Emesaria and Metapteraria is 

futile; all gradations in posterior nan-owing of head can be 
found in the species of the single genus Ghilianella. Most of the 
species of this genus have a spine or tubercle between antennae 
which would put the genus in the Metapteraria; and there is 
confessedly nothing to depend upon in length of hind femur. 

11. Barce=Metapterus. Stal's character for separating them is of 

no more than specific importance. 

TRIBES OF PLOIARIINAE ACCORDING TO DISTANT. 

A. 1 Anterior femora spined beneath for their whole length. 

B.* Anterior tarsi short, not longer, or a little longer than the posterior tarsi ; 
hemelytra present or absent, when present, so far as known, orna- 
mented with fuscous ; scutellum and postscutellum frequently spined 
at apices. 

STENOLAEMARIA. 
Stenolaemus. 
Ploiariola. 
Myiophanes. 
Eugubinus. 
B. 2 Anterior tarsi long, not, or a very little shorter than the tibiae ; hemelytra 
either not or sometimes very strongly marked with fuscous. 

LEISTARCHARIA. 
Bagauda. 
Luteva. 
Ploearia. 
A. 2 Anterior femora spined beneath only from about or near middle. 

C. 1 Head much narrowed at base; posterior femora either almost reaching 
or passing abdominal apex. 

EMESARIA. 

Ghilianella. 

Gomesius. 

Ischnobaena. 

Gardena. 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

C. 2 Head not prominently narrowed posteriorly ; posterior femora nearly 
reaching or passing abdominal apex ; head between antenniferous 
tubercles distinctly spinous or tuberculous. 

METAPTERARIA. 
Ischnonyctes. 

The criticisms of Stal's definitions of the tribes mostly apply to 
Distant's efforts also; and the lack of contrast in the characters as- 
signed to the last two tribes is even more apparent. The truth is 
that the exact nature of important characters has been overlooked 
and an attempt made to define tribes upon criteria not acceptable 
even for the differentiation of genera. In our view attempting to 
recognize tribes of Ploiariinae is no more likely at the present 
moment to elucidate the relationships of the genera, than one would 
be led to suppose from the futile attempts of the past. 

CHARACTERS USED FOR THE RECOGNITION OF GENERA. 

In arriving at decisions as to what groups constitute valid genera 
and subgenera we have used as our criteria characters that appear 
to us to be of phylogenetic value, and in our arrangement have in- 
dicated what are in our opinion evolutionary steps insofar as the 
available material has permitted. 

We have used the wing venation to a greater extent than has 
previously been attempted in this group, and this character has 
proved very useful in the alignment of related forms. As noted above 
the structure ®f the fore legs and their armatures, and especially the 
segmentation and form of the fore tarsi, have been used to an even 
greater extent than in preceding works upon this subfamily, but 
these characters have invariably been correlated with venational and 
other structural characters in the final analysis before assigning any 
particular species to a genus or subgenus. 

In our work on this and other groups we have endeavored to 
utilize as generic indices characters which appear to us to indicate 
a common origin for the included species, and slight departures from 
the general rule such as we find in Ploiaria and Ghilianella., we have 
not considered as sufficient grounds for elevating the divergent forms 
to full generic status. Had we failed to find the intermediate sub- 
genus Ploeodon.yx, linking GhUianella s.s. and Lissonyx we would 
very probably have considered the latter as a valid genus but with 
an intermediate form present it is undesirable to give to these closely 
related segregates the same rank as we accord to such distinctly 
separated genera as Gardena and Emesaya. 

In the case of the last two genera there is a striking similarity in 
wing venation accompanying a great dissimilarity in the structure 
of the fore legs, the tarsi of Gardena being of the generalized simple 
type, while those of Einesaya are heavily chitinized and subfused. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 7 

In this case the evidence of the venation of the wings, in our opinion, 
outweighs that of the fore tarsal structure as an index to relation- 
ship, and we consider the genera as much more closely related to 
each other than either is to Stenolemus or Emesa. That such a re- 
lationship should be expressed by the use of tribal designation may 
be urged, but it should not be forgotten that characters of generic 
value are distributed in many intermeshing combinations and that 
as a consequence, definition of tribes of phyletic significance becomes 
impracticable. 

The characters used as generic criteria in this synopsis of the 
Ploiariinae may have in allied subfamilies and families either more 
or less significance, but in our work we have steadfastly adhered to 
the idea that when classifying these insects we were dealing with a 
group, which though related to others, is subject to modification 
through influences that may or may not have affected these related 
groups. Any group of organisms must be classified on the basis of 
the characters it possesses, and the value these or other characters 
have in other groups, has nothng to do with the case. Classified on 
the basis of venation practically all of the vast family of An- 
thomyiidae would fall into a single genus, on leg structure the 
Jassoidea could be but little divided, nor could Coccidae on the char- 
acters of the beak, and so on. A synopsis of a group should be 
based on characters inspection proves to be of value for that group. 
There has been no greater retarding factor in systematic entomology 
than that of grafting supplementary work here and there upon the 
old. of using the characters and methods that have been used instead 
of seeking something of greater significance. Each new piece of 
synoptic work should penetrate as much further into the heart of 
things as possible, judiciously noting and using, but neither copying 
nor worshipping previous contributions to the study. 

Under each genus will be found a discussion of the characters and 
a systematic alignment of the included species, the groups being in 
all cases distinguished by means of characters that we consider are 
of more than specific value, but not of sufficient importance in most 
cases to justify the use of a distinctive appellation for the groups 
concerned. 

METHOD OF DESCRIPTION. 

The keynote of descriptions throughout this paper is avoidance of 
repetition. In other words characters common to the whole sub- 
family are not mentioned in definitions of genera, and it has been our 
intention to hold to the minimum, repetition in specific descrptions of 
characters noted in descriptions of genera, in the keys to the species, 
or in descriptions of very similar forms. As a result, in some cases, 
specific descriptions may appear brief and inadequate. Nevertheless 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.67 

we believe the method adopted to be the best, not only because it 
saves space and therefore cost of printing, but what is more im- 
portant it avoids burying in a mass of verbiage, the really essential 
points of characterization. Some entomologists insist upon the so- 
called full descriptions and while their motive is laudable, a little 
consideration of actual entomological practice indicates that the 
results are not those hoped for. It seems the almost certain fate, 
for instance, when revising a group, to find that no matter how 
" full " previous descriptions may be, they contain no mention of the 
particular detail about which information is sought. And this defect 
is inherent in the very nature of taxonomic practice. In every revision 
worthy of the name intensive search is made for new characters that 
will aid in classification of the group and the more success attained 
in finding them the more will previous descriptions fail to satisfy. 
Viewed from this standpoint, it is obvious* that an isolated descrip- 
tion, however lengthy, might fail to mention any character essential 
to recognition of the species. The moral is that the best method 
of describing new forms is in revisions where keys are given, and 
other comparisons made with related forms. A few words of de- 
scription or comparison in such a connection is likely to be worth 
more than pages of description not formulated as a result of re- 
visional work. 

Statements of length in this paper refer to greatest length from 
front of head to tip of abdomen or of hemelytra as the case may be. 

PRINCIPAL WORKS CITED. 

Because of the frequency with which certain writings on the 
Ploiariinae are cited, it seems desirable to adopt much abbreviated 
references to them. The shortened forms used and bibliographic 
references in full for the papers in point are given in the following 
lists : 

Banks. Emesidae. 1909. 

Banks, Nathan. Notes on our species of Emesidae. Pysehe, vol. 1(5, No. 
3, June, 1909, pp. 43-48, 2 figs. 
Keys to genera and species of the United States ; 6 species described as new. 

Beegkoth. Ploeariinen. 1906. 

Bergroth, E. Zur Kenntnis der Ploeariinen. Verhandlungen der kaiser- 
lich-koniglichen zoologisch-botanisehen Gesellschaft in Wien, vol. 56, 
1906, pp. 305-321. 

Original descriptions of 6 American species, and redescription of one of Dohrn's 
species. 

Champion. Biologia, 2. 1898. 

Champion, G. C. [Emesinae.] Biologia Centrali-Amerieana. Insecta. 
Rhynchota. Hemiptera-Heteroptera. vol. 2, pp. 162-175, pi. 10. figs 
7-24, October, 1898. 

Key to the genera, two of which and 9 species are described as new. 



abt. 1 - AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE— McATEE AND MALLOCH 9 

Dohbn. Emksina. 1860. 

Dohkn, Anton. Beitriige zur einer monographischen Bearbeitung der 
Familie der Emesina. Linnaea Entomologica, vol. 14. 1860, pp. 206-252, 
with Naehtrag, pp. 253-255, pi. 1. 

Key to the genera, of which 3 that occur in the Americas, and 15 species are 
described as new. 

Dohrn. Nachtrage. 1863. 

Dohrn, Anton. Same title (Zweites Stuck) and journal, vol. 15, 1863, 
pp. 42-63, with Naehtrlige, pp. 64-76. 

Redescriptions of a number of genera and species both of Dohrn and other 
authors. In the Nachtrage, two genera and 4 species from the Americas are 
described as new. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

We have placed in the following key only those genera of which 
we have examined authentic material, including a few of extralimital 
distribution inserted for comparative purposes. Notes on other 
American genera follow the key. 

1. Fore tarsi distinctly segmented, sometimes heavily chitinized and the seg- 

ments subfused, but the dividing sutures always visible under a high- 
power lens ; claws of fore tarsus consisting of an equal sized pair except 

in some species of Ploiaria and in Deliastes 2 

Fore tarsi without distinguishable segmentation under the highest power 
lens (even when cleared), consisting of but one heavily chitinized seg- 
ment, with an unequal pair of claws, a single claw, or without distinct 
claws 13 

2. Fore femur without distinguishable ventral spines or bristles, only fine 

hairs present ; third antennal segment as long as second and about -three 
times as long as fourth ; mesonotum without, metanotum with a spine ; 

venation as in figure 1 3 Emesopsis Uhler (p. 13). 

Fore femur with distinct spines or bristles on ventral surface which are 
readily distinguishable from any fine hairs which may be present except 
in some species of the genus Empicoris ; third antennal segment not 
nearly as long as second and frequently shorter than fourth 3 

3. Ventral spines on fore femur commencing at or very close to base; fore 

tibia very distinctly over half as long as fore femur 4 

Ventral spines of fore femur commencing at or very close to middle; fore 
tibia not over half as long as fore femur 12 

4. Forewing with a closed subtriangular cell at basal extremity of the large 

diseal cell, which does not touch margin of wing at any part (fig. 14) ; 
adults always winged ; prothorax always with a deep constriction and 

distinctly bilobate, often pedunculate 5 

Forewing lacking a closed subtriangular cell at basal extremity of the 
large diseal cell (fig. 11) ; adults sometimes apterous; prothorax neither 
pedunculate nor lobate, never more than slightly constricted 8 

5. A longitudinal vein which connects with either the small subtriangular 

cell or the base of diseal cell fuses with the vein joining apex of former at 
some distance from base of wing so that the disk of wing has 3 closed cells 

3 The Oriental species of this genus which we have seen have very weak spines on the 
ventral surface of fore femora and the antennae similar to those of Empicoris in general 
structure. 

94993—25 2 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM - vol. 07 

(figs. 45, 46, 47) ; mesonoturn and metanotuui sometimes with tubercles 
but without long spines at apices; fore tarsi 3-segmented. 

Emesa Fabricius (Westermannia Dohrn) (p. 38). 
When there is a vein connecting with the small discal cell it is usually 
short and its end is either free or it does not fuse with the other longi- 
tudinal vein, i. e., disk of wing with but 2 closed cells (figs. 33, 63, 
66) 6 

6. Mesonoturn and metanotuui without long spines; fore tarsi 3-segmented. 

Myiophanes Reuter (Extralimital). 
Mesonoturn and metanotum each with a long spine or thorn 7 

7. Fore tarsi 3-segmented ; no short vein emanating from costal margin of basal 

discal cell of forewing (fig. 65) Polauchenia, new genus (p. 47). 

Fore tarsi 2-segniented ; a short vein emitted from costal margin of basal 
discal cell (figs. 21, 23, 26, 29) Stenolemus Signoret (p. 25). 

8. Fore tarsi 2-segmented, the segments nearly fused and subequal in length ; 

claws unequal Deliastes Dohrn (p. 34). 

Fore tarsi either 3-segmented or the segments not as above and claws 
equal 9 

9. Pronotuni not extending over mesonoturn even in the winged forms ; fore 

tarsus long, heavily chitinised, glossy and bare above, the 3 segments 
fused so closely that the oblique sutures are visible only under a very 
high-power lens ; venation of forewings as in figures 73, 84, 89 ; adults 

often apterous Ploriaria Scopoli. (incl. Luteva Dohrn) (p. 48). 

Pronotum extending over mesonoturn to base of wings ; adults always 
winged ; fore tarsus short, not heavily chitinized nor glossy and bare 
above, the segmentation distinct 10 

10. Prothorax slightly constricted near anterior margin; mesonoturn, meta- 

notum, and basal abdominal tergite each with a long erect spine ; fore 
tarsi 2-segniented. 

Empicoris Wolff ( =Ploiariodes Buchanan- White) (p. 13). 

Prothorax slightly constricted at or near middle ; mesonoturn without a 

spine; fore tarsi 3-segmented 11 

11. Basal segment of beak shorter than second ; fore tibia with a complete series 

of short ventral denticles ; venation of forewing as in figure 43. 

Lutevopsis Champion (p. 37). 
Basal segment of beak longer than second ; fore tibia with short decumbent 
pale setulae on ventral surface ; venation of forewing as in figure 38. 

Panamia Kirkaldy (p. 36). 

12. Fore tibia almost half as long as fore femur; basal ventral spine of fore 

femur not longer than the longest of the others ; fore tarsus with the seg- 
ments well defined, not heavily chitinized, hairy above; venation of fore- 
wing as in figure 94; mesonoturn highly glossy Gardena Dohrn (p. 06). 

Fore tibia not nearly half as long as fore femur ; basal ventral spine of 
fore femur very distinctly longer than the longest of the others; fore 
tarsus with the segments poorly defined, heavily chitinized, bare above; 
venation of forewing as in figure 137 ; mesothorax sericeous. 

Emesaya n.n. (for Emesa Authors not Fabricius) (p. 74). 

13. Fore tarsus with two longitudinal series of angularly deflected spines which 

under a high power appear like elongate knife-like teeth on its ventral 
surface (fig. 166) ; head with a more or less pronounced spine or tubercle 
between bases of antennae, labrum closely adherent to base of rostrum, 
not projecting spine-like (fig. 165) ; adults never winged. 

Ghilianella Spinola (p. 90). 

Fore tarsus with two series of decumbent setulose hairs on its ventral 

surface (fig. 141) ; adults sometimes winged 14 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 11 

14. Head normally with two stout tubercles or spines, one between bases of 
antennae and the other (labrum) above base of proboscis (fig. 139) ; pro- 
notura in winged form overlapping mesonotum to base of wings. 

Metapterus Costa (Barce Stal) (p. 83). 

Head with neither of the above mentioned tubercles or spines (fig. 140) ; 

pronotum in winged forms not overlapping mesonotum except at anterior 

extremity Ischnonyctes Stal (Extralimital *). 

NOTES ON AMERICAN GENERA NOT INCLUDED IN THE 
FOREGOING KEY. 

Emesella Dohrn, Emesina. I860, p. 239. [Monobasic, E. ncbulosa, new 
species, genotype, Bolivia, pp. 239-240.] From the original description it is 
impossible to determine the relationships of this group. If Emesella immitis 
(Bergroth, Ploeariinen, 1906, pp. 312-314, Venezuela) really is congeneric, 
we should say from inspection of imperfect specimens of this species, that 
Emesella probably would place in our classification as a subgenus of Ghilianella 
near Lissonyx. Signoret adds a species to this genus, namely E. dohrni 
Revision des Hemipteres du Chili, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, ser. 4, vol. 3, 1863, 
pp. 587-588 [Chili]. 

Malacopus Stal, C. Bidrag till Rio Janeiro-Traktens Hemipter-Fauna, 1862, 
pp. 80-81. [Monobasic, M. cellular is, new species genotype, Brazil.] 

Palacus Dohrn, Nachtriige, 1863, pp. 74-75 [Monobasic P. cubensis, new 
species genotype, Cuba, p. 75.] See remarks under Dcliastcs p. 34. The species 
described by Guerin-Meneville as Ploiaria pallida is put in Palacus by 
Lethierry and Severin, Cat. Gen. Hemip., vol. 3, 1896, p. 74. The original de- 
scription of the species occurs in Sagni, Ramon de la, Historia Fisica, Politica y 
Natural de la Isla de Cuba, vol. 7, Crustaceos, Aragnides e Insectos, 1856 [Cuba]. 
This name is preoccupied by Ploiaria pallida Montrouzier, P., Essai sur la 
Faune de l'lsle de Woodlark ou Moiou, Ann. Sci. Phys. Nat. Lyon, ser. 2, vol. 7, 
pt. 1, 1855, p. 110. 

SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF THE AMERICAN GENERA 

In connection with this arrangement we would first point out that 
in this as in most groups of existing insects there is little to which 
the much overworked word " primitive " can legitimately be applied. 
Rather we have in the modern insect world the products of speciali- 
zation along a multitude of intercrossing lines, any one of which 
may be highly specialized in some, and but little specialized in other 
respects. The selection of the least specialized form and the tracing 
of the probable course of evolution in a group, is, therefore, a sub- 
ject upon which opinion may vary greatly, according to the choice 
of characters of primary, secondary, and lesser degrees of im- 
portance. 

Adhering to the idea that development of predatory efficiency is 
the course of evolution of the Ploiariinae we believe little objection 
can be made to placing Emesopsis at the base of the American series 
of genera. While the venation of this genus is more complex and 

4 There is a damaged specimen of Ischnonyctes in the National Collection, labelled N. O., 
La., R. H. Browne. We assume this is an accidentally introduced individual, and that it 
was collected in New Orleans. 



12 PROCEEDINGS OP THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vou 67 

therefore less specialized according to a prevalent view of the sub- 
ject, there can be little doubt that this specialization is secondary, 
for there is no probability that an insect participating in the long 
course of evolution of so specialized a group as the Ploiariinae could 
carry along the whole route a primitive type of venation. 

Theoretical considerations are involved also in the question as to 
whether the possession of 2-segmented fore-tarsi (a nymphal charac- 
ter) is a forward- or a backward-looking specialization. Despite the 
fact that it would appear to be a step toward greater predatory 
effectiveness we have been obliged to give greater weight to certain 
other characters when the whole organization of a genus having 
3-segmented fore tarsi seemed to be more perfectly fitted for preda- 
tion. 

We have endeavored to strike a fair balance among the characters 
entitled to consideration in settling upon a systematic arrangement, 
and believe we have been in a better position for so doing than our 
predecessors because of the much larger amount of material ex- 
amined. 

Fore tarsi segmented. 

Fore femora without spines or bristles ; fore tarsi 2-segmented ; forewing 
reticulate toward base, with about 5-6 discal cells. Emesopsis (p. 13). 
Fore femora with spines or bristles; forewing (when present) with 
fewer discal cells. 
Fore femora s-pined for almost their whole length ; fore tibiae rela- 
tively long. 
Fore tarsi 2-segmented. 

Fore tarsi not heavily chitinized, basal segment the shorter, claws 
equal; apices of meso- and meta-thoraces, each usually bearing 
a spine. 
Forewing with one discal cell ; prothorax scarcely constricted. 

Empicoris (p. 13). 
Forewing with two discal cells ; prothorax deeply constricted or 

pedicillate Stenolemus (p. 25). 

Fore tarsi heavily chitinized, segments subfused, subequal, claws un- 
equaled ; meso- and meta-thoraces without spines ; forewing with 

3 discal cells Deliastes (p. 34). 

Fore tarsi 3-segmented. 

Fore tarsi usually flexible, hairy, at least above, claws equal. 
Meso- and meta-notum each with a spine ; fore wing with 2 discal 

cells Polauchenia (p. 47). 

Meso- and meta-nota unspined. 

Fore wing with 3 discal cells Emesa (p. 38). 

Fore wing with 1 discal cell Panamia (p. 36). 

Lutevopsis (p. 37). 
Fore tarsi inflexible, polished, sutures inconspicuous, claws usually 
unequal ; fore-wing when present with 1 discal cell. 

Ploiaria (p. 48). 
Fore femora spined on distal half; fore tibiae relatively shorter; fore 

wing with 1 discal cell Gardena (p. 66). 

Emesaya (p. 74). 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 13 

Fore tarsi not segmented (even in nymphs) ; fore wing (when present) with 2 

discal cells Metapterus (p. 83). 

Ghilianella (p. 90). 

SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT OF THE GENERA AND SPECIES. 

Genus EMESOPSIS Uhler. 

Emesopsis Uhler, P. R. A list of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera collected in the 
Island of St. Vincent by Mr. Herbert H. Smith ; with descriptions of New Genera 
and Species. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1893, p. 718 [Monobasic, genotype E. 
nubilus, new species, St. Vincent: Cuba] . 

In addition to the characters in the key the following may be 
mentioned for this genus: Head and prothorax similar to those of 
Empicoris, the prothorax however, without lateral carinae. The 
mesonotum is produced into a backw T ardly directed subtriangular 
process which is rounded above, the metanotum has a long erect 
slender spine at apex, and the basal abdominal tergite has a much 
shorter spine. Fore tarsi as in Stenolemus: Basal segment of beak 
about twice as long as second, the latter subglobose; the third joint 
slender, nearly as long as first. The reticulate venation of corium 
is very characteristic (see fig. 1). 

EMESOPSIS NUBILUS Uhler. 

Emesopsis nubilus Uhler, P. R. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1893, pp. 718-9 
[St. Vincent: Cuba]. 

A testaceous yellow species without distinct markings, the fore 
wings with indistinct yellowish brown mottling; eyes ruby red. 
Posterior lobe of head convex, distance from posterior margin of 
eye to back of head about twice as great as from anterior margin of 
eye to front of head and greater than width of eye; hairs of antennae 
much shorter than those of mid and hind legs. Fore coxae a little 
over half as long as fore tibiae, the latter over four-fifths as long 
as femur. Abdomen elongate ovate, the lateral outline smooth, spi- 
racles slightly elevated; spical margin of male hypopygium pro- 
duced into a subtriangular plate, the apex of which is thorn-like; 
claspers long, slender, curved at apices; apex of abdomen of female 
without processes, similar to that of females of Emficoris. Vena- 
tion of fore wing as in figure 1. 

Length 4^5 mm. 

Localities. — Mount Gay Estate, and Balthazar, Grenada, West 
Indies, H. H. Smith; Cayamas, Cuba, May 31, June 5, E. A. 
Schwarz; Cuba, Uhler Collection (U.S.N.M.). 

Genus EMPICORIS Wolff. 

Empicoris Wolff, J. F. Icones Cimicum Descriptionibus illustratae, Fasc. 
5, 1811, p. iv [Monobasic, Gerris vagabundus Linnaeus genotype]. 

Ploiariodes White, F. Buchanan. Descriptions of new species of Heterop- 
terous Hemiptera collected in the Hawaiian Islands by the Rev. T. Blackburn. — 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.67 

No. 3, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, ser. 5, vol. 7, 1S81, pp. 58-59. [Monobasic, P. 
whitei Blackburn ms., genotype, Mauna Loa.] 

Ploiariola Reuter, P. M. Revisio synonymica Heteropterorum palearcti- 
corum quae descripserunt Auctores vetustiores (Linnaeus 1758-Latreille 1806). 
II. Acta Soc. Sci. Fennicae, vol. 15, 1888, p. 711 [New name for Ploiaria of 
Latreille not of Scopoli, the genotype of which, Cimex vagabundus Linnaeus 
automatically assumed the same relation to the new name.] 

Emendations: Ploeariodcs; Ploeariola. 

We are not in ignorance of what has been said 5 in favor of re- 
garding Ploiariodes and Ploiariola as distinct genera, but we find 
the chief character advanced for their separation, namely the lateral 
carina of pronotum, showing practically all phases from distinct to 
obsolete. 6 Even were this character unequivocal we should regard 
it of no more than subgeneric value in view of the agreement 
throughout the species in general coloration and habitus as well 
as in the venation of the forewings and the structure of the fore 
legs. All species known to us have the legs and antennae as well 
as the beak with blackish spots or annuli, and the wings are in- 
variably dark spotted. The head and thorax have silvery hairs, usu- 
ally arranged in distinct lines, some of these being almost invaria- 
bly evident on pleura and pectus. The pronotum is more or less 
distinctly vittate, at least behind the constriction but there are 
some differences in this respect which are used in defining a few of 
the species; the carina on side of pronotum is nearly always pale. 
The abdomen usually is dark, with the spiracles and spots on con- 
nexivum pale, the venter finely pubescent, with more or less of 
the median line, and sometimes spots about bases of certain 
longer hairs, bare. 

The radial vein runs to beyond the middle of the fore wing, end- 
ing in the costa, the apical portion of it being what we have called 
the " stigma " which offers some good distinguishing characters for 
the species both in its shape and color. The pronotum is divided into 
two parts by a broad constriction, the anterior part being about half 
as long as the posterior, but there are no species known to us in 
which the pronotum is at all pedicillate. All species have the meso- 
notum and metanotum, and usually the basal abdominal tergite with 
a slender thorn on the middle of the hind margin; the presence or 
absence of a process, on middle of hind margin of the pronotum is a 
specific character. The spines or bristles on fore femora are some- 
times difficult to see even with a high power lens. 

B Especially Bergroth, E. Ploeariodes B. White und Ploeariola Reut. (Hemiptera-He 
teroptera, Reduviidae. ) Rev. Russe d'Ent., vol. 9, No. 3, Nov. 1909. p. 324. 

• We have examined several species from the Oceanic region in addition to those 
treated herein. 



akt. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND M ALLOC H 15 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

1. Pronotum with the lateral carinae distinguishable only at anterior and pos- 

terior extremities, obsolete in middle; eighth sternite in male with a large 
rounded central incision in posterior margin (tig. 2) ; stigma with a red- 
dish line along inner or posterior margin from cross-vein to apex. 

rubromaculatus (Blackburn) (p. 16). 

Pronotum with the lateral carinae complete, pale colored on their entire 

length ; eighth sternite in male produced in middle of hind margin ; stigma 

without a red line along inner margin apically 2 

2. Pronotum with two dorsal linear yellowish carinae similar to the lateral 

carinae, extending the entire length of dorsum ; dark markings of forewings 
peppered with minute hyaline dots ; lateral carinae of pronotum not capi- 
tate at anterior extremity barberi (McAtee and Malloch) (p. 19). 

Pronotum without sharp dorsal carinae, with two slight rounded longitudinal 
elevations ; dark markings of forewings solid ; lateral carinae more or less 
distinctly, produced or capitate at anterior extremities 3 

3. Hind wings conspicuously spotted with black apically, or fuscous with white 

reticulations 4 

Hind wings not spotted apically or very faintly so at extreme tip (cf. 
orthoneuron) 5 

4. Pronotum with a conspicuous tubercle on middle of hind margin ; anterior ex- 

tremity of lateral carina of pronotum with a small capitate process which 
projects nearly at right angles to pronotum ; fore wings not perceptibly 
honeycombed as in next species; vein closing posterior half of apex of dis- 
cal cell much more conspicuously bent than its fellow (tig. 11). 

errabundus (Say) (p. 24). 
Pronotum without a median tubercle on hind margin; lateral carina of pro- 
notum with at most a slight process at anterior extremity which is not 
capitate nor at right angles to pronotum ; fore wings microscopically honey- 
combed with fine black lines which are most noticeable basad of apex of 
discal cell and in the dark spots of membrane (best seen in transmitted 
light) ; veins closing discal cell almost symmetrically formed. 

reticulatus, new species (p. 20). 

5. Both veins closing discal cell of hemelytra at apex nearly straight (fig. 4) ; 

posterior lobe of pronotum not narrowed in front, a little broader than long, 
without a median process on middle of hind margin, the lateral carina with 
a small process at anterior extremity ; wing without microscopic honeycomb- 
ing; hind wings may be faintly spotted apically. 

orthoneuron, new species (p. 18). 
At least the vein closing posterior half of apex of discal cell conspicuously 
bent or angulated ; posterior lobe of pronotum as long as or longer than 
broad, narrowed anteriorly, the sides not straight ; wings without micro- 
scopic honeycombing 

6. The large fuscous spots on forewings irrorated with minute clear dots ; one 

or two of the spines at base of ventral series on fore femur about as long 
as the femoral diameter and quite stout ; fore coxa stouter than usual, not 
longer than distance from coxal cavity to upper margin of pronotum ; tu- 
bercle on hind margin of pronotum small, the lateral carina with a small 
process at anterior extremity which projects at nearly right angles to the 

pronotum parshleyi (Bergroth) (p. 22). 

The large fuscous spots on forewings not irrorated; fore femoral spines 
not nearly as long as the femoral diameter; fore coxa longer than dis- 
tance from coxal cavity to upper margin of pronotum anteriorly 7 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

7. Pronotum with a distinguishable tubercle on middle of hind margin 8 

Pronotum without a distinguishable tubercle on middle of hind margin- 10 

8. Tubercle on middle of hind margin of pronotum very small, the linear white 

vittae distinct in front of constriction, almost straight, disk almost bare ; 
bases of fore wings spotted with fuscous. 

subparallelus, new species (p. 21). 

Tubercle on middle of hind margin of pronotum large 9 

0. Pronotum with two conspicuously curved linear pilose white vittae which 
are distinct in front of constriction ; bases of fore wings white. 

nudus, new species (p. 22). 
Pronotum with two moderately broad whitish vittae which do not extend 
in front of constriction nor to hind margin, the disk with rather con- 
spicuous white decumbent hairs; eighth sternite in male with a very 
slender apical process (fig. 8) armatus (Champion) (p. 20). 

10. Stigma linear, entirely black, forming a conspicuous costal streak centered 

on vein closing costal half of discal cell, the latter much longer than that 
closing the other half (fig. 6) ; cross-veins in middle of hind wing forming 

a straight line (fig. 7) winnemana, new species (p. 19). 

Stigma widened beyond vein closing costal half of diseal cell, the latter 
not longer than that closing other half (fig. 3) ; cross-veins in middle of 
hind wing forming an angulate line 11 

11. Stigma with two or three blackish spots beyond the cross-vein; male hy- 

popygial claspers knobbed, the knob concave at tip (fig. 9). 

culiciformis (DeGeer) (p. 23). 
Stigma without dark spots beyond the cross-vein ; claspers not knobbed. 

vagabundus (Linnaeus) (p. 17). 

SYSTEMATIC ABKANGEMENT OF THE SPECIES. 

Lateral carinae of pronotum incomplete ; armature of fore femora consisting of 
uniform bristly hairs, none as long as femoral diameter; pronotum without 

tubercle on hind margin rubromaculatus. 

Lateral carinae of pronotum complete. 

Armature of fore femora consisting chiefly of bristly hairs, often with 
spine-like bases. 

Pronotum without a tubercle on hind margin vagabundus. 

orthoneuron. 
barberi. 
winnemana. 
reticulatus. 

Prontum with a tubercle on hind margin armatus. 

subparallelus. 
nudus. 
Armature of fore femora more definitely spinous, usually a few spines 
at base of series are longer than the others. 
Pronotum without a tubercle on hind margin. parshleyi. 

culiciformis. 
Pronotum with a tubercle on hind margin. 

errabundus. 
EMPICORIS RUBROMACULATUS (Blackburn). 

Ploiariodes rubromaculata Blackburn, T. Notes on the Hemiptera of the 
Hawaiian Islands, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, ser. 2, vol. 3, 1889, p. 349 
[Mauna Loa, Hawaii]. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 17 

Ploiariodes cur y ale Kirkaldy, G. W. A Catalogue of the Hemiptera of 
Fiji, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., vol. 33, 1908, p. 372 [Kiwa, Fiji]. 

Ploiariodes calif ornica Banks, N. Emesidae, 1909, p. 46 [Stanford Uni- 
versity, Calif.]. 

Ploiariola froggatti Horvath, G. Miscellanea heuiipterologiea XV, Ann. Mus. 
Nac. Hung., vol. 12,' 1914, pp. 643-644, fig. 5 [Sydney, New South Wales]. 

This species is readily distinguished by the characters cited in the 
key. In some cases the anterior rudiment of the lateral carina is 
dark in color and therefore inconspicuous. The fore femur is about 
as long as the pronotum and the apical antennal segment is not 
over one-third as long as the third segment. This species has no 
round bare spots at bases of the longer hairs on venter as in erra- 
bundus and some others. For the male genitalia, see figure 2. 

Length : 5-5.5 mm. 

Specimens examined. — Kilauea, Hawaii, 4,000 feet. (Bishop Mus., 
det. Kirkaldy) ; Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, 5,000 feet, R. C. Perkins 
(British Mus.); Mount View, Calif., G. W. Ehrhorn; Alameda 
County, Calif., December (U.S.N.M.) ; Salinas, Calif., June 20, 1908, 
Riverside, Calif., June 10, 1908, E. D. Ball (Ball) ; Stanford Uni- 
versity, Calif., September (Holotype of Ploiariodes californica 
Banks, Mus. Comp. Zool.) ; Palo Alto, Calif., Sept., 1908, Bradley 
(Van Duzee); Berkeley, Calif., Oct. 31, J. C, Bradley (Cornell 
Univ.); Calcedonia, Miss., June 24, 25, 1921, C. J. Drake; Gaines- 
ville, Fla., J. R. Watson (Drake) ; Chain Bridge, Va., Sept. 11, 
1921, J. R. Malloch. (Biol. Survey) ; Rio Piedras, Porto Rico, July 
23, 1916, E. G. Smyth (U.S.N.M.); Tallabao near Ponce, Porto 
Rico, July 28, 1914 (Am. Mus.) ; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Carnegie 
Mus.). 

A male collected at Funchal, Madeira, December 30, by F. Jones 
(U.S.N.M.) differs only in having no red streak along inner margin 
of the stigma. Since this marking varies in extent and intensity 
m the other specimens studied we are not inclined to consider this 
form as a distinct species. 

EMPICORIS VAGABUNDUS (Linnaeus). 

Cimex vagabundus Linnaeus, C. Systema Naturae per Regna tria Naturae, 
secundum Ordines, Genera, Species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, 
locis., ed. 10, 1758, p. 450 (Engelmann Reprint 1894) [Europe]. 

We have examined several European specimens of this species 
which agree in all particulars with those from North America. 
The armature of fore femora, the lack of pronotal tubercle, and 
the shape and color of the stigma are characteristic; the apical 
antennal segment is not more than one-third as long as preapical. 
Apex of forewing as in figure 3. 

Length; 6-7 mm. 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

KEY TO THE VARIETIES. 

A. Antennae and fore femora with very short hairs, those on the former very 
little longer than the segmental diameter ; general color usually somewhat 
fuscous vagabundus. 

AA. Antennae and fore femora with very long hairs, those on the former 
about four times as long as the diameter of segments ; general color usu- 
ally whitish pilosus. 

EMPICORIS VAGABUNDUS, var. VAGABUNDUS (Linnaeus). 

Original citation same as for the species. 

Ploiariola canadensis Parshley, H. M. On some Hemiptera from West- 
ern Canada. Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of 
Michigan, No. 71, Aug. 29, 1919, pp. 25-27 [Victoria, B. C.]. 

American specimens examined are from Victoria, B. C, August 18, 
25, 1919, W. Downes, including type of P. canadensis Parshley 
(Downes, Parshley.) ; Washington, D. C, from the breeding cage 
of the Division of Entomology, June 10, 1898, F. H. Chittenden 
(Cornell Univ.). The scutellar spine is not developed in Parshley's 
type and in certain other specimens, but this is a malformation. 

EMPICORIS VAGABUNDUS, var. PILOSUS (Fieber). 

Ploearia pilosa Fieber, F. X. Die europaischen Hemiptera. Halbfliigler 
(Rhynchota Heteroptera ) , 1861, pp. 149-150 [France]. 

Ploiariodes hirtipes Banks, N. A new species of Emesidae from Vermont 
Psyche, vol. 19, No. 3, June 1912, p. 97 [Brattleboro, Vt.]. 

This variety is represented in North American material by speci- 
mens which agree exactly with a European example. 

Full data for the specimens examined are: Wisconsin; Pennsyl- 
vania no other data (U.S.N.M.) ; Nantucket, Mass., Aug. 21, 1911 
(Parshley); Victoria, B. C, Aug. 16, 18, 1919, W. Downes 
(Downes) ; Brattleboro, Vt, July 15, 1908, C. W. Johnson, type of 
P. hirtipes Banks (Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.). 

This form has been recorded also from Gogebic County, Mich. 
(Hussey, B. F., Pysche, 28, No. 1, Feb. 1921, p. 10). 

EMPICORIS ORTHONEURON. new species. 

Male. — Similar to errabundus in color, except that the type shows 
no distinct spotting at the apices of the hind wings, but these wings 
in this specimen are in poor condition and it is not possible to be. 
absolutely sure of this character. The venation of apex of the 
discal cell is as in reticulatits, but the minute honeycomb of lines 
is absent (fig. 4), the stigma is narrower, fuscous, and there is a 
more conspicuous blackish mark on middle of veins closing discal 
cell and the base of the vein that emanates from them. The form 
of the apical sternite is shown in figure 5. 

Length, 4 mm. 



aet. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 19 

Holotype.— Monterey, Calif., July 12. E. A. Schwarz (U.S.N.M.). 

A female from Santa Cruz, Calif., August (Coll. Parshley) also is 
in poor condition, the wings being stuck to abdomen, but apparently 
the hind pair are faintly spotted apically. 

Type.— Cut. No. 27090 U.S.N.M. 

KM PI (ORIS BARBERI (McAtee and Malloch). 

Ploiariodes barberi McAtee, W. L., and Maixoch, J. R. American Museum 
Novitates, No. 75, May 11, 1923, pp. 7-8 [Porto Rico]. 

Male. — Head with white pruinosity in front of eyes and a white 
line from base of each antenna, which connects with another that 
runs diagonally from lower hind margin of eye to upper occiput; 
faint lines of pruinosity on lower sides of pronotum in front and on 
pleura, and posterior and lateral margins, and lateral and dorsal 
carinae of pronotum white. Abdominal spiracles white; venter 
mottled, each sternite with a large round bare spot on each side on 
hind margin. Antennae and legs with narrow annulations, a sub- 
apical one on each femur and on first segment of antenna broader. 
Dark areas on fore wings profusely areolate with minute pale dots; 
apices of hind wings fuscous with white reticulations. 

Pronotum without median tubercle on hind margin; submedian 
dorsal carinae as sharp as the lateral ones, but little curved ; meso- 
notal and metanotal thorns absent in type, the one at base of abdomen 
distinct. Apical abdominal sternite not deeply excavated at tip. Fore 
femur with very weak ventral spinules. Stigma normal, cross-vein 
closing apex of discal cell on its anterior half straight, the other one 
curved. 

Length (without wings) : 3 mm. 

Holotype. — Tallabao, near Ponce, Porto Rico, July 23, 1914, H. G. 
Barber (American Museum). 

Named in honor of the collector. This is one of the most distinct 
species known to us. The submedian dorsal pronotal carinae are 
not sharp in any other species, and the only other which has the dark 
areas of the forewings with minute hyaline dots is P. parshhyi 
Bergroth. 

EMPICORIS WINNEMANA, new species. 

Male. — This species differs from all the others in having the legs 
and antennae almost entirely brownish fuscous, with but faint annuli 
except at extreme apices of segments, the fore and mid femora alone 
showing distinguishable annuli. The pronotum is almost uniformly 
brownish and the thoracic spines are stramineous. The wings are as 
in errabwndus, but the linear stigma is entirely black as far before 
as beyond the cross-vein. 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

Antenna with short pubescence, apical segment over one-third as 
long as the subapical. Lateral carina of pronotum not sharp. Apical 
abdominal sternite subtriangular, hypopygial claspers slender, ta- 
pered at apices. Fore femur over twice as long as coxa, rather 
densely short haired ventrally, the spines minute. Stigma and veins 
closing discal cell as in figure 6. Cross-veins in middle of hind 
wing forming a straight line (fig. 7). 

Female. — Similar to male, the abdomen broader. 

Length, 4.5 mm. 

Holotype. — Plummer Island, Md., October 10, 1921, taken at light 
in the cabin of the Washington Biologists' Field Club, H. L. Viereck 
(U.S.N.M.) , Allotype, Vienna, Va., October 17, 1890, (Cornell Univ.) . 

Type.— Male, Cat. No. 26703, U.S.N.M. 

EMPICORIS RETICULATUS. new species. 

Male and female. — Similar to erraJby/ndus in color, the spots at 
apices of hind wings very distinct. Differs as indicated in key, the 
reticulation or honeycombing of forewings visible only under a very 
high power. The apical abdominal sternite of male is similar to that 
of orthoneuron and quite different from that of errabundus (figs. 5 
and 12) . As in errabundus and orthoneuron the cross- veins in mid- 
dle of hind-wings are angulated and the apices of forewings are 
notched where the vein joins the margin. Apical antennal segment 
nearly half as long as preapical. Base of abdomen with a much 
shorter dorsal thorn than in errabundus. 

Length, 5-6 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Cordoba, Mexico, December 25, 1907, F. Knab, 
Allotype, found on imported orchids from Port Barrios, Guatemala ; 
Paratype male, Natchez, Miss., June 2, 1909, E. A. Schwarz 
(U.S.N.M.) ; female, Plummer Island, Md., August, 1903, A. Busck 
(Cornell Univ.) ; Plummer Island, Md., Sept. 9, Falls Church, Va., 
Oct. 13, N. Banks; Maiden, Mass., Oct., 1883, F. H. Sprague (Mus. 
Comp. Zool.). 

Type, allotype, and paratype. — Cat. No. 26704, U.S.N.M. 

EMPICORIS ARMATUS (Champion). 

Ploiariodes armata Champion, G. C. Biologia, vol. 2. 189S, p. 165 [Guate- 
mala ; Panama]. 

Plocariola mansueta Bergroth, E. The American Species of Ploeariola Reut. 
(Hem. Reduviidae). Notulae Entomologicae, vol. 2, 1922, pp. 51, 80-81 [San- 
ford, Fla., Mandeville, Jamaica]. 

Head with white decumbent hairs which form three curved longi- 
tudinal lines on each side, one from lower posterior angle of eye, one 
from just above middle of eye and a third from upper posterior an- 
gle of eye, the latter curved inward at middle. Pronotum with two 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 21 

whitish submedian vitlae which do not reach anterior or posterior 
margins, the space betwen them yellowish, laterad of these and across 
their posterior extremities dark brown, hind margin of pronotum 
narrowly pale yellowish in middle, broadly so on each posterior Ma- 
terial angle, dorsum with rather dense decumbent white hairs; meso- 
notal spine dark brown, pale at tip; mentanotal spine whitish; basal 
abdominal spine dark brown. Abdomen brown, venter unspotted, 
spiracles and a connexival streak in front of them on each segment, 
whitish. Wing spots not irrorate; stigma from cross-vein to near 
tip filled with two contiguous or subcontiguous brown or fuscous 
spots. 

Lateral pronotal carina complete, without anterior process; me- 
dian process on hind margin of pronotum stout, conspicuous. Fore 
coxa slender, almost as long as pronotum and half as long as femur. 
Vein closing posterior half of discal cell much curved. Apical anten- 
nal segment fully one-third as long as preapical. Male genitalia as 
in figure 8. 

Length, 4-5.5 mm. 

Localities. — Sanford, Fla., April 26, 1908, Mandeville, Jamaica, 
April 1906, E. P. Van Duzee (Type material Ploeariola mansueta 
Bergroth, Coll. Van Duzee) ; Aibonito, Porto Rico, July 14-17, 1914 
(Am. Mus.) ; Paraiso, Canal Zone, February 10, 1911 E. A. Schwarz; 
Cacao Trece Aguas, Guatemala, April 21, E. A. Schwarz and H. S. 
Barber; Vega Alta, Porto Rico, February 26, 1917, R. J. Cotton, 
Paradise Key, Fla., Feb. 28, 1918, E. A. Schwarz (U.S.N.M.) ; Se- 
bastian, Fla., February 11, 1919, A. Wetmore (Biol. Survey) ; 
Gainesville, Fla., June 9, 1918, C. J. Drake (Drake.). 

We had this species identified as armatus Champion prior to the 
appearance of Doctor Bergroth's paper and to settle whether we 
were in error we requested W. E. China to supply data from an 
examination of the type. The information kindly furnished by that 
gentleman confirms our identification and synonymy. 

EMPICORIS SUBPARALLELUS, new species. 

Male.— Similar to nudus in color and structure, differing as stated 
in ke} r . The black spots on antennae are much smaller than in 
nudus, and especially apically, the last two segments in nudus be- 
ing almost entirely fuscous whereas in subparallelus they are largely 
white, the apical segment having a small black spot at base and a 
larger one near apex. 

Length, 4.5 mm. 

Type. — Cayamas, Cuba, March 2, E. A. Schwarz (U.S.N.M.). 

A female specimen from Brownville, Texas, May 7, H. S. Barber, 
(U.S.N.M.), lacking the head and most of the legs appears to belong 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. (57 

to this species; the pronotal tubercle is better developed than in 
the type. 

Type.— Male, Cat. No. 26705, U.S.N.M. 

EMPICORIS NUDUS, new species. 

Female. — Head marked as in armatus; the white lines are not 
composed of moderately long decumbent hairs but of microscopic 
pile or pruineseence, and the two lines on dorsum are regularly 
arcuate, the anterior and posterior extremities being incurved. The 
dorsum of pronotum is chocolate brown on disk between the white 
lines, the latter are very slender, converge from anterior margin to 
constriction, and then arcuately diverge, ending a short distance from 
hind margin of pronotum; laterad of the white lines the posterior 
half of pronotum is paler brown; there is a slender white Y-shaped 
mark extending from constriction over humerus on each side, a 
white line along the hind margin, and the lateral carinae are white. 
In other respects as annatus. 

Pronotum almost nude, processes and spines as in armatus. Fore 
coxa stouter than in that species, distinctly shorter than pronotum, 
and half as long as femur; stigmatal spot farther from apex. 
Apical antennal segment fully half as long as preapical. 

Length, 4.5 mm. 

Holotype. — Paradise Key, Fla., March 6, 1919, E. A. Schwarz 
and H. S. Barber (U.S.N.M.). 

EMPICORIS PARSHLEYI (Bergroth). 

Ploeariola parsJileyi Bergroth, E. Am. Ploeariola. Notulae Entomologicae, 
vol. 2, 1922, pp. 50-51 and 79 [Falls Church, Va.]. 

Color decidedly more brownish than in errabundus. Dorsum of 
pronotum behind suture pale yellowish brown, but little darker than 
the lateral carinae; thoracic spines pale. Venter of abdomen pale 
brown, unspotted. Most of the fuscous spots on wings and espe- 
cially those in discal cell with minute clear dots in them; apices of 
hind wings not spotted. Legs and antennae ringed and spotted with 
fuscous. 

Pronotum with lateral carina, which has a small process at anterior 
extremity, and with a poorly developed but distinguishable median 
process on hind margin. Fore legs short and stout, the femur not 
longer than the pronotum, the coxa about half as long as the femur 
and not longer than distance from coxal cavity to upper anterior 
margin of pronotum. Stigma normal, rather broadly rounded at 
apex; discal cell produced at apex, both veins closing cell curved. 
Apical antennal segment fully half as long as preapical. 

Length, 5-6 mm. 



akt. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 23 

Localities. — Falls Church, Va., August 1, N. Banks (Holotype, 
Coll. Bergroth) ; same locality, August 22 (Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.) 
same locality, August 6, 25, N. Banks (Mus. Comp. Zool.) ; Plummer 
Island, Md., June 27, 1911, August 10, 1915, H. S. Barber (U.S. 
N.M.) ; Contoocook, N. H., July 16, 1920, E. W. Hall (Drake) ; 
Beverly, Mass., July 15, 1906 (Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.). 

EMPICORIS CULICIFORMIS (De Geer). 

Cimex culiciformis De Geek, Charles. Mem. Hist. Insects, 3, 1773, pp. 
323-8, pi. 17, figs. 1-S [France]. 

l'loiaria alata Scopoli, J. A. Deliciae Florae et Faunae Insubricae, etc., 
pt. 3, 1788, pp. 52-53, pi. 25, figs. 6-10 [Austria]. 

Gerris erraticus Faixen, C. F. Monographia Cimicum Sueciae, 1818, pp. 
117-118. 

l'loiaria maeulata Haldeman, S. S. Descriptions of several new species and 
one new genus of insects. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Phila., vol. 3 (1846-7) 1848, 
p. 151 [Pennsylvania]. A longer description is given in a later article by 
Haldeman entitled " On four new species of Hemiptera of the genera Ploiaria, 
Cbermes, and Aleurodes," etc. (Amer. Journ. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 9, 1850, p. 108). 

Ploiariodes errabunda Banks, N. Emesidae, 1909, p. 46 [Va., Md.]. 

We have before us several European specimens of this species in- 
cluding one male. A number of North American specimens, com- 
prising males also, agree in every particular Avith those from Europe 
so that we have been compelled to accept the American species as 
culiciformis. In color it agrees very closely with errabundus but it 
is distinguished structurally as indicated in the key, and also by the 
lateral carina of the pronotum lacking the anterior process. The 
apical sternite in male is more broadly rounded at apex than in erra- 
bundus and the hj^popygial claspers are knobbed at apices as shown 
in figure 9. No other species so far as we know has this last struc- 
tural peculiarity. The wings are as in errabundus but the hind pair 
are not spotted apically (fig. 10). Apical antennal segment about 
half as long as preapical. One or two of the basal ventral spines on 
fore femur quite prominent. 

Length, 4—4.5 mm. 

Localities.— Boston, Mass., Oct. 26,1921, H. Biddle (Bost. Soc. Nat. 
Hist.) ; Pennsylvania, June, Uhler Coll. labeled as type of Ploiaria 
maeulata Haldeman (U. S. N. M.) ; Plummer Island, Md., May 22, 
1912, at light, E. A. Schwarz (U. S. N. M.) ; Kenilworth, D. C, July 
26, 1912, O. Heidemann (Cornell Univ.) ; Eastern Branch, D. C, 
May 14, 1901, at light, A. Busck (Van Duzee) ; May wood, Va., Oct. 
16, 1915, W. L. McAtee (McAtee) ; Vienna, Va., Aug. 17, 1913, H. G. 
Barber (Barber) ; Falls Church, Va., May 27, July 20, 25, Aug. 2, 
29, N. Banks (M. C. Z.) ; Falls Church, Va., July 20, N. Banks (Cor- 
nell Univ.) ; Falls Church, Va., Aug. 6, and no date (Van Duzee) ; 
Falls Church, Va., Aug. 7, N. Banks (Parshley) ; Falls Church, Va., 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

Sept. 29, N. Banks (McAtee) ; Falls Church, Va., Aug. 22, N. Banks 
(U. S. N. M.) ; Berkeley, W. Va., Aug. 20, 1891 (Cornell Univ.) ; 
The Dalles, Ore., May 19 (Cornell Univ.). 

With reference to the supposed type of Ploiaria maculata Halde- 
man listed above it is to be said that in Haldeman's first article the 
data for his specimen are given as " Pennsylvania, July," and in 
the second " Pennsylvania, June and July." Uhler tells us : 7 " Prof. 
Haldeman generously gave me the type of his description," but this 
specimen is the type of the second, not the original description. The 
latter. Haldeman informs us, was mutilated and now probably is lost. 

This species, next to erraburtdus, is the commonest of the genus 
in America. 

EMPICORIS ERRABUNDUS (Say). 

Ploiaria crrabunda Say, Thomas. Descriptions of new species of Heterop- 
terous Hemiptera of North America, 1831 ; Reprint Trans. N. Y. State Agr. 
Soc. 1857, p. 804; Complete Writings, vol. 1, 1859, p. 359 [North America]. 

Ploiariodes tuberculata Banks, N. Emesidae, 1909, p. 46 [Sea Cliff, N. Y., 
Falls Church, Va.]. 

In addition to the characters mentioned in the key, this species 
has the venter with dense appressed white pile except on numerous 
small round areas at bases of the longer hairs which give it under a 
a moderate magnification the appearance of being spotted. The 
fore coxa is nearly as long as the pronotum, the cross-veins in the 
hind wing form an angulated line, both the veins closing the discal 
cell are curved so that the apex of the cell is drawn out into a rather 
long point, the stigma is spotted beyond the cross- vein (fig. 11), and 
the eighth sternite in the male has an obtusely pointed terminal 
process (fig. 12). The apical antennal segment is one-third as long 
as preapical. Fore tibia and tarsus as in figure 13. 

Length : 4-4.5 mm. 

Our most common and widely distributed species, represented in 
the material examined by the following collections : Paris, Me., July 
4, 1916, C. A. Frost (Parshley) ; Monmouth, Me., July 27, 1912, 
C. A. Frost; Fall River, Mass., May 22, 1911, N. S. Easton (Bost. 
Soc. Nat, Hist.) ; Amherst, Mass., June 5, 1914; Cold Spring Har- 
bor, New York, July 29, O. B. Meiner (Parshley) ; Sea Cliff, N. Y., 
Aug., N. Banks (M. C. Z.) ; White Plains, N. Y., Aug. 21, 1909 
(Bueno) ; Penn Mar, Pa., July 15 (Cornell Univ.) ; Bedford Co., 
Pa., Aug. 8, O. Heidemann (Cornell Univ.) ; Bedford Co., Pa., 
Aug. (E. P. Van Duzee) ; Cropley, Md., April 27, 1910, laid eggs 
soon after capture, H. S. Barber (U.S.N.M.) ; Forest Glen, Md., 
July 14, 1915, at light, O. Heidemann (Cornell Univ.) ; Plummer 
Island, Md., May 7, 1916, R. C. Shannon (U.S.N.M.); Plummer 

7 I'roc. Hoston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 19, p. 431, Nov. 1878. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARITNAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 25 

Island, Md., May 21, 1910, Aug. 16, 1914, W. L. McAtee (Biol. 
Survey) ; Falls Church, Va., Aug. 7, Sept. 24 (type of P. tuber- 
cidata Banks), N. Banks (Mus. Comp. Zool.) ; Herndon, Va., Aug. 
1911, H. G. Barber (Barber, Bueno, U.S,N.M.) ; Mount Vernon, Va.. 
Aug. 20, 1916, W. L. McAtee (McAtee) ; Berkeley Springs, W. Va., 
Sept. 20, 1886 (Cornell Univ.) ; Thomasville, Ga., Mrs. A. P. Tay- 
lor (U.S.N.M.) ; Michigan (U.S.N.M.); Ridgeway, Ont., Aug. 7, 
1886; E. P. Van Duzee (Iowa Agr. Coll.); Kansas (E. P. Van 
Duzee) ; Onaga, Kansas, F. F. Crevecoeur (U.S.N.M.) ; Texas, Uhler 
Coll. (U.S.N.M.) ; Dallas, Tex., June 7, 1907, F. C. Pratt (U.S.N.M.) ; 
Kerrville, Tex., June 19, 1907, F. C. Pratt (U.S.N.M.); Mexico 
(Cornell Univ.). 

After a careful examination of all the American species available, 
and consideration of Say's original description, we have no doubt 
that this is the species Say had before him and not that here iden- 
tified as culiciformis De Geer which has gone under the name erra- 
bunda. The present species has the small knob on the anterior end 
of lateral carina of prothorax, which Say specifically mentions 
("the lateral carinate line of the thorax has a prominence like an 
obtuse spine before "), while the other never has it so far as we have 
been able to find. The fact that no mention was made by Say of the 
median process on middle of hind margin of pronotum may have 
been due either to his considering it of generic value or to oversight, 
the latter being not at all improbable as the tubercle is net conspicu- 
ous except when viewed from the side. 

Genus STENOLEMUS Signoret. 

Stetwlcmus Signoret, V. Description d'un nonveau Genre de la Tribu des 
Longicoxes, Amyot et Serville. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, ser. 3, vol. 6, 1858, pp. 
251-2, pi. 6, figs. 1-3 [Monobasic, 8. spiniventris, new species, genotype.] 

Phantasmatophanes Kirkaldy, G. W. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji, 
Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. 33, 1908, pp. 369-370, fig. 2 [Monobasic, 
P. muiri, new species, genotype.] 

Emendation. Stenolacm us. 

In species of this genus the labrum is closely adherent to base of 
rostrum and there is no spine between bases of antennae; the apices 
of the latter are more or less enlarged, ending in an acute process 
which may be more or less curved or angled. The prothorax is 
very variable in structure, but is always carried backward over 
mesonotum to the bases of wings, and is very noticeably constricted 
near middle, or pedicillate; there are great differences in the length 
of the pedicel connecting the anterior and posterior lobes. Some 
species have merely a constriction while others have a long pediceL 
This difference is however not coordinated with any other outstand- 
ing structural character except in the case of arizonensis which has 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. G7 

the venation of forewing different from that of the other species; 
we consider this species entitled to subgeneric rank. The mesonotum 
and metanotum each have a long spine on middle of hind margin. 
The male hypopygium is of the form shown in figure 16. Fore 
femur spinose from base, fore tarsus not heavily chitinized, short 
and straight, with two distinct segments, hairy above and below; 
claws equal. 

With the exception of S. arizonensis members of this genus are 
whitish to stramineous with brown to black markings of variable 
extent; their usual pale coloration and the abundance of long hairs 
on most parts of the body give them a habitus quite distinct among 
American genera. While the extent to which dark markings prevail 
is variable, the pattern is nearly the same throughout all of the sub- 
genus Stenolemus. The principal features of these markings are 
the following : Bands differing in number, width and intensity, and 
sometimes in character of pubescence, and even of the supporting 
integument, on antennae and legs; two longitudinal vittae on top 
of anterior lobe of head; a band on each side of head from neck 
toward eyes dividing so as to leave the tubercles and a spot behind 
each eye pale; on prothorax a stripe nearly percurrent on lower 
surface, embracing most of pedicel, and sending a tongue posteriorly 
along side of posterior lobe, and anteriorly a band above front coxa, 
and a broad vitta each side of the median line on dorsum, these 
latter vittae interrupted by one or two pale stripes on outer side 
near base ; mesothorax and metathorax largely dark, with pale edg- 
ings, and abdomen the same, more or less marked with pale. In 
most cases we have figured the forewings in order to give a clearer 
idea of their markings. 

KEY TO THE SUBGENERA AND SPECIES. 

1. A distinct vein emitted from costal margin of basal discal cell of forewing 

(figs. 21, 23, 26, 29) (Subgenus Stenolemus) 2 

No vein emitted from costal margin of basal discal cell of forewing (fig. 14) ; 
basal stout spine on posteroventral surface of fore femur directed down- 
ward, not angling towards base of femur; prothorax hardly pedunculate, 
anterior lobe gradually narrowed posteriorly, posterior lobe without tu- 
bercles on posterior margin ; dorsum of head without post-sutural tubercles. 
Subgenus Stenolemoides, new subgenus, type species, Luteva arizonensis 
Banks (p. 28). 

2. Basal spine of fore femur directed straight downward, not angling towards 

base of femur ; prothorax deeply constricted but not pedunculate, anterior 
lobe quadrate, posterior lobe with four distinct tubercles near hind margin ; 
subapical antennal segment longer than apical; fore tibia stout (fig. 17), 
barely longer than fore coxa and hardly as long as head and interior lobe 
of prothorax combined ; mesothoracic and metathoracic spines short and 

stout, tapered apically pristinus, new species (p. 23). 

Basal spine of fore femur angling towards base of femur 3 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 27 

3. Prothorax not distinctly pedunculate, anterior lobe tapered posteriorly, tu- 

bercles on posterior lobe nearly obsolete; subapical antennal segment less 
than half as long as apical : fore tibia slender (fig. 20) about twice as long as 
fore coxa and as long as head and thorax combined ; mesothoracic and me- 

tathoracic spines long and slender pallidipennis, new species (p. 30). 

Prothorax pedunculate, the peduncle sharply differentiated from the anterior 
and posterior swollen lobes and about as long as or longer than the former ; 
posterior lobe with four tubercles near hind margin 4 

4. Abdomen without submedian spines on venter in addition to the pedicillate 

spiracles ; posterior discal cell bisected longitudinally by a distinct vein : 
basal and apical bands on hind femur brownish, the middle one deep black 

and very conspicuous schwarzi Bergroth (p. 30). 

Abdomen with a pair of submedian spines on hind margin of sternites 3 to 5 
or at least on 3 and 4 in addition to the pedicillate spiracles 5 

5. Submedian spines on venter distinguishable only on sternites 3 and 4, poste- 

rior discal cell not bisected by a longitudinal vein (fig. 24) ; all hind fem- 
oral dark bands broad and fuscous in color, not conspicuously dark 

pilose variatus, new species (p. 31). 

Submedian spines on abdomen present on sternites 3 to 5, inclusive 6 

6. The small cross-vein behind basal discal cell in line with the posterior ex- 

tremity of the vein closing that cell (fig. 25) ; submedian spines near hind 
margin of pronotum not acute, mere convexities on surface ; posterior discal 
cell without longitudinal vein ; dark bands on hind femora except the apical 

one very narrow interstitialis, new species (p. 31). 

The small cross-vein behind basal discal cell distinctly proximad of the 
posterior extremity of the vein closing that cell (fig. 28) ; submedian spines 
near posterior margin of pronotum acute 7 

7. Posterior discal cell of forewing bisected longitudinally by a distinct vein ; 

mesothoracic and metathoracic spines not thickened near apices 8 

Posterior discal cell of forewing not bisected by a distinct vein ; meso- 
thoracic and metathoracic spines more or less swollen near apices (figs. 31. 
32) ; tubercles on hind lobe of head prominent, acute 9 

8. Dark bands on hind femora broad, separated by about their own width, 

brown in color, the short hairs uniformly brown on all bands ; bands on 
hind tibiae pale, third one from base especially so ; sixth tergite without a 
pair of submedian spines at apex ; wing venation as in figure 26 : basal 
discal cell with two or three narrow whitish lines through the dark in- 
terior hirtipes, new species (p. 32). 

Dark bands on hind femora narrow, separated by much more than their own 
width, the basal bands black and black haired, the apical one golden 
haired; bands on hind tibiae all black; sixth tergite with a pair of sub- 
median spines at apex ; basal discal cell with numerous reticulating pale 
lines in dark part mexicanus, new species (p. 32). 

9. Portion of vein along inner margin of basal discal cell longer than the por- 

tion along same margin of posterior discal cell, and much arcuated ba- 
sally (fig. 29) ; mesothoracic and metathoracic spines as in figure 31. 

spiniger, new species (p. 33). 
Portion of vein along inner margin of basal discal cell shorter than that along 
same margin of posterior discal cell, and but little arcuate basally ; meso- 
thoracic and metathoracic spines as in figure 32. 

perplexus, new species (p. 33). 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

NOTES ON PREVIOUSLY DESCRIBED SPECIES NOT INCLUDED IN THE FOREGOING KEV. 

spiniventris {Stenolemus) Signoret, V. Ann. Soe. Ent. France, ser. 3, vol. 6, 
1858, p. 253 [Mexico]. 

Apparently runs to that section of our key embracing the new 
species, spiniger and perplexus, but the meso- and meta-notal spines 
if properly figured, differ from those of either of these species or in 
fact from any we have seen. The mesonotal spine is represented as 
erect and acute and the metanotal, swollen at tip and curved so as 
to extend forward past the mesonotal spine. 

SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF THE SPECIES. 

No cross vein emitted from costal margin of basal discal cell ; basal spine of 
fore femur directed downward ; posterior lobe of head and of pronotum 

without tubercles. (Subgenus Stcnolcmoides) arizonensis. 

A cross vein emitted from costal margin of basal discal cell ; posterior lobe 
of head and of pronotum with tubercles (Subgenus Stenolemus) . 
Prothorax deeply constricted but not pedunculate. 

Basal spine of fore femur directed downward pristinus. 

Basal spine of fore femur directed basad pallidipennis. 

Prothorax pedunculate ; basal spine of fore femur directed basad. 

Abdomen without submedian ventral spines schwarzi. 

Abdomen with submedian ventral spines. 

variatus. 

interstitialis. 

hirtipes. 

mexicanus. 

spiniger. 

perplexus. 

Stenolemoides, new subgenus. 

Differs from subgenus /Stenolemus in the venation of fore and hind 
wings as shown in figures 14 and 15, the basal discal cell in former 
having no vein emitted from its costal margin. The basal spine of 
posteroventral series on fore femur is directed downward and not 
sloped towards base of femur as in most species of Stenolemus. 
Type species. — Luteva arizonensis Banks, N. (Emesidae 1909, p. 45). 

STENOLEMUS (STENOLEMOIDES) ARIZONENSIS (Banks). 

Luteva arizonensis Banks, N., Emesidae, 190D, p. 45 [Palmerlee, Arizona]. 

A pale brownish yellow species, without distinct markings on fore- 
wings. Basal two antennal segments with a few whitish annuli. 
Anterior third or more of posterior lobe of pronotum whitish, poste- 
rior margin subfuscous. Anterior femora and tibiae faintly whitish 
annulate, mid and hind femora each with six whitish annuli. Most 
of the veins of fore wings paler than the membrane. 

Head about as wide as long on dorsum, eyes large, the posterior 
lobe slightly bulbous above and neither tuberculate nor sulcate. An- 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 29 

terior lobe of prothorax about 1.5 as long as wide, much tapered 
posteriorly, barely half as wide at posterior as at anterior margin, 
dorsum arched, posterior lobe slightly widened posteriorly, a little 
longer than anterior lobe, with a broad shallow median depression, 
posterior width less than greatest length, no tubercles near posterior 
margin. Legs less elongate and hairy than usual in the genus ; fore 
tibia and tarsus as in figure 18. Hypopygium as in figure 16. 

Length, 8-9 mm. 

Data for specimens examined: Arizona, C. U. Lot 34 (Uhler 
Coll.) ; Oracle, Ariz., July 23; Yerington, Nev., July 13, J. P. Baum- 
berger; Los Angeles, Calif., August (U.S.N.M.). The holotype also 
was examined (M. C. Z.). 

Subgenus Stenolemus Signoret. 

STENOLEMUS PRISTINUS, new species. 

Female. — Head, anterior lobe of prothorax, and abdomen con- 
spicuously marked and clouded with brownish fuscous and the fore 
wings almost entirely of that color, with the veins, some reticulating 
lines, and a few minute dots, whitish. The antennal, and femoral, 
and tibial annuli of mid and hind legs are very pale brown and, 
with the exception of the preapical one on each femur, inconspicu- 
ous; front coxa with 2, and front femora and tibiae with 4 rather 
conspicuous brown bands. 

Head broader than long, eyes large, covering much more than 
half the entire length of side of head, transverse suture on dorsum 
not very deep, posterior lobe with two small but sharp processes on 
dorsum anteriorly; antennae much stouter than usual, with long 
hairs, third segment fully as long as fourth. Anterior lobe of pro- 
thorax subquadrate, not tapered, separated from posterior lobe by 
a deep constriction, posterior lobe widened from anterior to poste- 
rior margin, with four distinct but not very large tubercles near 
posterior margin ; mesothoracic and metathoracic spines compara- 
tively short and stout. Spines on fore legs much shorter than in 
any of the other species, the basal one not bent towards base of 
femur (fig. 17). Abdomen elongate ovate, third, fourth, and fifth 
tergites each with an angular projection near posterior lateral 
angles; venter without submedian spines, spiracles elevated. Poste- 
rior discal cell of fore wing with a longitudinal vein bisecting it, 
vein emitted by basal discal cell not as close to base as in next 
species, the cell acute at base. 

Length, 7.5 mm. 

Holotype.— Key West, Fla., April 9, E. A. Schwarz (U.S.N.M-). 

The fore tibia in this species has about three series of minute sub- 
decumbent black setulae on venter, while in pallidipennis it has two 



30 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

series, one anteroventral and the other posteroventral, which consist 
of much longer suberect spines of unequal lengths alternating. All 
the other species of the genus in this paper have the anteroventral 
series complete (arizonensis) , or that series complete and the postero- 
ventral series present on at least the apical half of tibia. 
Type.— Female, Cat. No. 26707, U.S.N.M. 

STENOLEMUS PALLID1PENNIS, new species. 

Male.— Much paler than the other species of the genus, the gen- 
eral color stramineous, the femoral annuli very indistinct, and the 
wing markings pale fuscous. 

Head as broad as long, arched above, the posterior lobe slightly 
tumid on each side of median line anteriorly; basal antennal seg- 
ment and base of second segment above very long haired, third seg- 
ment not one-third as long as fourth. Profile of head and thorax 
as in figure 19. Anterior lobe of prothorax not longer than its 
greatest width, anterior lateral angles tumid, narrowed posteriorly, 
and separated from posterior lobe by a deep constriction, posterior 
lobe gradually widened from anterior to posterior margin, about 
1.5 times as long as anterior lobe and as long as wide, the four 
tubercles before hind margin barely evident; mesothoracic and 
metathoracic spines slender, curved, the pointed apices directed for- 
ward. Venter lacking submedian processes, the spiracles slightly 
elevated and situated very close to lateral margins; hypopygium 
not large, almost covered on dorsum by the broadly rounded 
posterior projection of the apical tergite, claspers small, slender, 
curved. Venter and all femora and tibiae with very long line 
hairs; fore femur with the postero-ventral spines longer and more 
widely spaced than usual, four or five of them conspicuously longer 
than the others, the basal one directed somewhat toward the base 
of femur (fig. 20). Venation as in figures 21 and 22. 

Length, 8.5 mm. 

Holotype. — Santa Rita Mountains, Ariz.. June 12, 1898, E. A. 
Schwarz (U. S.N. M.). 

Type.— Cat. No. 26708 U. S. N. M. 

STENOLEMUS SCHWARZI Berg roth. 

Stenolaemus schwarsi Bekgroth, E. New and little known heteropterous 
Hemiptera in the United States National Museum, Proe., U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
51, pp. 229-230, Oct. 28, 1916 [Tampieo, Mex.]. 

This species, in common with most of those treated in this paper, 
has the fore wing concave behind the apex (fig. 23), the degree 
of concavity varying with the species, the least occurring in 
pallidipennis. 



ART. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 31 

The antennae and legs in schwarzi appear slightly thicker at the 
dark annuli and are also furnished with more dense blackish 
pubescence on these parts: thoracic spines piceous. Wings with 
the fuscous markings as seen with the naked eye consisting of two 
or three bands irrorated with whitish. 

Head across eyes slightly broader than long, eye as wide as inter- 
ocular space; posterior lobe with 2 moderate swellings on dorsum 
anteriorly. Anterior lobe of prothorax a little longer than the 
peduncle, posterior lobe rather abruptly widened, the posterior 
tubercles distinct. Basal and one other spine of the postero-ventral 
series on fore femur much longer than the others. Venation and 
markings of forewings as in figure 23. The male has the wings 
less extensively blackened, the disk being almost all white. 

Length, 8-10 mm. 

Redescribed from the type specimen, a female, No. 20149, U.S.N.M., 
Tampico, Mexico, Dec. 21, E. A. Schwarz, two males. Tegucigalpa, 
Honduras, July 25 and 26, 1917, and one female, La Ceiba, Honduras, 
September 27. 1916, F. J. Dyer (U.S.N.M.). 

STENOLEMUS VARIATUS, new species. 

Male. — Mesothoracic spine pale, metathoracic one darker. Wings 
more evenly infuscated than in schwarzi, basal discal cell almost 
solid black, center of posterior discal cell with an amoeboid yellowish 
splotch. Hind femoral and tibial bands broader than in other species 
and lacking short dark hairs, the long hairs on the bands dark 
brown, those on other parts of femora and tibiae pale brown. 

Tubercles on posterior lobe of head barely perceptible. Anterior 
lobe of prothorax a little longer than pedicel; processes near hind 
margin of posterior lobe elongate, acute; mesothoracic and metathor- 
acic spines slender, of about equal size, blunt at tips, with rather 
Jong hairs. Abdomen as stated in key. Fore coxa a little longer 
than pedicel of prothorax, fore femur slightly curved, with normal 
armature. Basal discal cell of fore wing as in figure 24, apical 
discal cell not subdivided longitudinally, acute at apex. 

Length, 10 mm. 

Holotype. — Near San Ignacio, Misiones, Argentina. 1910, E. R. 
Wagner. (Paris Museum.) 

STENOLEMUS INTERSTITIALIS, new species. 

Male. — General color as in variatus but the hind femoral and tibial 
bands are much narrower and paler. 

Tubercles on posterior lobe of head small but rather acute. An- 
terior lobe of prothorax slightly shorter than pedicel; submedian 
tubercles on posterior lobe mere round swellings (the thorax is in 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vor.. 67 

poor condition owing to faulty pining) ; metathoracic spine slightly 
more thickened preapically than mesothoracic, both attenuated 
apically and rather densely long haired but not so pronouncedly 
so as in spiniger, submedian ventral spines long, posteriorly 
curved. Basal discal cell as in figure 25; apical discal cell lacking 
longitudinal dividing vein. Dark bands on hind femora separated 
by about twice their own width, lacking short dark hairs. 

Length, 10 mm. 

Holotype. — French Guiana, 1899, R. Oberthur (Paris Museum). 

STENOLEMUS HIRTIPES, new species. 

Female. — Similar to schivarzi in color, rather paler, with the 
fore wings differently marked (fig. 26), and the antennal, femoral, 
and tibial annuli much paler. 

In addition to the structural characters mentioned in the key the 
following are the principal characters possessed by this species : 
Head as broad as long, bituberculate on dorsum of posterior lobe 
anteriorly; basal antennal segment and base of second above very 
long haired, third segment about three-fifths as long as fourth. 
Anterior lobe of prothorax as long as peduncle, posterior lobe not 
abruptly widened, the tubercles large and rather sharp ; mesothoracic 
and metathoracic spines erect and slender. Fore femur with only 
two of the postero-ventral spines conspicuously longer and stoute'r 
than the others; all legs, the prothorax, and venter densely and 
rather long haired. Fore tibia and tarsus as in figure 27. 

Length, 9-10 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, and two paratypes Mississippi, no other data, 
Coll. Ashmead (U.S.N.M.) ; one paratype, Miami, Fla., September 
24, 1913, W. T. Davis (Davis) ; and another N. Landing, S. C, 
W. F. Fiske (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Female, Cat. No. 26709, U.S.N.M. 

STENOLEMUS MEXICANUS. new species. 

Female. — Head, thorax, and wings more extensively blackened 
than in other species of this subgenus, the markings on the wings 
much broken by narrow white lines and irregular dots. 

Pedicel of prothorax a little longer than anterior lobe, posterior 
lobe with the 4 tubercles distinct ; mesothoracic spine slender, tapered 
to apex, metathoracic one stouter and not so much tapered apically, 
both with rather inconspicuous hairs. Basal discal cell of forewings 
as in figure 28 ; a distinct, undulated, longitudinal vein through mid- 
dle of posterior discal cell, as in schwarzi. Basal 2 bands on hind 
femora very narrow, middle one (deeper black) broader than these 
two combined and distinctly broader than either of the apical two; 
hind tibial bands except basal one about three times as long as tibial 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 33 

diameter ; fore coxa a little longer than prothoracic pedicel; fore 
femur as thick as pedicel, the basal spine long, normal. 

Length, 10 mm. 

Holotype. — Frontera, Tabasco, Mexico, June, 1897, Townsend 
(Iowa State College). 

STENOLEMUS SPINIGER, new species. 

Male and female. — Similar to hirtipes in color, the wings marked 
as in figure 29, but rather variable in intensity and form of markings. 

Besides the characters mentioned in the key, the peduncle of the 
prothorax is slightly longer than the anterior lobe (on dorsum) and 
distinctly tapered anteriorly (fig. 30), not equally thick the whole 
length as in hirtipes; the vein emitted by basal discal cell is longer 
and nearer base of cell than in that species, and there are three or 
four outstanding stout spines on the posteroventral surface of fore 
femur. Thoracic spines as in figure 31. 

Length : 10-12 mm. 

Holotype.— Male, Brownsville, Tex., May 21, 1904, H. S. Barber. 
Allotype, Brownsville, Tex., A. Jagow. Paratopes, one female. 
Escuintla, Guatemala. August, 1898. F. Knab; one female with label 
"Venedo" and no other data (U.S.N.M.) ; one female, Brownsville. 
Tex., Dorner (111. Nat. Hist. Survey) ; and a male, Motzorongo, 
V. C, Mexico, Feb. 11, 1892 (Iowa State College). 

There is a small nymph from Brownsville, Tex., April 30, 1904, 
H. S. Barber (U.S.N.M.) which may belong to this species or to 
hirtipes, the presence of only tw r o outstanding postero- ventral spines 
on fore femur apparently associating it with hirtipes, though we 
have seen no specimens of that species from Texas. The mesonotum 
and metanotum bear no spines; each abdominal tergite has a series 
of four long tubercles near posterior margin and numerous minute 
discal papillae, while each sternite has about eight small papillae 
along posterior margin. 

Type, allotype, and paratypes. — Male, Cat. No. 26710. U.S.N.M. 

STENOLEMUS PERPLEXUS, new species. 

Male and female. — Very similar in coloration and structure to 
spiniger, the dark color more intense as a rule. The pedicel of pro- 
thorax is longer, being distinctly longer than anterior lobe; the 
upper margin of male hypopygium between the claspers has no pro- 
nounced notch in center in perplexus while in spiniger it has. The 
other distinctions are as stated in key. Thoracic spines as in figure 
32. 

Length, 11 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, El Campamento Col. Perene, Peru, June 21, 
1920 (Cornell Univ. Exped., Lot 569). Allotype. Jatahy, Prov. 
Goyas, Brazil, 1889, H. Donckier (Paris Museum). 
04993—25 3 



34 PK0CEED1NGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

Genus DELIASTES Dohrn. 

Deliastes Dohrn, A. Nachtriige, 1863, pp. 75-76 [Monobasic, D. reticulatus, 
new species, genotype, p. 76]. 

This genus differs from any known to us in having the fore tarsi 
heavily chitinized, bare above, and with but one oblique suture; the 
claws are unequal in size. The fore femur is spined from near base 
to apex, the basal spine longest ; and the fore tibia has a series of 
setulae along the ventral surface which are stout at bases and are 
bent at right angles at middle, their apices directed toward apex of 
tibia. Second antennal segment slightly longer than first (13 :12), 
third very short (0.75). Prothorax bilobate, in the winged forms the 
posterior lobe extending to bases of wings. Mesonotum and meta- 
notum unspined: abdomen normal. Venation of fore wing as in 
figure 34 ; posterior discal cell with a nearly percurrent median longi- 
tudinal fold, simulating a vein. 

The female of the genotype is wingless, and. like all apterous 
forms of Ploiariinae known to us, has the prothorax without 
a backwardly projecting flap overlying the dorsum of mesothorax. 
The abdomen is much broader than in male and with tergites 4-7 
tuberculate posteriorly. 

Through the kindness of Dr. M. S. Pennington, of Buenos Aires, 
we have received a specimen of Deliastes bmchmanni Berg compared 
by him with the type. Study of this specimen in connection with the 
descriptions of Dohrn and Berg emboldens us to identify the genus 
which we had previously failed to do and to synonymize Berg's 
species with reticulatus Dohrn. There is a possibility of error here 
as Dohrn ? s description calls for reticulate venation of the hemelytra; 
however, because of the agreement of our specimens with the descrip- 
tion in every other respect, we conclude that the " whitish veins " 
mentioned are only color markings, not true veins. Since Dohrn 
cites these " veins " as the principal distinction of Deliastes from 
Palacus it is probable that these are really only one genus. If this 
presumption is verified upon appeal to the types, the name Palacus 
will have the preference due to page priority. 

KEY TO THE srECIES. 

1. Mid and hind femora dark brown or fuscous, each with two narrow strami- 
neous annuli, one at one third of the length from apex and the other 
close to apex; mid and hind tibiae paler than femora, especially api- 
eally, a narrow band of fuscous marking off a pale band near base: 
antennae brown, with a narrow stramineous band near apex and 

another near base of first segment reticulatus Dohrn. 

Mid and hind femora and tibiae, pale stramineous, each hind femur with a 
small dark brown mark above at apex, the tibiae with a similar mark 
at base, mid femora with 2 brown marks on posterior side of apical 
half, mid tibiae with a narrow dark brown annulus near base; antennae 
pale stramineous, narrowly dark brown at bases and apices of first and 
second segments stramineipes, new species. 



4UT. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARITNAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 35 

DELIASTES RETICULATUS Dohrn. 

Deliastcs reticulatus Dohrn, A. Nachtrage, 1863, p. 76 [Cuba]. 
Deliastes brachmarmi Berg, C. Addenda et Emendanda ad Hemiptera 
Argentina, 1884, pp. 114-115 [Mendoza, Argentina]. 

Male. — Brownish fuscous, spotted and mottled with whitish. Fore 
femur with two irregular whitish annuli, fore tibia with a broad 
band on basal half and a narrower one on apical half, whitish. Fore 
wings brownish fuscous, reticulated with fine whitish lines; hind 
wings whitish hyaline. 

Head very little longer than wide, convex above, the transverse 
constriction deep; eyes large, as wide as the distance between them; 
antennae, without long hairs. Anterior lobe of prothorax a little 
shorter than posterior one, slightly tapered posteriorly, with no 
distinct constriction between it and the posterior lobe, its extreme 
length about twice its greatest width; posterior lobe arcuate both 
longitudinally and transversely, tapering anteriorly, greatest length 
about 1.5 times its greatest width, not tuberculate posteriorly. Apical 
tergite forming a broad lobe which extends to apex of hypopygium 
and almost entirely covers it, the apex bluntly rounded; upper 
posterior border of hypopygium as in figure 35; claspers long, 
slender, recurved apically; seventh sternice slightly concave posteri- 
orly, not half as long as preceding one. 

Female. — Similar to male in color, the abdomen with venter largely 
yellowish, marked with brown, more conspicuously on sides, the 
dorsum darker and with dark brown marbling over entire surface. 

The eyes are much smaller than in male, being a little narrower 
above than the interocular space. The prothorax has a noticeable 
annular swelling just before its posterior margin and the margin 
is not flared ; the mesonotum is distinctly humped posteriorly, with a 
median straight, and 2 lateral curved carinae; metanotum also 
tricarinate. Abdominal tergites 4 to 7 each with a median pointed 
tubercle on middle of hind margin, the intermediate two largest, 
posterior angles of connexivum angulate, most conspicuously so on 
segments 4 to 6 ; tergites 8 and 9 as in figure 36. 

Length, 10-11 mm. 

Male specimen compared with type of hrachmanni, La Rioja, 
Argentina, M. S. Pennington (Pennington) ; 3 males and 3 females. 
Argentina, Chaco de Santiago del Estero, near Icano, E. R. Wagner 
(Paris Museum) : one male, South America (Cornell Univ.). 

There are three nymphs from the Paris Museum collection (witli 
the same data as the adults) which agree in general characters of 
head, thorax, and legs with the female, but the claws of the fore 
tarsi are poorly differentiated, and there are no processes oh dorsum 
of abdomen. 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

DELIASTES STRAMINEIPES. new species. 

Male. — Very similar to the male of the preceding species. Differs 
in color as stated in key and also in having the forewings more 
closely reticulated with whitish lines, and the process on upper 
margin of hypopygium as in figure 37. 

Length, 11 mm. 

Holotype. — Argentina. Chaco de Santiago de Estero, near Icano, 
E. It. Wagner (Paris Museum). 

Genus PANAMIA Kirkaldy. 

Panamia Kirkaldy, G. W. Notes on Central American Hemipterous Fauna, 
Can. Ent., vol. 39, p. 249, July, 1907 [Monobasic, genotype, Lutcvopsis ornata 
Champion]. 

This genus may readily be separated from its allies by the peculiar 
venation of the fore wings (fig. 38) and also by the characters men- 
tioned in the generic key. 

PANAMIA ORNATA (Champion). 

Lutevopsis omata Champion, Biologia, vol. 2, pp. 166-7, Oct. 1896 [Bugaba, 
Panama]. 

Panamia ornata Kirkaldy, G. W. Notes on Central American Hemip- 
terous Fauna, Can. Ent., vol. 39, p. 249, July 1907. 

A pale testaceous yellow species, the pronotum sometimes with one 
or two short oblique brown streaks on each side, and a faint median 
vitta and sometimes 2 lateral clouds on posterior lobe. Fore wings 
with some faint fuscous spots, the most distinct, being one in ex- 
treme base of discal cell, one or more at middle of same, and one 
near the cross vein at its apex. 

Head including eyes nearly as broad as long, rounded above 
(fig. 39) ; proboscis slender; antennal hairs not very long. Anterior 
lobe of prothorax smooth, slightly shining, a little tapered poster- 
iorly, with a punctiform depression in middle posteriorly, the con- 
striction between it and the posterior lobe shallow, length about 1.5 
as great as its width; posterior lobe granular, slightly silicate cen- 
trally, with four very slight elevations near posterior margin, 
length about 1.5 as great as width, slightly tapered anteriorly; 
mesonotum with a rounded central elevation, metanotum with a 
longitudinal ridge a little more prominent apically ; first abdominal 
segment with a short, erect, spine. Abdomen slender, a little en- 
larged terminally; segment preceding hypopygium in male deeply 
concave both above and below, extending as a rounded flap on each 
side for about half the length of the rather large hypopygium, the 
latter open above posteriorly, the claspers slender and upturned 
apically on each side of the very slender and acute hypopygial spine, 



akt. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 37 

which exceeds them by about a third of its length (figs. 40, 41). 
Structure of hypopygium of female not very evident in the speci- 
mens at hand, the ventral valve somewhat inflated, capping over 
the end of the abdomen, the apical tergite with a rounded projec- 
tion apically, and an emargination each side of it. Fore coxa about 
as long as prothorax and five-sixths as long as fore tibia; fore femur 
slender, about one fourth of its length longer than tibia, with about 
four minute stout postero- ventral thorns and short soft hairs; 
tibia lacking distinct armature; tarsus with two small slightly 
divergent claws. Venation of hind wing as in figure 42. 

Length, 7-8 mm. 

Localities. — Tabernilla, Canal Zone, Panama, April 27, 1907, A 
Busck. (U.S.N.M.); Chapada, Brazil, August, September, October 
(Carnegie Mus.). 

Genus.LUTEVOPSIS Champion. 

Lutevopsis Champion, G. C. Biologia, vol. 2, pp. 165-6, Oct. 1898. [Included 
species L. longimanus and L. ornata, both new; Mexico and Panama]. 

This genus was originally erected for the reception of two species 
which Champion in his remarks on the genus points out " differ 
greatly, but they may be retained in the same genus for the present." 
We consider that the shape of the head, structure of the fore legs 
and their armature, and the venation of the fore wings are suffi- 
ciently distinct to warrant their assignment to different genera. 
For the venation of the fore wing of Lutevopsis (s. s.) see figure 43. 
The armature of the fore femur consists of moderately long thorns 
and intervening shorter setulae and hairs, while the fore tibia has 
a complete series of minute stubby denticles along the entire ventral 
surface as in Gardena (fig. 95). 

Genotype. — Lutevopsis longimanus Champion. 

LUTEVOPSIS LONGIMANUS Champion. 

Lutcropsis longimanus Champion, (i. C. Biologia, vol. 2, p. 166, Oct., 1898 
[Chilpancingo, Mexico]. 

Female. — Reddish testaceous, shining, without distinct markings, 
the venter of the abdomen darkest, and the wings unmarked. Head 
over 1.5 times as long as wide, much tapered anteriorly, convex 
above, anterior lobe with a deep short central longitudinal cavity at 
posterior margin, the posterior lobe not sulcate (fig. 44). Anterior 
lobe of prothorax fully twice as long as its greatest width, gradually 
tapered from anterior to posterior margin, subopaque, with a slight 
linear sulcus posteriorly, posterior lobe subquadrate, about two- 
thirds as long as anterior, slightly elevated on each lateral angle 
and in center posteriorly. Abdominal spiracles slightly raised, no 
protuberances on tergites, the apical sternite convex at apex; seventh 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

and eighth tergites polished, moderately convex apically, the former 
three times as long as latter. Fore legs rather slender, coxa about five 
sixths as long as tibia, the latter slightly curved. ' Venation of fore 
wing as in figure 43. 

Length, 10 mm. 

Locality, Istachatla, Fla., July 24, Heidemann Collection (U. S. 
N. M.). 

We have had the opportunity of examining the type specimen of 
Lutevopsis muscicapa Bergroth through the kindness of its describer 
and find that it falls in the same genus as longimanus though the 
spines on fore femur do not extend as near to base, and the fore tibia 
is a little less than two-thirds as long as fore femur. It is a much 
darker species than the genotype, being brownish fuscous, with yel- 
lowish apical annulus on each hind femur (mid femora missing). 
Doctor Bergroth has expressed a doubt as to the region from which 
this species came. It is labelled " Borneo," but he suspects that it 
may really be South American. 

SPECIES NOT SEEN. 

L. chilensis Porter, Carlos. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, vol. 25 (1921) 
11)22, pp. 505-506 [Chile]. Seems too small for this genus. 

Genus EMESA Fabricius. 

Emesa Fabricius, J. C. Systema Rliyngotorum secundum Ordines, Genera, 
Species, adiectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. 1S03, 
p. 263. [For a discussion of the genotype see below.] 

W estermannia Dohrn, A., Emesina I860, p. 251. [Includes three new species: 
W. difficilis, Colombia : U r . tenerrima, Porto Rico : and W. annulata, Mexico, 
of which the last is here designated as the type species.] 

Wextcrmannias Kirkaldy, G. W. Biographical and Nomenclatorial Notes on 
the Hemiptera. The Entomologist, 15)04, p. 280. New name for Wester- 
nwnnia Dohrn, 1860, preoccupied by Hubner's genus of the same name in 
the Lepidoptera, 1816. 

F. L. de Laporte in his Essai d'une Classification Systematique de 
Fordre des Hemipteres (Hemipteres Heteropteres Latreille), Guerin's 
Magasin de Zoologie, 1833 (p. 84), gives Emesa mantis Fabricius as 
sole example of this genus. It is customary to accept the first such 
mention of a single species in illustration of a genus as selection of 
a genotype. E. P. Van Duzee in his Catalogue of the Hemiptera of 
America North of Mexico, 1917 (p. 236), gives E. precatorius as the 
type by original designation, a view in which we are unable to con- 
cur. For a fuller discussion of the matter see Appendix 1. 

Since the fate of the Fabrician genus Emesa and its component 
species underlies the nomenclature of the whole subfamily it may be 
well to give here a rather full discussion of the subject. 

The genus Emesa originally included the following four species 
at the pages indicated in the Systema Rliyngotorum. 



abt. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 39 

1. fifatm, Ent. Syst., vol. 4. 1794, p. 191. East India, p. 263. 

2. longipes, Ent. Syst., vol. 4, 1794, p. 191. America, p. 263. 

3. mantis, Ent. Syst., vol. 4, 1794, p. 190. Islands of America, 
p. 263. 

4. precatorius, new species. Middle America, pp. 263-264. 

The status of these species is discussed in the following para- 
graphs. 

1. Unidentified by Dohrn (Emesina, 1860, p. 230) who shows that 
the references by Gray, Bridle, and Blanchard do not certainly apply 
to the insect Fabricius had. Distant ? s citation 8 adds nothing that 
would make definite the status of this species. Stal ;1 queries filum 
showing that the type could not be found. We conclude that the 
species is entirely unidentifiable. 

2. Stal 9 writes that longipes is a Zelus, thus removing it as a fac- 
tor in taxonomy of the Ploiariinae. 

3. The type of mantis recorded by Fabricius in his original de- 
scription as being in the British Museum is still in that institution 
and in good condition. Through the kindness of W. E. China we 
are able to describe and illustrate it in this paper. 

4. The Emesa precatorius of the Sy sterna Rhyngotorum is not the 
Gerris praecatorius of the Entomologia Systematica (described from 
Guinea). The type is still is existence (Sehestedt Museum), and we 
have been furnished data concerning it by Dr. William Lundbeck. 
(Seep. 82.) 

Summarizing data as to the type species of Emesa Fabricius, it 
appears that mantis was at least acceptably selected by Laporte as 
the genotype. On the other hand it is only by a stretch of the 
imagination that precatorius can be considered the genotype. (See 
Appendix 1.) 

The genus Emesa differs from Stenolemus in number of tarsal 
joints, in venation, and in having no long spines on either the meso- 
notum or metanotum, though the former has a central elevation and 
the latter an apical tubercle, sometimes pronounced. The genus 
Myiophanes Renter is related to Emesa and we have figured the 
venation of the forewing (fig. 33) for comparative purposes. 

KEY TO THE SUBGENERA. 

1. Fore tibia with a series of erect antero-ventral spinules which are about half 
as long as diameter of tibia, and between each pair of these two or more 
shorter spinules; fore femur as in Stenolemus, without a distinct break in 
antero-ventral series of spines near base, but the postero-ventral series 
curved ventrad at base so that the last long spine is almost in middle of 
ventral surface; venation of forewing as in figures 45, 46, 47; prothorax 
elongate pedunculate, two small round warts on disk of posterior lobe. 

Emesa Fabricius (p. 40). 

8 Fauna British India, Rhynchota, vol. 2, 1904, p. 216. 

9 Hemlptera Fabriciana, vol. 2, 1869, p. 123. 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

Fore tibia either with a complete postero-ventral series of spinules mostly 
as long as, or longer than, tibial diameter, or with microscopic ventral 
denticles ; venation of forewing as in figure 54 ; prothorax not pedunculate, 
without small warts on disk of posterior lobe 2 

2. Fore femur with armature of postero-ventral surface consisting of short 

stout spines with black apices and between each pair and in line with 
them much shorter similar spines and longer fine bristles alternating, the 
antero-ventral series consisting of only short spines alternating with fine 
bristles, a rather wide break in the series near base, beyond which there 
are two short spines ; fore tibia about two-thirds as long as femur, slightly 
ridged on ventral surface, the apex of the ridge with two series of minute 
denticles which are visible only under a high power lens ; third antennal 

segment a little shorter than fourth Myiagreutes Bergroth (p. 42). 

Fore femur with long fine bristles on postero-ventral surface, which are 
situated on short elevated bases and rather closely spaced, the antero- 
ventral surface with a similar series of shorter bristles which is in- 
terrupted near base, there being one or more bristles basad of the 
interruption 3 

3. Fore tibia with a slight ridge along ventral surface which is surmounted by 

two series of short black denticles Phasmatocoris Breddin (p. 44). 

Fore tibia with a single complete series of minute blunt denticles on ventral 
surface Kothbergia, new subgenus (p. 44). 

Subgenus Emesa Dohrn. 

Bibliographical citation and type species same as for the genus. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

1. Basal discal cell large, distinctly longer than wide, interpolated between sup- 

plementary discal cell and posterior discal cell (fig. 45) ; anterior lobe of 
pronotum without sharp tubercle on each side anteriorly. 

annulatus (Dohrn) (p. 40). 

Basal discal cell small or almost obsolete, when distinct much wider than 

long, supplementary discal cell abutting on base of posterior discal 

cell - 2 

2. Basal discal cell subobsolete (fig. 46) ; anterior lobe of pronotum with a 

sharply pointed tubercle on each side anteriorly; posterior lobe without 

spines mantis (Fabricius) (p. 41). 

Basal discal cell distinct (fig. 47) ; anterior lobe of pronotum with a small 
rounded tubercle on each side anteriorly ; posterior lobe with a conical 
acute spine on each humeral angle marmoratus, new species (p. 41). 

EMESA (EMESA) ANNULATUS (Dohrn). 10 
Westermannia armulata Dohrn, A. Emesina, 1860, p. 251 [Mexico]. 
"We have not seen this species but have been favored by W. E. 
China with data and sketches drawn from the specimens in the 
British Museum identified as annulata by Champion. Our inform- 



10 Apparently the name Emesa as a genus of Heteroptera must be considered mascu- 
line in gender since of the originally included species the only one with a termination 
indicating gender, namely precatorius, is masculine. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 41 

ant points out that the specimens agree with Dohrn's Latin descrip- 
tion of 1860 but not with the German one of 1863 (Nachtrage, p. 49). 

We reproduce Mr. China's sketches showing structural details of 
the species (figs. 45, 48, 49). The color of the forewing is brownish, 
with base, a band across basal discal cell, and the apex, much darker. 
The brown annulations on mid and hind femora and tibiae are as 
broad as, or broader than, the intervening pale spaces, whereas in 
the next two species they are narrower than the pale spaces. 

Length, 28 mm. 

Locality, Mexico. 

EMESA (EMESA) MANTIS (Fabricins). 

Gerris mantis Fabricius, J. C. Ent. Syst, vol. 4, 1794, p. 190 [no locality]. 
In the Systema Rhyngotorum, 1803, p. 2G3, a locality, Islands of America is 
given. 

Westermannia mantis Champion, G. C. Ent. Mo. Mag., ser. 2, vol. 9, 1898, 
p. 258. 

We have not seen this species but have been supplied with data and 
drawings from the type by W. E. China. We have thus been able to 
definitely identify the species. The principal structural characters 
are represented in Figures 46, 50, 51, 52. 

The color of the forewings is similar to that of marmoratus, the 
most conspicuous marking being the rather broad white veins at base 
of outer discal cell which form an angulated mark across the middle 
of the wing; the base of costa also is white. Structurally similar 
to marmoratus except as stated in key. 

Length, 20 mm. 

The type is from Jamaica ; there is a second specimen, also in the 
British Museum from Jamaica, which, according to Mr. China, 
agrees with the type in all characters. 

EMESA (EMESA) MARMORATUS. new species. 

Female. — Dark brown, marked with yellowish white. Beak, an- 
tennae, and legs conspicuously annulated. Anterior lobe of protho- 
rax mottled, the pedicel largely whitish above, with brown spots, 
black beneath; lateral carina of posterior lobe and a pair of small 
tubercles on disk whitish. Abdomen almost black, with a few yel- 
lowish white marks, the most conspicuous, being one on connexivum, 
and another on each sternite in front of spiracles, the spiracles whitish. 
Fore wings fuscous brown, mottled with darker, veins at base of 
discal cell and the anterior half of the one closing costal half of outer 
discal cell ivory white, the membrane near them hyaline. 

Head longer than wide, hind lobe tapered posteriorly, with two 
slight dorsal humps. Anterior lobe of prothorax about two-thirds as 

94998— 25 4 



42 PROCEEDINGS OP THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

long as pedicel, tapered posteriorly, not sulcate on dorsum, posterior 
lobe a little shorter than pedicel, tapered anteriorly, about 1.5 as 
long as wide, with a slight but distinct carina on each side, a sharp 
tubercle near each posterior lateral angle, a pair of very small sub- 
median tubercles behind middle, and a shallow median sulcus an- 
teriorly. Connexivum with prominent angulate flaps on segments 
6 and 7, eighth tergite longer than ninth, broadly rounded. Fore 
femur slender, the shorter spines distinctly shorter than the femoral 
diameter. Venation of fore and hind wings as in figures 47 and 
53, respectively. 

Male. — Anterior lobe of pronotum a little less than half as long 
as pedicel, the fore legs longer and more slender than in female, the 
abdomen more extended beyond apices of wings, with the apical ter- 
gite tapering to tip, where it is rounded, its basal width about three- 
fourths as great as its median length, the hypopygial claspers curved, 
moderately stout and hairy, hind margin of hypopygium with a cen- 
tral erect pale spike broad at base. 

Length, 13-20 mm. 

Holotype. — Female. Cayamas, Cuba. March 14, E. A. Schwarz. 
Allotype, male, Uhler Collection (U. S. Nat. Mus.) ; para type, 
female, much broken, without data (Bueno). 

Type and allotypt .—Cat. No. 26711. U.S.N .M. 

Subgenus Myiagreutes Bergroth. 

Myiagreutes Bergroth, E. New neotropical Ploeariinae, Psyche, vol. 18, 
1911, pp. 15-16. [Monobasic, type species, M. praecellens, new species.] 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

1. Hind margin of pronotum with three long slender spines; more than four 
outstanding spines present on postero-ventral surface of fore femur, the 
distance between them distinctly less than the length of fore tarsus. 

praecellens (Bergroth) (p. 42). 
Hind margin of pronotum without long spines, only indistinct rounded eleva- 
tions present ; four outstanding spines present in the postero-ventral series 
on fore femur, the distance between them equal to or greater than the 
length of fore tarsus minor, new species (p. 43). 

EMESA (MYIAGREUTES) PRAECELLENS (Gergroth). 

Myuif/reulcH praecellens Bergroth, E. New neotropical Ploeariinae, Psyche, 
vol. 18, pp. 16-17 [French Guiana]. 

Female. — Black, variegated with brown and with yellowish white 
markings. Base and apex of first antennal segment whitish; beak 
annulated. Thoracic thorns, more or less of sides, hind margin of 
prothorax and sometimes two vittae connected thereto, disk of me- 
sonotum, four marks on anterior margin of posterior lobe of pro- 
thorax, and a spot above each of the fore and mid coxae yellowish 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 43 

white. Abdomen with a spot on connexivum in front of each spir- 
acle, and membrane surrounding the spiracles whitish. Legs castan- 
eous, femora blackish apieally, and with a broad whitish apical an- 
nulus, bases of tibiae each with a broad white annulus, the ground 
color immediately beyond almost black. Markings of fore wing as 
in figure 54. Coxal spots and bases of mid and hind tibiae some- 
times touched with orange red. 

Head about twice as long as wide, not tuberculate on dorsum, the 
median transverse constriction very deep. Anterior lobe of prothorax 
arcuate, tapered slightly posteriorly, about 1.75 as long as wide, 
faintly sulcate on dorsum and obliquely on sides, and with a pair of 
outwardly directed sharp thorns on anterior margin above; posterior 
lobe a little shorter than anterior, but little tapered anteriorly, as long 
as wide, with a broad shallow median sulcus, and three long slender 
thorns near posterior margin ; mesonotum with a subtriangular ele- 
vation; metanotum with a short spine. Abdomen slightly sloped 
downward from apex of seventh tergite, the eighth in the form of a 
broadly rounded lobe which at center is not over half as long as 
ninth tergite. Fore legs as stated in key, femora tapered at base and 
apex. Venation as in figures 54 and 55. 

The male has the pale color markings rather more accentuated; 
the apical tergite has a broad, triangularly pointed process; hypo- 
pygium wanting in the specimen examined. 

Length, 15-20 mm. 

In addition to the holotype female from French Guiana, kindly 
submitted by Doctor Bergroth, Ave have seen two other female speci- 
mens from French Guiana (Bas Carsevenne, F. Geay, 1898; R. Ober- 
thur, 1899) belonging to the Paris Museum, one male and one female 
from Para. Brazil. June (Carnegie Museum), and one female from 
Trinidad Rio. Panama. June 4, 1912, A. Busck (U.S.N.M.). 

EMESA (MYIAGREUTES) MINOR, new species. 

Female. — Much paler than the preceding species, the general color 
being ochreous without the conspicuous cream colored markings 
which are so evident on the thorax and abdomen in praecellens. The 
legs are paler and while the apices of femora and bases of tibiae are 
paler than the other parts the immediately adjacent areas do not show 
the dark brown annuli so conspicuous in praecellens. The forewings 
are missing in the type and but one hind wing remains, which has 
the same venation as praecellens. Structural characters other than 
those mentioned in key much the same as in praecellens. 

Length, 12 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Chaco Austral, near Icano, Argentina, 1910. 
E. R. Wagner (Paris Museum). 



44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.. 67 

Subgenus Phasmatocoris Breddin. 

Phasmatocoris Breddin, G. Neue Rhynchotenausbeute au.s Siid-Aimerika, 
Societas entomologica, vol. 18, No. 19, Jan. 1, 1904, p. 14S. [Monobasic, type 
species P. spectrum, new species.] 

This subgenus is very closely related to Myiagreutes having the 
same venation and structure of fore tibia. In the armature of the 
fore femur, however, it agrees with Eothbergia, new subgenus, 
next described, though there are about 3 bristles instead of one 
basad of the interruption of the antero-ventral series. Only one 
species is known. 

EMESA (PHASMATOCORIS) SPECTRUM (Breddin). 

Phasmatocoris spectrum Breddin, G. Neue Rhynchotenausbeute aus Siid- 
Amerika,, Societas entomologica, vol. 18, No. 19, Jan. 1, 1904, pp. 148-149 
[Bolivia]. 

Male. — Reddish brown, including the fore-wings, the bases of 
the latter between the veins, and the extreme apices of mid and 
hind femora and tibiae are cream colored. 

Fore coxa and tibia subequal in length, each about four-sevenths 
as long as fore femur. Eye not as wide as interocular space; 
posterior lobe of head rounded above. Pronotum with a short, 
round tubercle on each side of anterior margin; anterior lobe 
almost parallel-sided, as long as posterior lobe, separated from 
latter by a deep constriction; posterior lobe slightly concave in 
center of disk, with 3 short wart-like tubercles posteriorly. Hypo- 
pygium as in figure 5(5. Fore wing almost identical in appearance 
with that of E. praecelhns (fig. 54). 

Length, 20 mm. 

Bolivia (Berlin Mus.). Redescribed from the holotype kindly 
sent to us for examination by Dr. Walther Horn. Another speci- 
men from same collection which reached us in fragments is labeled 
Yungas de la Paz, Bolivia, 100 m., Breddin. 

Rothbergia, new subgenus. 

Genotype. — Emssa testaceus, new species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

1. Ventral spines on fore femur ceasing about tbe length of tarsus from base of 
femur (slender hairs basad of this point) ; anterior lobe of prothorax 
longer than posterior lobe (27:22), slightly narrowed posteriorly when 
seen from above (fig. 57) ; basal discal colls of forewing as in figure 58. 

rapax, new species (p. 45). 
Ventral spines on fore femur extending to or almost to base of femur__ 2 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE — McATEE AND MALLOCH 45 

2. Basal discal cells of forewings as in figure 59; prothorax similar to that of 
rapax (fig. 57), but the anterior lobe is not narrowed posteriorly. 

testaceus, new species (p. 45). 
Basal discal cells of forewings as in figure 60; prothorax shorter than in 
preceding species, the anterior lobe declivitous in front (fig. 61). 

difflnis, new species (p. 46). 

EMESA (ROTHBERGIA) TESTACEUS, new species. 

Female. — Pale brownish testaceous, without distinguishable mark- 
ings. 

Head a little longer than wide, tylus forming a ridge in front of 
eyes, posterior lobe with a slight median hump just behind con- 
striction ; basal segment of beak over half as long as second ; second 
antennal segment not two thirds as long as first, third nearly as long 
as fourth, third and fourth combined over three fourths as long as 
second. Anterior lobe of prothorax not narrowed posteriorly, arcuate, 
with a tubercle in front each side of the neck and a percurrent median 
longitudinal sulcus, about twice as wide as long, separated from pos- 
terior lobe by a deep constriction ; fore coxal cavities slightly flaring, 
the prosternal sulcus almost vertical, pointed posteriorly; posterior 
lobe of prothorax about four fifths as long as anterior, subquadrate, 
without tubercles or distinct elevations ; mesonotum and metanotum 
slightly elevated in center. Abdomen elongate, slightly ovate, tergites 
1 to 7 broader than long, eighth very short, slightly rounded apically, 
about one fourth as long as seventh and over three times as broad as 
long, ninth longer than eighth, transverse at apex, disk depressed, mar- 
gins and median line elevated. Fore femur stouter than usual, tapered 
apically, armature as stated in key ; fore tibia well over half as long 
as femur (40:67) and equal to fore coxa; the three tarsal segments 
subequal in length, tarsal claws rather large, divergent. Venation 
of forewings much as in Emesa praecellens, basal cells as in figure 59. 

Length, 11 mm. 

Holotype. — Cacao, Trece Aguas, Guatemala, June, 1907, G. P. 
Goll (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Female, Cat. No. 26712, U.S.N.M. 

EMESA (ROTHBERGIA) RAPAX, new species. 

Male. — Similar in color to testaceus; differs as stated in the key. 
Apical tergite with a rounded flap extending over hypopygium, the 
latter opening upward, claspers rather short, pointed apically and 
slightly incurved, the process from hind margin of hypopygium 
erect, broad at base, thin and rounded apically. There is but one 
bristle on anteroventral surface of fore femur basad of the break in 
the series and this is situated at more than the length of the tarsus 
from the base of femur, the fore tibia is a little longer than half the 



46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol, 67 

entire length of femur (45:80) and a little shorter than fore coxae 
(50). Prothorax as in Figure 57; basal discal cells of forewing as 
in figure 58. 

Length : 12 mm. 

Holotype. — Tapia, Argentina, 2,000 feet, W. F. H. Rosenberg 
(U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Male, Cat. No. 26713, U.S.N.M. 

EMESA (ROTHBERGIA) DIFFINIS, new species. 

Female. — A darker species than either of the others, the posterior 
lobe of pronotum, fore wings, and fore femora being largely in- 
fuscated. 

The most noticeable structural difference is in the fore-shortened 
and declivitous pronotum which is illustrated in figure 61. The 
transverse constriction on head in this species is very shallow as 
compared with that of the others. Length of fore tibia as com- 
pared with fore femur 26 as to 45, of fore coxa 25. Basal discal cells 
of forewing as in figure 60. 

Length, 9 mm. 

Holotype.— Bolivia, W. M. Mann (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Female, Cat. No. 26714, U.S.N.M. 

UNPLACED SPECIES. 

difllcilis (Wcstcrniannia) Dohrn, A. Emesina, 1860, p. 251 [Colombia]. 
tcnerrima (Wcstcrmannia) Dohrn, A. Emesina. 1860, p. 251 [Porto Rico] 

We are unable to place these species in our keys without fuller 
knowledge of the characters of their types. 

We have been unable to enter into communication with the author- 
ities who have the specimens in charge but W. E. China of the 
British Museum has supplied data dealing with the characters of 
the specimens that are identified as these species in that institution. 
Both have 3-segmented fore tarsi which would seem to ally them 
closely with Emesa, but the basal discal cell of forewings has a short 
vein emanating from it as in Stenolemus (fig. 62). The basal stout 
spine on ventral surface of fore femur is directed straight down- 
ward as in Emesa and the forewing is rounded at apex, not at all 
concave behind tip. In tenen^inid the peduncle of prothorax is 
longer while in difficilis it is shorter than the anterior lobe. Mr. 
China also writes that the subapical antennal segment in difflcUis 
is much longer than the apical. In the species of related genera ex- 
amined by us this is never the case, the third being shorter than the 
fourth. There is, however, in some species a slightly indicated 
suture just before the apical swollen part of fourth segment which 
may be mistaken for a true joint, in which case the antenna would 



abt. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 47 

be considered as 5-segmented. This is, however, not really the case, 
the pseudosuture being almost indistinguishable in cleared material 
and much less so in dry specimens. 

Genus POLAUCHEN1A, new genus. 

Differs from Eme&a in having only 2 discal cells in forewing (fig. 
65) and in having the mesonotum and metanotum spined, and from 
Stenolemus in having the fore tarsi 3-segmented (fig. 64«), and in 
having no vein arising from the costal margin of the basal discal 
cell. The fore femur has the basal ventral spine directed down- 
ward and not sloped backward (fig. 64), the head has two pointed 
conical tubercles behind the transverse constriction and the posterior 
lateral angles of pronotum have divergent spines of moderate length. 

Genotype. — Polauchenia protentor, new species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

1. Peduncle of prothorax but little longer than anterior lobe; posterior lobe of 
prothorax with two broader stramineous vittae; mid and hind tibiae each 
with two brown bands on basal half; preapical brown band on hind femur 

reduced to a small spot biannulata, new species (p. 48). 

Peduncle of prothorax about three times as long as anterior lobe (fig. 63) ; 
posterior lobe of prothorax with three narrower stramineous vittae on 
disk; mid and hind tibiae each with five brown bands on basal half; pre- 
apical brown band on hind femur broad protentor, new species (p. 47). 

POLAUCHENIA PROTENTOR. new species. 

Female. — Dark brown, marked with pale yellow. Basal and sec- 
ond antennal segments each with four pale annuli ; basal two seg- 
ments of beak pale at apices; prothorax with markings as in figure 
63. Spines of mesothorax and metathorax pale. Abdomen fuscous, 
spiracles, lateral posterior angles of segments, and some linear marks 
on venter yellowish. Legs whitish yellow, each femur with five 
brown annuli; fore tibiae with four brown annuli, mid and hind 
pairs each with five brown annuli on basal half. Wings brown, 
darker apically, veins yellow, the membrane along the cross-veins, 
most of clavus, and base of corium whitish. 

Head, antennae, prothorax, and fore coxae as in Figure 63. Fore 
femur a little less than twice as long as fore coxae, with armature 
as in figure 64 ; spines of mesothorax and metathorax short and 
straight, pubescent. Abdomen broadened slightly beyond middle, 
the tergites angulate laterally but without well developed lateral 
appendages; venter without submedian spines, spiracles but little 
elevated, not pedicillate, seventh pair not exposed. Hind femora 
about as long as head and body together, the tibiae distinctly longer, 



48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 07 

the hairs on legs of moderate length and not dense. Venation and 
shape of wing as in figure 65. 

Length, 15 mm. 

Holotype. — Tabernilla, Canal Zone, Panama, May 14, 1907, A. 
Busck (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Female. Cat. No. 26715, U.S.N.M. 

POLAUCHENIA BIANNULATA, new species. 

Male.— Similar in color to protentor, the prothorax bivittate in- 
stead of trivittate on disk posteriorly, and the mesothoracic and 
metathoracic spines black instead of yellow. The apices of fore- 
wings are not uniformly dark brown as in protentor, but have an 
elongate yellow mark with dark spotting in center about one-third 
of the width of wing. The principal color difference lies in the bi- 
annulate hind tibia, protentor having 5 brown annuli. 

A much stouter species than protentor, the length of head and 
thorax combined being barely over two-thirds that of the abdomen, 
whereas in protentor they almost or quite equal the abdomen. The 
forewings (fig. 66) exceed the tip of abdomen and their posterior 
apical margin is but slightly concave. The head is much broader 
and shorter than in protentor, the interocular space is much narrower 
than one eye, the mesothoracic thorn is short, the metathoracic one 
longer, tapered, and neither very hairy. Venter about as in pro- 
tentor; hypopygial claspers small, slender, and slightly upcurved 
apically. 

Length, 16 mm. 

Holotype. — Mana River, French Guiana, May, 1917 (Carnegie 
Mus. ) . 

Genus PLOIARIA Scopoli. 

Ploiaria Scopoli, J. A. Deliciae Florae et Faunae lnsubricae. Part 1, 1786, 
p. 60, pi. 24, fig. A (3 parts). [Monobasic P. domestica, new species, genotype, 
Austria.] Plate 23, Part 2, 1786, further (and better) illustrates the species 
and pp. 69-73 are devoted to an account of the habits and structure of the 
insect. Plate 25, figs. 1-5, Part 3, 1788, illustrate the egg and nymph, the 
latter with a strong submedian spine on front femur, a character the adult 
does not have. 

Cerascopus Heineken, C. Descriptions of a new genus of Hemiptera, and 
of a species of Hegeter. The Zoological Journal, No. 17, Jan.-May, 1829 
(1830), pp. 36-40, pi. 2, fig. 5. [Monobasic, C. marginatus, new species, geno- 
type, Madeira.] 

Emesodema Spinola, Maximilien. Essai sur les Insectes Hemipteres, 
Rhyngotes ou Heteropteres, 1840, p. S7 [founded on Ploiaria domestica Scopoli, 
hence an absolute synonym of Ploiaria. ] 

Luteva Doiirn, A. Emesina, 1860, pp. 242-3 [included species, all new; 
L. concolor, Celebes ; L. gundlachi, Cuba ; and L. macrophthalmus, Brazil 
and Colombia, of which the first named was subsequently designated as 
type by Van Duzee, Cat. Ilemip. Amer. North of Mexico, 1917, p. 235]. 



akt. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 49 

Ploiariopsis Champion, G. C. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Insecta. 
Rhynchota. Heniiptera-Heteroptera, vol. 2, p. 178, Oct. 1898. [Included 
species, both new: P. megalops, Panama; and P. praerfotor, Guatemala, of 
which the former was subsequently designated as type by Van Duzee, Cat. 
Hemip. 1917, p. 235.] 

Emendation : Ploearia. 

This genus shows in the structure of the fore tarsi an approach 
to the form of those of Barce, but in the armature of the fore femora 
there is a stronger resemblance to Emesa and its allies. In the 
winged forms of this genus the pronotum does not extend over 
dorsum of mesonotum except at the extreme anterior margin. The 
venation of the forewing is characteristic and in the hind wing 
there is immediately beyond the cross-vein a distinct thickening of 
the membrane and a slightly denser appearance similar to that 
of the costa extending almost across the field of the wing which is 
not found in any other genus in the subfamily so far as we know. 
The latter character is shown in figure 83. That we have here a 
group of closely allied species well regarded as belonging to a single 
genus is evident from the intergradation observable in what have 
been considered diagnostic characters. This is true not only of the 
armature of the fore legs, but also of the spines on the posterior lobe 
of the head. As for the presence or absence of hairs on the antennae 
it may be said that in this and some other genera the degree of devel- 
opment of these is a sexual character. If minor differences in the 
armature of the fore-legs and other characters of like importance 
are seized upon as justifying the recognition of additional genera, 
there will be almost no end to the process in a subfamily so rich in 
structural differences as the Ploiariinae. 

To illustrate what would happen in the present genus if Ploiaria 
and Luteva were recognized as genera and the process carried to its 
logical end, Ploiaria would consist only of domestica and its closest 
allies ; the species with two-spined trochanters would form a different 
genus ; Luteva could not include a species with like femoral armature 
but with spined trochanter like setulifera here described; Cerascopus 
would be resurrected, and various segregates of one or a few 7 species 
could be made on equally valid grounds. Generic importance has 
been claimed for a character, absence or presence of wings, which is 
not even of specific value in this group. Recognizing an excessive 
number of genera makes it difficult to construct and to use the generic 
key. When the genera approach the one-species standard the generic 
key becomes as difficult to use as an unusually long specific key: Is it 
not better to divide the burden between them ? This can be done only 
by the recognition so far as practicable of genera which comprehend 
more species than the mere variants of a single specific type. If one 
gets off the track in a complicated generic key, he may soon go far 



50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.. 67 

into strange country; while with a simple key, after following an 
easy lead to the genus, even if he does find a key grouping a con- 
siderable number of related forms, he will at least be near his destina- 
tion (that is, among forms truly related to that in hand). Winged 
and apterous specimens occur in the same species of Ploiaria, and i( 
requires close observation at times to make certain whether apterous- 
specimens are nymphs or adults. The full development of the geni- 
talia and the three, instead of two, segmented tarsi, however, serve 
to identify adults in such cases. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

1. Fore trochanters with one or more spines (sometimes merely bristles), usu- 

ally set on raised bases (the body of trochanter itself often acutely pro- 
duced ) , never with numerous setae ; fore femur with 4 to 7 stout spines 
which are always set on more or less distinctly enlarged and elevated 
bases, standing in line with or almost in line with a larger number of much 
smaller spines or bristles on the posteroventral surface, the longer spines 
sometimes with an outward curvature (fig. 80) ; apical antennal segment 
longer than subapical, never shorter than it; length of fore coxa variable 

in relation to length of fore tibia (Subgenus Ploiaria) 2 

Fore trochanters nearly bare or with few to numerous fine hairs, one or two 
of which are sometimes bristle-like ; fore femur with the spines or bristles 
on the posteroventral surface more uniform in length, the larger bristles 
lacking enlarged elevated bases, and almost straight (fig. 74) ; apical 
antennal segment shorter than subapical, equal to it only in setulifera; 
fore coxa invariably longer than fore tibia (Subgenus Luteva) 16 

2. Posterior lobe of head with a prominent median backwardly projecting spine 

(fig. S5) 3 

Posterior lobe of head lacking spine 4 

3 Last tergite of male with a slender, obtuse, strap-shaped process extending 
back over hypopygium and closely adherent to it (fig. 86) ; hind margin of 
hypopygium as in figure 87; median process of seventh tergite of female 
extending distinctly farther caudad than the acute lateral angles (fig. 88). 

denticauda, new species (p. 63), 
Last tergite of male with a shorter, pointed process (fig. 92) ; hind margin 
of hypopygium as in figure 91 ; median process of seventh tergite of fe- 
male extending but little farther caudad than the rounded lateral angles 
(fig. 90) hirticornis (Banks) (p. 04). 

4. Posterior lobe of head with an erect spinelet at margin of eye on each side 

behind constriction reticulata (Baker) (p. 63). 

Posterior lobe of head not so armed 5 

5. Posterior lobe of head with a more or less prominent median ridge 6 

Posterior lobe of head lacking such a ridge 7 

6. Posterior lobe of head with a slight central elevation anteriorly, and an- 

other posteriorly, between which there is a low longitudinal ridge; ante- 
rior lobe of head sulcate behind ; fore coxa little longer than fore tibia ; 
a highly colored species, beak with two dark bands, mid and hind femora 
fuscous apically, each with a subapical pale annulus, the corresponding 
tibiae fuscous basally, with subbasal pale annuli. 

granulata, new species (p. 57). 
Posterior lobe of head with a more or less distinct median carina. (This 
is true of uniseriata and punctipes which run on other characters be- 
ginning with next couplet 7 



art. 1 AMERICAN PL0IAR1INAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 51 

7. Fore coxa shorter than fore tihia ; wings entirely absent 8 

Fore coxa as long as, or longer than, fore tibia ; wings or wing pads 

present 9 

■8. The long spines on postero-ventral surface of fore femur forming a series 

distinctly laterad of the short setnlae marginata (Heineken) (p. 65). 

The long spines on posteroventral surfaces of fore femur in the same series 

as the short setulae aptera, new species (p. 66 i 

9. Fore coxa nearly twice as long as fore tibia ( tig. 80) ; anterior lobe ol 
bead with a short but deep sulcus posteriorly ; spines on fore femur dis 

tinctly longer than the femoral diammeter 10 

Fore coxa but little longer than fore tibia ; anterior lobe of head without 
a sulcus 12 

10. Mesonotum rather depressed, with a broad elliptical sulcus extending nearly 

its entire length ; only soft hairs between the strong postero-ventral 
spines on fore femur ; thorax pale above ; legs not banded ; length 4 mm. ; 
diseal cell of fore wing as in figure 81, the inner apical part angulate. 

uniseriata, new species (p. 61). 
Mesonotum well arched hotli transversely and longitudinally, without me- 
dian depression ; legs banded ; short spines between the strong postero- 
ventral spines on fore femur ; larger species, darker colored ; inner apical 
part of diseal cell of forewings rounded (fig. 82) 11 

11. Male hypopygial claspers nearly as long as genital segment; length of in- 

sect mm punctipes, new species (p. 62). 

Male hypopygial claspers much shorter than genital segment ; length of in- 
sect 8 mm similis, new species (p. 62). 

12. Distance bwtween eyes on dorsum of head greater than the width of one 

eye : antennae short hispid or microscopically pubescent 13 

Distance between eyes on dor*uni of head not greater than width of one 
eye ; basal two antennal segments distinctly hairy, the hairs longer than 
the diameter of segments 14 

13. Fore tarsus fully two-thirds as long as fore tibia ; hind border of male hy- 

popygium as in figure 75 Carolina (Herrich-Schaffer) (p. 58). 

Fore tarsus not two-thirds as long as fore tibia ; hind border of male 
bypopygium as in figure 76 floridana (Bergroth) (p. 59). 

14. Wings whitish, without distinct markings; basal segment of antenna at 

least as long as entire insect 14a 

Wings brownish, with dark markings; basal segment of antenna not as 

long as entire insect 15 

14a. Diseal cell of forewing broad, not over 2.5 as long as its greatest width and 
about four-fifths as long as the vein emanating from its apex ; cross-vein 
at two-fifths from apex of longitudinal vein. 

albipennis, new species (p. 60). 
Diseal cell of forewing narrow, at least five times as long as its greatest 
width and a little longer than the vein emanating from its apex; cross- 
vein at not more than one-third from apex of longitudinal vein. 

umbrarum, new species (p. 60). 

15. Antennal hairs but little longer than diameter of segments; hind border of 

male bypopygium as in figure 77 bispina, new species (p. 59). 

Antennal hairs four or five times as long as the diameter of segments ; hind 
border of male bypopygium as in figure 79. 

pilicornis, new species (p. 61). 

16. Eye wider than interocular space (fig. 67) 17 

Eye not wider than interocular space (fig. 72) 19 



52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 07 

17. Large pale species, over 10 mm. in length; antennae conspicuously hairy; 

fore femur with two brown annuli, one before and one beyond the middle ; 
mid and hind femora yellow, whitish apically. with one broad preapical 
dark brown band ; thorax largely yellow ventrally. more conspicuously 

blackened on dorsum than on venter macrophthalma (Dohrn) (p. 53). 

Smaller, darker species, less than 10 mm. in length : fore femur with four 
brown annuli, including one at base and another at apex ; mid and hind 
femora brown with one or two preapical pale annuli : thorax fuscous 
on venter 18 

18. Pronotum twice as long as its greatest width ; venation of forewing as in 

varipennis, the vein leaving apex of discal cell undulated, crossvein near 
its middle ; mid and hind femora each with 2 preapical pale annuli ; fore 

trochanter with one outstanding bristle brunnea, new species (p. 54). 

Pronotum about one third longer than its greatest width ; discal cell of fore- 
wing as in punetipes; vein leaving apex of discal cell straight, cross-vein 
at one third length of that vein from apex; mid and hind femora each 
with 1 pale annulus ; fore trochanter with two fine, rather widely sepa- 
rated outstanding bristles sicaria, new species (p. 55). 

19. Fore trochanter bare or with only soft hairs 20 

Fore trochanter with soft hairs and a single outstanding bristle anteriorly ; 

fore femora faintly banded, other legs nearly unicolorous, pale fuscous, 
knees narrowly pale— setulifera, new species (p. 55). 

20. Mid and hind femora each with a subapical dark or reddish band 21 

Mid and hind legs entirely pale varipennis, new species (p. 56). 

21. Apical cross-vein of forewing at or close to middle of vein from apex of dis- 

cal cell ; the elongate dark mark in middle of discal cell rather faint. 

gundlachi (Dohrn) (p. 56). 

Apical cross-vein at one- third from base of vein from apex of discal cell ; 

elongate dark mark in discal cell linear, almost black, appearing chiti- 

nized rufoannulata (Bergroth) (p. 57). 

REMARKS ON PREVIOUSLY DESCRIBED SPECIES OTHER THAN THOSE INCLUDED IN THE KEY. 

californiensis (Ploiaria) Baker, C. F. Pomona Coll. Journ. Ent, vol. 2, 
No. 2, May, 1910, pp. 226-7. [Claremont, Calif.] 

May be the nymph of P. reticulata Baker. If adult it may be 
related to P. marginata. 

fairmairei (Emesodema) Dohrn, A. Emesina, 1860, pp. 248-249 [West Indies]. 
meyalops (Ploiariopsis) Champion, G. C. Biologia, vol. 2, p. 174, Oct. 1898 
[Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama]. 

Apparently granulata of our key is close to this species, which 
however has much larger eyes and pilose antennae; our species may 
prove to be the female of megalops. 

praedator (Ploiariopsis), Champion, G. C. Biologia, vol. 2, p. 174, Oct 
1898 [Capetillo, Guatemala]. 

Agrees to some extent with our icniseriata, but the eyes are smaller, 
and the posterior lobe of head not sulcate anteriorly. 

sonoraensis (Ploiariopsis), Van Duzee, E. P. Proc. Calif. Ac. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 
12, No. 11, June 7, 1923, p. 144. [San Diego Id., Gulf of Calif.] Said to be 
allied to megalops. 

texana (Ploiaria), Banks, N. Emesidae, 1909, p. 44 [College Station, Tex.]. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 53 

We have examined the type of this species (Mus. Comp. Zool.) and 
possibly we have renamed it in our P. similis. However, the abdo- 
men of type is missing and the genitalia have neither been figured nor 
described ; specific identification thus is impracticable. 

SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF THE SPECIES. 

Fore trochanter of normal form, bare, pubescent, or with one or two bristles ; 
spines of postero-ventral series of fore femur nearly uniform in length. 
Subgenus Luteva, sens. hit. 

brunnea. 
sicaria. 
gundlachi. 
macrophthalma. 
rufoannulata. 
setulifera. 
varipennis. 
Fore trochanter often produced ventrally as a base for the 1 to 3 spines or 
bristles with which it is armed ; spines of postero-ventral series of fore femur 
very unequal in size, sometimes in a double row. 

Subgenus Ploiaria, sens. lat. 
Wings or wing-pads present in adults. 

Fore coxa subequal to fore tibia, hind lobe of head with a median 
ridge. 

granulate. 
Fore coxa longer than fore tibia. Hind lobe of head unarmed. 

albipennis. 
bispina. 
Carolina, 
floridana. 
pilicornis. 
umbrarum. 
Hind lobe of head with a median carina. 

punctipes. 
similis. 
uniseriata. 
Hind lobe of head with orbital spinelets. 

reticulata. 
Hind lobe of head with two tubercles and a median spine. 

denticauda. 
hirticornis. 
Wing pads absent in adults ; fore coxa shorter than fore tibia. 

aptera. 
marginata. 
PLOIARIA MACROPHTHALMA (Dohrn). 

Luteva macrophthalmus Dohrn, A. Emesina, 1S60, pp. 244-5, pi. 1, figs. 23, 24 
(Brazil; Colombia]. 

A pale brownish-testaceous species with conspicuous black eyes 
and dark brown to black marks on each side of pronotum and 
mesonotum, disk of metanotum, and on mesopleura. The fore femur 
has two brown annuli, one before and the other beyond the middle ; 



54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

mid and hind femora each with a pre-apical and tibiae with a 
faint sub-basal brown annulus. Fore wing with four dark brown 
clouds, one at base of discal cell, one on costa, and another on hind 
margin at middle of discal cell, and one on costa at extremity of 
transverse apical vein. 

Head as in figure 67; apical antennal segment 0.75 as long as 
subapical, basal 2 segments longhaired. Pronotum slender, longer 
than mesonotum, gradually narrowed to near posterior margin, then 
rather abruptly widened; mesonotum slightly sulcate centrally. 
Hind margin of preapical abdominal tergite broadly concave; 
hypopygium of male without a central spine, the claspers long, very 
slender, overlapping and much curved, fanglike. Fore coxa 1.75 
as long as pronotum and four-fifths as long as fore femur; tro- 
chanters pilose; femur slender, the armature consisting of fine 
slightly irregular spines; fore tibia half as long as femur and 
twice as long as fore tarsus, without erect ventral setulae; tip of 
tarsus falling considerably short of base of femur; mid and hind 
legs very long and slender. Discal cell of forewing ending in 
a narrow point (fig. 68). 

Length, 11-12 mm. 

Locality, Portobello, Panama, April 18. 1912, February 21, 1911, 
and March 12, 1911, A. Busck (U.S.N.M.) 

PLOIARIA BRUNNEA, new species. 

A much darker species than macrophthalma, differing as stated 
in key and in having a much more noticeable white annulus at apex 
of each of the first two segments of antenna, that on basal one- 
being much narrower. 

Head as in figure 69, not so much narrowed posteriorly as in 
macro phthafona. Antennae and fore legs similar to those of pre- 
ceding species in proportions. Pronotum and mesonotum slightly 
granulose and subopaque, not conspicuously shining as in macro- 
phthalma, nor so gradually tapered. 

Fore wing more conspicuously marked than in preceding species, 
the dark marks in cells more or less distinctly radiating from a cen- 
tral spot or streak. Apical tergite of male less concave than in 
preceding species, the hypopygium with a strong blunt upwardly 
directed protuberance in center, not conspicuously haired, the claspers 
stouter and more circularly curved, gradually tapered from base. 

Length, 7 mm. 

Tlolotype. — Male, Chapada, Brazil, June (Carnegie Mus.) ; allo- 
type, Trinidad Kio, Panama, May 7, 1911, A. Busck (U.S.N.M.). 

Allotype.— Female, Cat. No. 26716, U.S.N.M. 



akt. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 55 

PLOIARIA SICARIA, new species. 

Male.— Coloration similar to that of brunnea but with the lateral 
margins and a carinate line on each side of disk of mesonotum, white; 
the costa of forewing is more extensively reddish, and the cell beyond 
the apical cross vein is entirely fuscous instead of only partly so. 

Proportions of fore tibia and fore femur 20:35 (in brunnea 
25:45); claws of fore tarsi slightly unequal as in brunnea. Upper 
margin of hypopygium similar to that of bispina (fig. 77) but the 
spines much shorter; claspers as in figure 70, more abruptly nar- 
rowed than in brunnea. 

Length, 8 mm. 

Holotype.— Huachi Beni, Bolivia, September, 1922, W. M. Mann. 
[Mulford Biological Expedition] (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Gat. No. 26717 U.S.N.M. 

PLOIARIA SETULIFERA, new species. 

Female. — A pale yellowish brown species without conspicuous* 
markings, the apices of hind and mid femora whitish. Fore wings 
with a few brown markings consisting of poorly defined spots or 
streaks, the most noticeable situated in middle of discal cell and 
just behind discal cell on inner side of wing. 

Head similar to that of pilicornis; preapical and apical antennal 
segments about as in last two species as to proportions. Pronotum 
almost uniform in width to near posterior margin, where it is 
slightly flared, microscopically granulose and not sulcate; meso- 
notum with a very shallow broad central sulcus. Fore coxa about 
1.5 as long as pronotum; fore trochanter with some fine hairs and 
one or two distinct, but short bristles; fore femur as in preceding 
two species; fore tibia half as long as femur, with a ventral series 
of decumbent setulae, which are directed apicad, very minute at base 
and becoming gradually longer apically; fore tarsus over three 
fourths as long as tibia, extending almost to base of femur. 

Forewing as in figure 71. 

Length, 8 mm. 

Holotype.— West Lake, Cape Sable, Fla., February 26, 1919, A. 
Wetmore; Paradise Key, Fla., March 10, E. A. Schwarz and H. 
S. Barber (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Female, Cat. No. 26718, U.S.N.M. 

There are also three nymphs from the same localities which agree 
in most respects with the foregoing description. The wingpads 
are present, there are only two segments in the tarsi, and the arma- 
ture of the fore legs is relatively stronger (especially in the brist- 
ling of the trochanter), more noticeably so in the younger speci- 
mens. 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

We have seen a species of this group, very closely related to 
setulifera, from Hong Kong, China, F. W. Terry (Bueno). 

PLOIARIA GUNDLACHI (Dohrn). 

Luteva gundlachi Dohrn, A. Emesina, 1860, p. 244, pi. 1, fig. 19 [Cuba]. 

A pale yellowish species with more or less distinct dark brown 
markings. The most constant marks are on the mesonotum and 
before the apices of the mid and hind femora, the former having 
three rudimentary vittae and the latter a broad subapical band. 
The wings have more numerous brown spots than in the three pre- 
ceding species, three on costa (one at base of discal cell, one about 
one third from base, and the other about one fourth from apex) 
being most conspicuous; there are two elongate marks, one in discal 
cell and the other beyond the cell between the longitudinal vein and 
hind margin, from which emanate brown linear markings giving 
the wing a reticulated appearance. 

Head as in figure 72. Pronotum slightly longer than mesonotum, 
almost parallel-sided to near posterior margin, then dilated, not 
silicate; mesonotum slightly widened posteriorly and like the pro- 
notum, opaque and with fine decumbent pubescence. Hind border 
of male hypopygium without a central spine, furnished with many 
stiff, backwardly directed hairs on each side near bases of claspers, 
the latter slender apically, much curved and hairy. Fore legs as 
in the preceding species. Transverse apical vein a little less than 
midway between apex of discal cell and apex of wing. 

Length, 9-10 mm. 

Localities, Balthazar, Grenada, West Indies, H. H. Smith (U.S. 
N.M.) ; Cayenne, French Guiana, February, 1917 (Carnegie Mus.) : 
Mayaguez, Porto Rico, July, 1914 (Amer. Mus.). 

PLOIARIA VARIPENNIS, new specie. 

Similar in color to the preceding species, but the preapical fem- 
oral band and mesonotal markings are very faint or absent. The 
markings of the forewings are darker, and of about the same pat- 
tern, but there is only one large dark brown spot on costa, namely, 
the one about one-third from base of discal cell, the others being 
very small and not more conspicuous than the other spots on wing. 

Head as in gundlachi. Male hypopygium with a slight rounded 
centra^ production of the hind border and with fewer and finer hairs 
than in last species, the claspers more abruptly curved. Fore wing 
as in figure 73. Fore legs as in figure 74. 

Length, 10-11 mm. 

Holotype. — A male; allotype, and five nymphs, Cacao, Trece 
Aguas, Alto Vera Paz, Guatemala, April 23. Paratype female, and 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 57 

one nymph, same locality, April 11, and four nymphs, April 2, 13, 
and 21, E. A. Schwarz and H. S. Barber (U.S.N.M.). 
Type, allotype, and paratype. — Cat. No. 26719 U.S.N.M. 

PLOIARIA RUFOANNULATA (Bergroth). 

Luteva rufoannulata Bekgroth, E. Psyche, vol. IS, No. 1, Feb. 1911, pp. 
18-19 [Jamaica]. 

We have examined the type of this species. It is closely related 
to gundlachi, the principal distinctions being found in the wings. 
The markings of the forewings appear to furnish a ready means of 
identification. There are eight dark marks along costa, those op- 
posite base, and middle of discal cell and the one at apex of the 
cross-vein being especially conspicuous, while there are two discal 
linear blackish brown marks that are especially prominent ; one in 
discal cell and the other in the cell below the cross- vein; neither of 
these marks has radiating streaks emanating from it as is the case 
in gundla-chi. Mid femur witli a preapical reddish annulus, fore 
coxa with most of apical half, and fore femur with three bands of 
the same color. 

The abdomen is missing in type so that w r e can not compare the 
genitalia with those of gwidlachi, but in other structural characters 
the species are very close. 

Length to tip of hemelytra, 9 mm. 

Holotype. — Mandeville, Jamaica, E. P. Van Duzee (Van Duzee). 

PLOIARIA GRANULATA. new species. 

Female. — A dark-colored species with pale legs, the latter very 
characteristically marked, with a narrow fuscous subapical annulus 
and a broader apical one on each mid and hind femur, and a mod- 
erately broad basal annulus on each mid and hind tibia which have 
a median whitish spot on outer side that does not entirely encircle 
the tibia. The antennae are yellowish, fuscous at bases and apices 
of segments, the basal segment with a broad subbasal whitish 
annulus. The swollen bases of fore femoral spines fuscous, the 
spines yellow. 

Eyes small, about half as long as distance from their anterior 
margin to apex of head; anterior lobe of head with a slight eleva- 
tion on each side of sulcus; apical antennal segment about 1.75 as 
long as subapical; head and pronotum minutely granulate, each 
granule surmounted by a microscopic hair. Wing pads present, 
the mesothoracic pair largest. Abdomen slightly ovate, each tergite 
slightly produced on each side posteriorly, the amount of produc- 
tion increasing gradually to tergite G, a slight median process near 
posterior margin of each tergite from second to seventh, inclusive. 



58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

the largest on tergite 6. Fore coxa a little longer than pronotum, 
minutely granulose, each granule with a microscopic pale hair which 
is directed towards apex of coxa; fore trochanter with two thorns 
on elevated bases; fore femur curved outwardly at middle, upper 
surface granulose as in coxae, the elevated bases of long postero- 
ventral spines about. as long as the femoral diameter, the longest 
spines at least twice as long as their bases, the short spines also with 
elevated bases, one or two between each pair of the longer spines 
and slightly nearer to ventral surface than that series, the spines 
of postero-ventral series are curved outward and those of the antero- 
ventral series inward so that the tibia lies entirely clear of them 
when it is placed against the under surface of the femur; fore 
tibia with a series of distinct semierect setulae along postero-ventral 
surface and a similar series of longer setulae on basal half of antero- 
ventral surface; fore tarsus about two-thirds as long as tibia, with 
some setulae along the postero-ventral margin of basal segment. 

Length, 4—4.5 mm. 

Tlolotype. — Female Cacao, Trece Aguas, Alta Vera Paz, Guate- 
mala, April 20; paratype female topotypical, April 14, E. A. 
Schwarz and H. S. Barber (U.S.N.M.) 

Type and paratype.— Female, Cat. No. 26720, U.S.N.M. 

PLOIARIA CAROLINA (Herrich-Schaffer). 

Emesodema mrolvna Herrich-Schaffer, G. A. W. Die wanzenartigen In- 
secten, vol. 9, 1853, p. 8, fig. 936 [Carolina]. 

A dark brown species with a pale dorso-central line on head and 
thorax, the fore femora with fairly prominent pale annuli and the 
apices of mid and hind femora yellowish. The wings are browm and 
faintly marbled with darker brown, not distinctly reticulated with 
fine brown lines as in some other species; a darker spot in discal 
cell. 

In the nymph there is a rather noticeable central elevation on an- 
terior margin of posterior lobe of head, but in the mature specimens 
this is almost or entirely absent. The apterous forms have the pro- 
notum tapered posteriorly and almost without a constriction be- 
fore the hind margin on top, the sides somewhat flared; in the 
winged forms the hind margin is* noticeably flared dorsally also. 
Male hypopygium with the hind border as in figure 75. Fore 
femur stout, with G or 7 long postero-ventral spines, the longest 
fully as long as the femoral diameter, the apical one well beyond 
middle of femur; fore tibia without readily distinguishable setulae, 
but somewhat densely haired. 

Length, 4.5-5.5 mm. 



.-.KT. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 59 

Localities, Thomasville, Ga., May 6, 1912, male, Mrs. A. P. Tay- 
lor (U.S.N.M.) ; Wrightsville, N. C, April 16, 1916, female, W. T. 
Davis (Davis) ; Wilmington, N. C, one winged male, one apterous 
female, and one nymph, H. G. Barber (Barber). 

PLOIARIA FLORIDANA (Bergroth). 

Luteva floridana Bergroth, E. Two new American Ploeariiuae (Hem., Re- 
duviidae), Konowia, vol. 1, 1922, pp. 218-219, August 20, 1922 [Florida]. 

Male. — Very similar to the preceding species, differing as stated 
in the key. The pronotum is without the slight dorso-median sulcus 
of Carolina, the eyes in the winged form are larger, and the longest 
spines on the postero-ventral surface of fore femur are not as long 
as the femoral diameter; fore tibia not so much expanded distally; 
central spine on posterior border of hypopygium apparently simple 
instead of paired (fig. 76). The forewing has the venation as in 
denticauda (fig. 89). 

Length, 6 mm. 

The type which we have examined, is from Florida (Van Duzee 
Coll.). We have the species also from Crescent City, Fla., Uhler 
Coll. (U.S.N.M.) 

The crossvein connecting the apical longitudinal vein with costa 
is erroneously stated in the original description to be absent. 

PLOIARIA BISPINA, new species. 

Male. — Almost uniformly pale brownish yellow, paler than Caro- 
lina, the fore femur not annulate, mid and hind legs with apices of 
femora and bases of tibiae whitish. Wings pale brownish, some- 
what mottled. 

Width of head across eyes almost as great as its dorsal length. 
Pronotum a little shorter than mesonotum, very slightly sulcate 
centrally. Fore coxa 1.5 as long as pronotum, slender, not granu- 
lose; spines on postero-ventral surface of fore femur numerous, 
three or four between each pair of the longer spines, the latter not 
longer than the femoral diameter, the apical long spine very short 
and but little beyond middle of femur ; ventral setulae on fore tibia 
distinct at least on apical half or more. Posterior border of hypo- 
pygium as in figure 77. 

Length, 5.5-6.5 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Mexico, 2154, no other data, C. F. Baker 
(U.S.N.M.). Paratype, males, Bartica, British Guiana (Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila.) ; Para, Brazil, August (Carnegie Mus.). 

Other specimens in poor condition, labelled Cuba, 181 (U.S.N.M. 
and Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.). 

Type.— Cat. No. 26721 U.S.N.M. 



60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol. 6T 

PLOIARIA ALBIPENNIS. new species. 

Male. — A pale stramineous species without conspicuous markings. 
The forewings are entirely unmarked, the veins on basal half slightly 
smoky, those on apical half very pale. The fore femora have a 
faint narrow preapical and a narrower and less distinct apical band 
brown, while the mid and hind pairs are pale brownish with a 
rather distinct preapical broad darker brown annulus; knees pale. 

Basal segment of antenna long-haired, as long as 2+3, fourth 
about five-sixths as long as third. Fore coxa nearly as long as 
pronotum and mesonotum, and subequal to fore tibia; trochanter 
with two moderately strong spines, and a bristle; femur with about 
six outstanding spines, the intervening short spines set on elevated 
bases. A pair of slender spines inside of upper border of hypo- 
pygium as in bispina, the hypopygial claspers slender, abruptly 
curved near apex and pointed. Venation normal, discal cell about 
four-fifths as long as vein emanating from its apex, the latter dis- 
tinctly curved, not reaching margin of wing, the cross vein nearly 
straight, at two-fifths length of posterior vein from apex. 

Length, 7 mm. 

Holotype. — Lower California, 1895, Diguet (Paris Mus.). Para- 
type, Frontera, Tabasco, Mexico, June, 1897, C. H. T. Townsend 
(Iowa). 

PLOIARIA UMBRARUM, new species. 

Male. — Brownish testaceous, the wings apparently immaculate; 
and only the apices of hind femora and bases of hind tibia whitish. 
The specimens were preserved in alcohol which may have changed 
the coloring. 

Width of head less than its length; interocular space less than 
width of one eye. Prothorax and mesothorax subequal. Hy- 
popygium without strong paired spines inside the apical border, 
the claspers rather angularly bent at middle, with acutely pointed 
tips. Fore coxa fully as long as prothorax and mesothorax com- 
bined, and very slightly longer than fore tibia; armature of fore 
femur rather fine, the longest bristles at middle shorter than femoral 
diameter. Venation as stated in key. 

Length, 7 mm. 

Holotype. — And one paratype male, Mandeville, Jamaica, in a 
cave. (U.S.N.M.) 

This is the only species of the subfamily from the New World 
which we have any record of as occurring in caves but there are 
several species so recorded from the Eastern Hemisphere. 

Type and paratype.— Cut. No. 2G722, U.S.N.M. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 61 

PLOIARIA PILICORNIS, new species. 

Male. — Similar to bispina in color but the fore femur has a faint 
subapical fuscous annulus. 

The head is slightly broader than in bispina (fig. 78), the pro- 
notum is not sulcate and is more constricted before the hind margin, 
the fore femora are stouter, the short spines are less numerous, the 
long spines are longer, the longest fully as long as the femoral 
diameter, and the apical one is at one-third the length of femur from 
apex. Hind border of hypopygium as in figure 79. 

Length, 5.5 mm. 

Holotype.— Higley, Ariz., June 27, 1917, E. G. Holt (U.S.N.M.). 

Type— Cat. No. 26723 U.S.N.M. 

PLOIARIA UNISERIATA, new species. 

Male. — Brownish fuscous, dorsum of mesonotum yellowish-testa- 
ceous, antennae and legs brown, not noticeably annulated. Wings 
with dusky reticulation and a more prominent spot in discal cell 
and in area of wing just posterior to it on inner side. 

Eyes large, as high as head and nearly half its length, width of 
one above equal to space between them ; posterior margin of anterior 
lobe of head and anterior margin of posterior lobe each with a short 
deep sulcus in center, on each side of which the surface is slightly 
tumid; antennae long-haired. Pronotum not much tapered, very 
slightly flared posteriorly ; mesonotum gradually widened posteriorly, 
with a shallow median dorsal sulcus ; mesonotum ending in a rounded 
knob; metanotum with the margin raised and three discal carinae. 

Fore coxa slender, about 1.25 as long as pronotum ; trochanter with 
one long curved spine and one or two shorter bristles ; femur curved, 
a little thicker than coxa, postero-ventral series of spines consisting 
of about six, their bases distinctly swollen, the longest more than 
twice as long as femoral diameter, the spines bent outward; ventral 
surface fine-haired, with a series of short erect setulae on median 
third ; antero-ventral spines much shorter than postero-ventral, about 
seven in number, inwardly curved, a wider space in the series near 
base for the reception of the tarsus ; tibia two-thirds as long as coxa, 
with fine setulae along antero-ventral surface which are about as long 
as tibial diameter; tarsus about as long as tibia, basal segment with 
microscopic setulae posteriorly (fig. 80). Transverse vein at one- 
third of the distance from tip of wing to apex of discal cell, the latter 
as in figure 81. Hypopygium rather long, black and polished 
medianly, claspers long and slender, much curved and tapered on 
apical half; apical tergite convex posteriorly. 

Female. — Similar to the male in armature of the fore legs. The 
eyes are much smaller; there are only small wingpads present; the 



62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

abdomen is much more robust, and there are small but distinct proc- 
esses on middle of hind margins of tergites ; seventh tergite horizontal, 
with a short, triangular median process, the margin concave, then 
angled each side of it ; eighth tergite deflexed, narrowed toward apex, 
which is transverse. 

Length, Male, 4 mm. ; nymph, 3.5 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, San Thomas, Brownsville, Tex., May 30, 1904; 
allotype', Brownsville, Tex., May 21, 1904, H. S. Barber (U.S.N.M.). 

Type and allotype.— Cat No.* 26724 U.S.N.M. 

PLOIARIA PUNCTIPES. new species. 

Male. — Brownish fuscous, with testaceous markings and gray pu- 
bescence on head and thorax. Legs and antennae testaceous-yellow, 
coxae and femora spotted and annulated with fuscous. Wings with 
fuscous markings much as in preceding species, but the dark spot 
in center of discal cell is more conspicuous and while in uniseriata 
there is an isolated dark spot just beyond apex of discal cell clear of 
the longitudinal vein in this species the spot touches the vein ; mark- 
ings somewhat more aggregated in clouds at apex of wing. 

Posterior lobe of head not sulcate anteriorly, but with a low longi- 
tudinal median carina ; subapical antennal segment fully three- 
fourths as long as apical. Pronotum narrower and longer than in 
uniseriata. Fore coxa slender, about 1.25 as long as pronotum; fore 
femur slender, slightly curved, long postero-ventral spines as in pre- 
ceding species, but with one or two short spines between each pair 
of antero-ventral spines, a rather irregular series of short setulae 
ventrad of them; antero-ventral setulae on fore tibia very short; 
tibia and tarsus as in uniseriata. Apical sternite less than half as 
long as preceding one; hypopygium long, dark and polished medianly, 
claspers long, slender, much curved but not tapered, ending abruptly 
in a sharp point, posterior hypopygial border with a short stout 
spike. Discal cell of forewing and the hind wing as in figures 82 
and 83. 

Length. 6 mm. 

Holotype. — La Chorrera, Panama, May 17, 1912, A. Busck (U.S. 
N.M.). 

Type.— Male, Cat. No. 26725, U.S.N.M. 

PLOIARIA SIMILIS, new species. 

Male. — Similar to the preceding species in color and structure, 
differing as stated in key, and in size. Forewings as in figure 84. 

Length, 8 mm. 

Holotype. — Los Borregas, Brownsville, Tex., May 23, 1904, H. S. 
Barber (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Male, Cat, No. 26726. U.S.N.M. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 63 

PLOIARIA RETICULATA (Baker). 

Ploiariopsis reticulata Raker, C. F. California Emesidae (Hemiptera), 
Pomona College Journal of Entomology, vol. 2, No. 2, May, 1910, pp. 225-6 
[Claremont, Calif.]. 

Male. — Head and thorax testaceous yellow, mottled with fuscous. 
Antennae stramineous, basal segment fuscous at base and apex and 
with a rather broad subapical and a narrow apical whitish annulus; 
beak annulate. Mesonotum with 2 linear submedian brown vittae, 
laterad of these the disk is grayish, each lateral margin broadly 
brown. Abdomen black, faintly speckled with yellowish, spiracles 
white. Legs stramineous, fore pair mottled with blackish and rather 
imperfectly annulate, mid and hind femora with faint brownish dots 
on basal half and each with 3 broad brown annuli on apical half. 
Forewings with brownish fuscous markings, forming reticulations 
on the greater part of disk, the most distinct marks being 2 long 
blackish streaks, one in apical half of discal cell and the other beyond 
that cell and behind the longitudinal vein but distinctly clear of it, 
the hind margin of the vein narrowly brown. 

Head about as broad as long, with a small sharp spike at eye mar- 
gin just behind transverse dorsal constriction, and a small round pro- 
tuberance behind eye on side of head; antennae long-haired, third 
segment fully as long as fourth. Pronotum slightty flared poste- 
riorly. Hypopygium with a bifid process projecting upward inside 
of hind border, the claspers not very long, curved, tapered at apices. 

Fore trochanters produced into an acute process below which is 
armed with 2 or 3 spines. Forewing with discal cell subequal in 
length to longitudinal vein beyond it. the transverse apical vein 
faint, situated at nearly three fourths of the distance from apex of 
discal cell to apex of wing, the longitudinal vein bent down apically. 

Length, 9 mm. 

Redescribed from a male paratype, Claremont, Calif., Metz 
(Cornell Univ.). 

Dr. C. F. Baker reports the species common about Claremont. 

PLOIARIA DENTICAUDA, new species. 

Male. — This species is colored like granulata, but the femoral and 
tibial annulation is much less distinct. Head as in figure 85. 

In addition to the characters mentioned in the key it differs from 
granulata as follows: The fore coxae, fore femora, and pronotum 
are not granulose and haired as in that species, the postero- ventral 
spines on fore femur are in an almost regular series, the bases of the 
longer spines are pale, but little differentiated from the spines and 
both combined are but little longer than the femoral diameter; the 
fore tibia has the series of setulae on postero-ventral surface very 



64 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 07 

weak and short and that on basal half of antero- ventral surface prac- 
tically absent; the fore tarsi are as long as tibiae. The male hypopy- 
gium is as shown in figures 86 and 87, the tergites are not produced 
on sides and the processes on the middle of hind margins of tergites 
except the last one are very small. The series of males contains 
winged and subapterous specimens; the venation of the forewing is 
shown in figure 89. 

Female. — Similar to the male but the apical tergites are as de- 
scribed in key (fig. 88), and the antennae are very short hispid in- 
stead of long-haired. 

Length, 5-5.5 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Fort Yuma, Ariz., January 23, H. G. Hubbard ; 
allotype, Palm Springs, Calif., February 7, H. G. Hubbard, para types 
same data as foregoing (U.S.N.M.) ; and Calipatria, Calif., Novem- 
ber 28, 1921, E. R. Kalmbach (Biol. Survey). Broken specimens not 
designated as type material: Williams, Ariz., May 27 and June 9, 
E. A. Schwarz and H. S. Barber (U.S.N.M.). 

Type, allotype, and paratypes. — Cat. No. 2672, U.S.N.M. 

PLOIARIA HIRTICORNIS (Banks). 

Ploiariopsis hirticorkis Banks, N. Emesidae, 1909, p. 44 [Southern Pines, 
N. C.]. 

Ploiaria Carolina Banks, N. Emesidae, 1909, pp. 44-45 [Southern Pines, 
N. C.]. The female of P. hirticornis. 

This species closely resembles the last in structure of the fore 
legs, but the coxae are more slender and nearly twice as long as the 
tibiae, the fore tarsi are as long as the tibiae, the elevated bases of 
the long spines of postero-ventral series are about as in the last 
species, white, and the spines are blackish; the pronotum is longer 
and narrower than in granulosa, the abdomen has no lateral projec- 
tions on tergites and the dorsal tubercles are small anteriorly, in- 
creasing in size posteriorly ; the seventh tergite of the female has the 
lateral angles slightly produced and a longer central process (fig. 
90) ; the apical border of the male hypopygium is as in figure 91; 
apical tergite as in figure 92. All our specimens have minute wing 
pads except one male paratype which is fully winged ; the wings are 
rather closely reticulated with fuscous, the heaviest markings being 
in discal cell and along hind side of vein emanating from it. 

Length, 5-6 mm. 

Localities, Mulligans Hill, D. C, December 10, 1916, H. S. Barber 
(U.S.N.M.) ; Southern Pines, N. C, December 28, 29, 1908, A. H. 
Manee, type material (McAtee, Mus. Comp. Zool.). The holotype 
examined. 

An immature female from Shreveport, La. (Mus. Comp. Zool.) 
has the abdomen inflated, especially posteriorly, median tubercles 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 65 

on all tergites, that on five most prominent; eighth tergite concave 
apically, without process. 

PLOIARIA MARGINATA (Heineken). 

Cerascopus marginatus Heineken, C. Zool. Journ., Jan.-May, 1829 (1830), 
pp. 36-40, pi. 2, fig. 5 [Madeira]. 

Cerascopus canariensis Noualhier, Maurice. Note sur le genre Ploiaria 
Scop. Reiit. (Emesodema Spin., Cerascopus Hein.) et description de quatre 
especes nouvelles palearctiques. Rev. d'Ent, vol. 14, 1S95, p. 168 [Canary 
Islands]. 

Male. — Brownish fuscous, with a longitudinal central line on head 
and thorax, two round spots on each lobe of head and upper sides 
of pronotum, the lateral margins of pronotum and mesonotum and 
ventral surface of head and thorax yellowish. Antennae and legs 
brownish yellow, darker just before apices of femora and yellowish 
at apices. 

Antennae short-hispid, apical segment about 1.75 as long as sub- 
apical; eyes small, not occupying over half the height of head, and 
shorter than distance from their hind margin to posterior margin 
of head, surface of head microscopically granulose; fore coxa as 
long as pronotum and about two thirds as long as fore tibia, with 
microscopic subdecumbent hairs, but not granulose; fore femur stout, 
surface as in coxa, outer series of strong spines on posterodorsal 
surface numbering four or five, their bases elevated, their entire 
length not greater than diameter of femur, the inner series not 
interrupted opposite bases of the strong spines, consisting of many 
closely placed setulae; antero- ventral series with no isolated bristle 
at or near base as in the species which have the tarsus falling short 
of apex. of coxa; tibia two thirds as long as femur, the antero-ventral 
and postero-ventral hairs short; tarsus extending to middle of 
trochanter, fully half as long as tibia, basal segment without evi- 
dent setulae. Pronotum with a rounded low tubercle each side of 
neck, tapered posteriorly, constricted just behind anterior margin, 
widest in front of middle, a distinct constriction between pronotum 
and mesonotum, the latter widening to above coxal insertions, with 
a median linear sulcus and slight longitudinal ridge along each side 
of dorsum separating the pale color of disk from the dark sides. 
Abdominal tergites without processes, the spiracles on top of con- 
nexival fold, the apical tergite with hind margin rounded; hypo- 
pygium as in figure 93, the claspers farther from apex than in any 
of the other species seen and the apical hook larger. 

Female. — Differs from male chiefly in character of abdomen, 
which is broader, especially apically and has the spiracles on outer 
side of connexival fold; widest part of abdomen about at the junc- 
ture of fourth and fifth tergites, sixth tergite somewhat narrowed 
94993—25 5 



66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.. 67 

apically the end slightly convex; seventh tergite semi-circular; 
eighth a little longer, depressed medianly and emarginate apically. 

Length, 4.5-5.5 mm. 

Data for specimens examined : La Valli Province, Buenos Aires, 
Argentina, May 15, 1920, B. S. Donaldson (McAtee) ; Brazil, on 
orchids, H. B. Shaw (U.S.N.M.) ; Teneriffe, Canary Ids., A. Cab- 
rera; Laguna, Oct. 1, 1910 (Bueno). 

PLOIARIA APTERA, new species. 

Female. — Much paler than marginata, the dorsum of thorax but 
little darker than the venter. 

Head as in the preceding species, but the eyes comparatively 
larger and the subapical antennal segment appreciably longer than 
the apical. Fore coxae, femora, and tibiae similar in lengths to those 
of marginata, the postero-ventral long and short spines in an almost 
straight series, only two or three of the short spines between each 
pair of the long spines and none opposite their bases; there is an 
isolated spine near base on antero-ventral surface, the antero-ventral 
series of setulae on apical half of tibia is stronger than in marginata. 
Abdomen ovate, distorted in type, but evidently lacking well de- 
veloped median processes on hind margins of tergites. 

Length, 5.5 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Galiuro Mountains, Ariz., May 24, H. G. 
Hubbard (U.S.N.M.). 

This and the preceding species lack wing pads, the present one 
having a very faint ridge on each posterior lateral angle of meso- 
notum and metanotum which may represent the wing pads. AVe 
know of no American species of this genus except these two in which 
the adults have neither wings nor wing pads. 

Genus GARDENA Dohrn. 

Gardena Dohbn, A., Emesina, 1860, p. 214, monobasic, genotype G. melwar- 
thrum Dohrn [Ceylon.] ; Nachtrage 1873. p. 64. — Champion, G. C. Biologia 
vol. 2, p. 167, 1898. 

As amplified in the Nachtrage, Dohrn's characterization of Gardena 
may be accepted in the sense of Champion for American species. 
However, there remains one notable discrepancy to be explained; 
Dohrn describes the prothorax as being subequal in length to the 
mesothorax and metathorax together. Measured on the median 
dorsal surface the prothorax in American species is twice or more 
than twice as long as the other divisions of the thorax together. 
However, illustrations of Asiatic species show the same condition, so 
the discrepancy probably is due to error or is to be explained by 
difference in method of taking the measurements. 



ART.l AMERICAN PI.OIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 67 

Characters common to all the American species besides those 
mentioned in the generic key are: head lacking spines, prothorax 
(measurements taken on dorsum) twice or more than twice as long 
as meso- and meta-thoraces taken together (even in wingless forms) ; 
the anterior division of prothorax is trumpet-shaped with a low 
tubercle each side in front and expands posteriorly in the winged 
forms into a capacious, inverted, scoop-shaped, highly polished 
portion which completely covers the mesothorax, hind margin usu- 
ally somewhat concave with a slight median swelling, but there are 
notable departures from this character in some species; mesopleura 
and mesosternum highly polished, either subnude or with a bare 
stripe in front of coxa; hind margins of sternites 2-6 in both sexe? 
more or less emarginate medianly and arcuate laterally, most pro- 
nouncedly so on 6; sixth sternite in males visible from above, form- 
ing apparently an almost complete body ring; in most species it is 
overlaid dorsally by a flap-like process of sixth tergite; the ninth 
sternite also is largely exposed dorsally, where it is divided by a 
broad V-shaped cleft open posteriorly (fig. 97, and others) ; the 
surface of hypopygial segments is polished; all of the legs and the 
antennae exceed the body in length; antennae of males with abun- 
dant long hairs decreasing in length and erectness distally; espe- 
cially from middle of second segment; wing venation as in figure 
94; fore tibia and tarsus as in figure 95. 

Coloration in the genus is very uniform, the species being chiefly 
castaneous, darkest on front legs, prothorax, and genitalia; the 
mid and hind trochanters and knees are stramineous, the pale base 
of tibia being more or less interrupted by fuscous; the tegmina and 
wings in most cases are dusky hyaline, whitish at base. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Males. 

1. Cylindrical part of prothorax silicate in center of dorsum posteriorly ; hind 

lobe usually transversely wrinkled anteriorly 2 

Prothorax without sulcus ; hind lobe usually not distinctly wrinkled 8 

2. Hind margin of hypopygium more or less sinuate or emarginate in middle 

(figs. 96, 9S, 102, 104) ; sixth tergite with a longer slender process (figs. 

97, 108) 3 

Hind margin of hypopygium practically straight (fig. 105) ; 7th tergite with 
a shorter, and usually more rounded process (figs. 109, 112) 4 

3. Supero-posterior angles of hypopygium strongly produced, projecting when 

viewed from behind, much above hind margin ; median process of seventh 
tergite elongate, but falling considerably short of apex of hypopygium (fig. 
97) ; hind margin of pronotum concave, with a slight median swelling. 

americana Champion (p. 69). 



68 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

Supero-posterior angles of hypopygium elevated but little above bind margin ; 
median process of seventh tergite elongate, falling but little short of apex 
of hypopygium (fig. 108) ; hind margin of pronotum undulated, extending 
farthest posteriorly on each side of median line. 

crispina, new species (p. 70). 

4. Apex of hypopygial clasper circularly curved, the supero-anterior angle not 

produced (fig. 106) ; fore femur not evidently banded. 

domitia, new species (p. 71). 

Apex of hypopygial clasper not circularly curved, the supero-anterior angle 

produced (figs. 99, 100, 101) ; fore femur with one or more bands 5 

5. Clasper fitting into a groove which extends forward on the outer side below 

supero-posterior angle of hypopygium (fig. Ill) ; posterior angle of clasper 
a weak hook, process of anterior angle much stouter (fig. 99). 

eutropia, new species (p. 71). 
Clasper not fitting into such a groove, and of different shape G 

6. Both branches of clasper slender (fig. 100) ; supero-posterior angle of hy- 

popygium spine like; hind lobe of pronotum almost smooth. 

marcia, new species (p. 72). 
Both branches of clasper stout (fig. 101) ; supero-posterior angle of hypo- 
pygium obtuse, not spine like 7 

7. Antennae copiously bairy ; hind lobe of pronotum strongly wrinkled in front, 

granulate behind pipara, new species (p. 72). 

Antennae not hairy, hind lobe only slightly wrinkled in front and almost 
smooth behind pyrallis, new species (p. 73). 

8. Hind margin of hypopygium with a sharp tooth on each side of a rounded 

median emargination (fig. 104); seventh tergite with a moderate, pointed 

median process (fig. 114) poppaea, new species (p. 74). 

Hind margin of hypopygium slightly or not at all emarginate, and lacking 
teeth ; seventh tergite either convex or with a distinct process 9 

9. Hind lobe of pronotum much more than half as long as the less than usually 

slender anterior portion, bearing three pale yellow vittae; forewings al- 
most uniform stramineous in color ; seventh tergite with a broadly trian- 
gular process; clasper circularly curved similar to figure 106. 

agrippina, new species (p. 73). 
Hind lobe of pronotum not half as long as the very slender anterior portion, 
without pale vittae ; hind margin nearly straight across, the declivity just 
anterior to hind margin slightly carinate medianly ; bases of forewings 
much paler in color than remainder ; seventh tergite convex posteriorly but 
not produced; clasper not circularly curved (fig. 103). 

faustina, new species (p. 73). 

Females. 

1. Cylindrical part of prothorax sulcate in center of dorsum posteriorly ; hind 

lobe distinctly transversely wrinkled anteriorly ; seventh sternite more 

or less produced apically (figs. 110, 113) 2 

Prothorax without sulcus; hind lobe not distinctly transversely wrinkled; 
seventh sternite convex but not produced apically. 

faustina, new species (p. 73). 

2. Seventh sternite with a short rather acute process at middle of posterior 

margin (fig. 107) ; mid and hind femora each with a preapical as well as 

an apical pale band messalina, new species (p. 72). 

Seventh sternite with a longer process (figs. 110, 113) 3 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 69 

3. Mid and hind femora each with a preapical and an apical pale yellow band; 

process of seventh sternite long and slender, reaching nearly to apex of 

hypopygium pipara, new species (p. 72). 

Mid and hind femora lacking preapical pale band 4 

4. Process of seventh sternite broad, the apex rounded and not reaching apex of 

abdomen (fig. 113) caesonia, new species (p. 70). 

Process of seventh sternite narrower, extending to apex of abdomen, and 
there somewhat upcurved (fig. 110) domitia, new species (p. 71). 

SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF THE SPECIES. 

Cylindrical part of prothorax sulfate in center of dorsum posteriorly. 

americana. 
caesonia. 
crispina. 
domitia. 
eutropia. 
marcia. 
* messalina. 

pipara. 
pyrallis. 



Cylindrical part of prothorax not sulcate. 



agrippina. 

faastina. 

poppaea. 



GARDENA AMERICANA Champion. 



Gardena americana Champion, G. C, Biologia, vol. 2, pp. 167-8, pi. 10, 
fig. 12, 1898 (part). 

We have not identified the female of this species but the males are 
rather paler in general color than most of the species, being yellow- 
ish-brown, castaneous on posterior expansion of prothorax, meso- 
and meta-thorax and genitalia; sternites 7 and 8 distinctly emargi- 
nate medianly and arcuate laterally ; ninth sternite, or hypopygium, 
with the apical margin triangularly excised medianly (fig. 96) be- 
tween the elevated supero-posterior angles, within which lie the 
terete, somewhat curved and capitate hairy claspers ; the part of ninth 
sternite visible from above is longer than sixth tergite without its 
median process ; the latter is ligulate, rounded apically and its length 
compared to the tergite is as 15 : 35 (fig. 97). Fore tibia and tarsus as 
in figure 95 ; fore wings as in figure 94. 

Length, 18-20 mm. 

Two specimens seen, one labeled only Cordoba in the Uhler Col- 
lection (U.S.N.M.), and the other collected by J. S. Hine at Maza* 
tenango, Guatemala, February 3, 1905 (Ohio State Univ. Coll.). 

It is only through the great kindness of W. E. China of the British 
Museum that we are enabled to announce this determination of Gar- 
dena americana. With a copy of our key in hand Mr. China has 
worked over the type series and informs us that the specimen figured 



70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

in the Biologia Central!- Americana (reference above) has been taken 
as the type and that it is the present species which we designated as 
No. 2 in the key sent to him. Mr. China has kindly furnished a re- 
port upon the entire British Museum series which is well worth re- 
cording. 

SERIES OF GARDENA AMERICANA CHAMPION IN* THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

Mexico. 

1, male, Atoyac, Vera Cruz equals species 2, that is, americana. 

2, female, Atoyac, Vera Cruz equals species 6, that is, caesonia. 
3-8, males, Teapa, Tabasco equals species 2, that is, americana. 
9, female, Dos Arroyos, Guerrero equals species 6, that is, caesonia. 
9a., female, Chilpancingo, Guerrero equals species 6, that is, 

caesonia. 
Panama. 

10-15, males and females, Bugaba equals species 4, that is, 

faustina. 
Guatemala. 

16, male, Teleman, Vera Paz; prothorax sulcated but hypopy- 

gium mutilated. 

17, male, Mirandilla equals species 2, that is, americana. This 

is the type specimen figured in Biologia, vol. 2, pi. 10, fig. 12. 
Colombia. 

18, male, Mazo equals species 2, that is, americana. 

19, male, locality illegible, equals species 2, that is, americana. 
It is worth noting that the above tabulation agrees in the associa- 
tion of sexes as concerns species 4 {faustina) ; and it strongly in- 
dicates that species 6 {caesonia) is the female of americana. For 
the present, however, we will allow these forms to stand under dif- 
ferent names. 

GARDENA CAESONIA, new species. 

Female. — Eighth tergite only a third a long as wide, bluntly 
rounded apically; 9th longer than broad, almost parallel-sided 
viewed from above, truncate apically; process of 7th sternite long 
triangular, pointed (fig. 113). 

Length, 20 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Guatemala (U.S.N.M.). Paratype, Frontera, 
Tabasco, Mexico, June, 1897, C. H. T. Townsend (Iowa). 

Type.— Female, Cat. No. 26729, U.S.N.M. 

GARDENA CRISPINA, new species. 

Male. — Coloration as described for the genus; hind margins of 
sternite 7 and 8 moderately emarginate medianly, of 7 slightly con- 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 71 

cave, and of 8 a little convex laterally ; 9th sternite polished, its hind 
margin with a shallow rounded emargination (fig. 98) ; that part of 
9th sternite visible from above shorter than 7th tergite without me- 
dian process, the latter ligulate, rather pointed and nearly as long 
as remainder of its tergite, proportion to whole tergite as 18 is to 37, 
(fig. 108). 

Length, 18 mm. 

Holotype. — Male Turrialba, Costa Rica, Schild and Burgdorf (U. 

S.N.M.). 

Type.— Male, Cat. No. 26730, U.S.N.M. 

GARDENA DOMITIA, new species. 

Male. — Hypopygium strigate, not so shining as usual, part visible 
from above about as long as 7th tergite including process, the latter 
broad, rounded apically, its length compared to the whole tergite as 
12 is to 27 (fig. 109) ; hind margin of hypopygium transverse (fig. 
lor>) : clasper as in figure 106. 

Female. — Connexivum elevated posteriorly, pale-edged; 6th ter- 
gite rounded apically; 8th semi-circular in shape; 9th broad, some- 
what inflated, depressed on each side apically; 7th sternite promi- 
nently inflated anteriorly, posterior process as described in key, the 
margins each side of it slightly sinuate, (fig. 110). 

Length, 20-22 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, allotype female, with genital segments well pre- 
served, and another pair with them damaged, Pachitea, P(eru. 
(Bueno). 

Paratypes. — Male, Lower Mamore River, Bolivia, Dec. 1913, 2 
females, La Juntas, Bolivia, Dec. 1913, Quatra Ojos, Nov. 1913, J. 
Steinbach (Carnegie Mus.) 

GARDENA EUTROPIA, new species. 

Male. — Color about the same as in pipara. Process of 7th tergite 
of moderate length, in proportion to remainder of tergite as 2 is to 
3, its apex rounded. Hind margin of 6th sternite with a broad and 
deep median emargination, and strong sinuations on each side; sev- 
enth and eighth sternites distinctly although shallowly concave 
medianly and convex laterally. Ninth sternite long, opening up- 
ward, the posterior margin straight; viewed from above the flaring 
part of cleft is short, bordered each side by a broad, sloping, trun- 
cate process, beneath which the claspers are withdrawn (fig. Ill) ; 
claspers as described in key (fig. 99). 

Length, 17 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Santarem, Brazil. (Carnegie Mus.) 



72 -PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

GARDENA MARCIA, new species. 

Male. — Color as in pipara; posterior lobe of pronotum almost lack- 
ing transverse wrinkles. Lobe of seventh tergite very short, in pro- 
portion to remainder of tergite as 2 is to 5, broadly rounded. Hind 
margin of sixth sternite broadly and deeply emarginate medianly, 
arcuate laterally; seventh and eighth sternites shallowly concave 
medianly and convex laterally, the former nearly straight across. 
Ninth sternite short, opening posteriorly and upwardly, its hind 
margin nearly straight; cleft of upper surface opening gradually 
from the base (fig. 112), supero-posterior angles, produced, elevated 
and spinelike at apices, hollowed out beneath for reception of the 
claspers, which are as described in key (fig. 100). 

Length, 14 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Santarem, Brazil. (Carnegie Mus.) 

GARDENA MESSALINA, new species. 

Female. — Fore femora each with a faint subapical pale band ; mid 
femora and tibiae each with two pale bands. Seventh tergite very 
slightly convex on hind margin, eighth moderately long, semi-ellip- 
tical; ninth very convex transversely, somewhat constricted near 
middle of exposed portion, rounded apically. Sixth sternite with 
'a deep emargination posteriorly involving the entire hind border; 
seventh sternite long, with a short, median triangular process pos- 
teriorly (fig. 107) sides of hind margin slightly concave; eighth 
sternite broadly exposed on sides, profoundly emarginate in middle. 

Length, 17 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Victoria, Texas. (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Female, Cat. No. 26731, M.S.N.M. 

This is a wingless but mature specimen, which, because of different 
leg markings is treated as a different species from G. poppaea, repre- 
sented by a wingless male, also from Victoria. 

GARDENA PIPARA, new species. 

Male. — Head and body chiefly castaneous, the appendages yellow- 
brown ; apex of first antennal segment, two bands on front femur, apex 
of mid and hind femur and subapical annulus, bases of mid and hind 
tibia and sub-basal annulus paler; wings dusky fumose. Seventh 
tergite rather short, its body exceeding the short rounded lobe only 
as 3 is to 2. Seventh and eighth sternites shallowly emarginate me- 
dianly, convex laterally ; ninth or hypopygium, long, opening upward 
and backward, the hind margin nearly straight, the supero-posterior 
angles moderately elevated, the expanded part of dorsal cleft short, 
claspers as described in key (fig. 101). 



aet. 1 AMEEICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AJSTD MALLOCH 73 

Female. — Coloration as in male. Seventh tergite broadly rounded, 
and narrowly abruptly declivate apically; eighth tergite short, 
rounded apically, almost horizontal; ninth tergite long, slightly 
inflated above, abruptly narrowed below; the apical half is trans- 
versely rounded, marked off by two oblique depressions, and the mid- 
dle of apical margin is slightly excised. Seventh sternite rather 
prominently inflated subbasally, apical margin straight across except 
at middle, which is produced as a long, slender pointed process, 
reaching nearly to apex of body. 

Length, 18-20 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Province del Sara, Bolivia, April 1913, J. Stein- 
bach. 

Allotype and paratype. — Two females, same locality, 350 meters 
elevation, December, 1912, J. Steinbach. Paratype, two females, 
Chapada, Brazil, June. (All these specimens in Carnegie Museum.) 
Paratype male, La Zanga, Paraguay, V. Benzon (Copenhagen Mu- 
seum), and another, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, September, 1917 (Pen- 
nington). 

GARDENA PYRALLIS, new species. 

Male. — Paler than G. pipara, the leg markings, etc., therefore not 
so distinct; hind lobe of pronotum much smoother as described in 
key; genitalia very similar. 

Length, 16 mm. 

Holotype. — Llanos, Venezuela, F. Geay (Paris Mus.). 

GARDENA AGGRIPINA, new species. 

Male. — Paler in ground color and with more pale markings than 
is usual in the genus ; fore femur with three distinct pale bands, and 
front legs with other pale areas; pronotum with a median broad, 
and two lateral narrow pale vittae on posterior lobe ; wings stramin- 
eous almost throughout; mid and hind legs pale, the femora and 
tibiae each with a distinct sub-basal and another faint darker an- 
nulus. Hind margins of sternites 7 and 8 concave medianly, convex 
laterally, of 9 nearly straight, cleft of ninth sternite, as seen from 
above, about one-third the length of part dorsally exposed; process 
of seventh tergite, well-developed, rounded apically, length compared 
with that of remainder of tergite as 9 is to 17. 

Length, 16 mm. 

Holotype. — Provincio del Sara, Bolivia, 350 meters elevation, Dec. 
1912, J. Steinbach (Carnegie Mus.). 

GARDENA FAUSTINA, new species. 

Male. — Chiefly distinguished by the long and slender prothorax 
and the prominently convex but scarcely produced hind margin 

94993— 25— —6 



74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

of tergite 7 (fig. 115) ; sternites 7 and 8 are concave medianly, con- 
vex laterally; part of sternite 9 exposed dorsally about as long as 
tergite 7, the V-shaped cleft short, the supero-posterior angles trun- 
cate, not elevated but somewhat flaring laterally, posterior margin 
shallowly emarginate medianly (fig. 102) ; clasper ending in a flat- 
tish hook the blade of which is long acuminate and directed upward 
(fig. 103). 

Female. — The hind margin of 7th tergite is slightly convex, trans- 
verse; the 8th tergite is semi-elliptical and the ninth longer than 
wide, somewhat narrowed and bluntly rounded apically; the 7th 
stemite is moderately convex apically. 

Length, 20-22 mm. 

In this species the coxae and adjoining parts vary from yellow to 
black in color and the hind part of thorax and tip of abdomen are 
quite dark, contrasting strongly with the yellow-brown abdomen, 
front part of body, and legs. 

Holotype.—Male, Porto Bello, Panama, Feb. 28, 1911, E. A. 
Schwarz; allotype female, Feb. 21, other data the same; paratype 
males, Porto Bello, Panama, Feb. 15, 28, 1911, A. Busck; Trinidad 
River, Panama, May 7, 1911, A. Busck. A male and female from 
Biologia series of " americana " are labelled, Bugaba, 800-1,500 
feet, Champion, and Caldera, Panama, Champion, respectively. AH 
preceding specimens in United States National Museum. Foul 
females, Cacagualito, Colombia, May, and one from Chapada, 
Brazil, Sept. (Carnegie Mus.). One male, French Guiana, Nov., 
1914, R. Benoist (Paris Mus.). 

Type, allotype and paratypes.— €at. No. 26732, U.S.N.M. 

GARDENA POPPAEA, new species. 

Male. — Posterior margin of hypopygium with two teeth, the 
superoposterior angles considerably elevated (fig. 104), portion of 
this sternite visible from above as long as 7th tergite including 
process, the latter barely lapping base of V-shaped cleft of hypo- 
pygium, its length compared to entire tergite as 3 is to 8 (fig. 114) ; 
claspers retracted, their form unknown. 

Length, 20 mm. 

Holotype.—Mtxle, Victoria, Tex., Feb. 1905, J. D. Mitchell 
(U.S.N.M.). 

While this specimen is entirely wingless it is obviously mature. 

Type.— Male, Cat. No. 26733, U.S.N.M. 

Genus EMESAYA, new name. 

For Emesa of authors not of Laporte (1833, p. 84) who named 
E. mantis Fabricius as type. Since this species belongs to the genus 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 75 

subsequently called Westermannias the latter name therefore falls 
into synonymy, and the insects formely known as Emesa are left 
without a distinctive name. See fuller data under the name Emesa 
as accepted in this paper (p. 38). 

Genotype. — Ploiaria brevipemnis Say. For full reference see 
under Erne say a brevipennis Say (p. 78). This new name is intended 
to combine a reminder of the long familiar term with a tribute to 
the pioneer American naturalist Thomas Say. 

Characters of the genus besides those mentioned in the key to 
genera are : Mid and hind legs and antennae longer than body ; head 
without frontal spine, the transverse sulcus convex posteriorly, its 
ends in front of eyes, its middle course between them; prothorax in 
unwinged forms somewhat shorter than meso- and meta-thoraces 
together, in winged forms decidedly longer, expanded posteriorly 
and entirely covering dorsum of mesothorax, its hind margin more 
or less concave medianly; wings extending only to about middle of 
abdomen; sutures between tergites difficult to distinguish, those 
seen are straight; sixth tergite of male ending in a long apically 
rounded flap covering hypopygium ; sutures between sternites convex 
anteriorly, that between o and 6 most so; hypopygium of male long, 
somewhat compressed, hind margin with a median process; in fe- 
males the seventh tergite is approximately semi-circular in outline, 
the eighth is oblong, somewhat tapering apically, with the apex vari- 
ously modified, yielding the most valuable characters for the separa- 
tion of species; the connexivum is more elevated in females than in 
males. Structure of fore tibia and tarsus and venation of wings as 
in figures 136, 137, and 138, respectively. 

Coloration in the genus is simple, the general tone varying from 
stramineous to reddish (erythrization being especially characteristic 
of maturity) ; the whole head and body has a fine short sericeous 
pubescence, bare spots and lines in which account for most of the 
apparent markings, as a line over anterior half of pronotum and 
head, forked in front of transverse constriction, a straight line under 
each eye, cirrhose maculations on pronotum, and dotting over both 
upper and lower surfaces of abdomen; the mesosternum and meso- 
pleura are entirely sericeous, not glossy as in Gardena. The front 
legs are more or less dark spotted and the spines dark-tipped; at 
least the knees (femora-tibial joints) of mid and hind legs are pale, 
often there is another distinct pale band each side of this joint. 
When the antennae are not entirely pale the first segment is pale 
apically. The wings vary from stramineous to fuscous-hyaline, 
often paler at base. 



76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol. 67 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Males. 

1. Hind margin of hypopygiuin without median process, nearly straight across. 

manni, new species (p. 83). 
Hind margin of hypopygium with a median process, sometimes partly con- 
cealed by the claspers 2 

2. Hind margin of hypopgyium nearly straight across, bearing on its inner 

side a process which extends upward and forward between (and usually 

concealed by) apices of claspers (fig. 121) 3 

Hind margin of hypopygium produced, in the plane of its outer surface, into 
a process which is not concealed between apices of claspers 4 

3. Clasper broadly concave on upper margin, swollen at base and expanded on 

inner side toward apex into a triangular lobe (fig. 133), not hairy. 

pollex, new species (p. 82). 
Clasper convex on upper margin, neither swollen at base nor expanded lat- 
erally toward apex, hairy, the hairs on inner surface long and erect (fig. 
122) brevipennis (Say) (p. 78). 

4. Process tapering gradually from base, slender and pointed, a little recurved 

apically ; clasper nearly terete, strongly curved and somewhat bulbous api- 
cally (figs. 130-131) apiculata, new species (p. SI). 

Process notched on the sides at base, broadly expanding apically, with a 
terminal notch ; clasper nearly straight, curved only near apex which is not 
bulbous (figs. 118,119, 120) incisa, new species (p. 78). 

Females. 

1. Eighth tergite with the lateral angles produced considerably beyond middle 

of hind margin (fig. 123) 2 

Eighth tergite with the lateral angles produced no farther than middle of 
hind margin, or rounded (figs. 129, 131a) 5 

2. Seventh tergite with a pair of divergent carinae bounding disk, within and 

distinct from the ridges which divide the upper surface from the down- 
folded lateral portions of the tergite 11 (fig. 116) 3 

Seventh tergite without such carinae 4 

3. Fore femur about 7.5 mm. long; fore coxa hardly twice as long as head. 

brevicoxa (Banks) (p. 77). 
Fore femur about 9 mm. long; fore coxa fully twice as long as head. 

banksi, new species (p. 77). 

4. Hind margin of eighth tergite between the processes decidedly concave, the 

emargination broadly U-shaped ; seventh and eighth tergites with a me- 
dian longitudinal bare and slightly elevated line (fig. 127) ; side of eighth 

tergite subangulate posteriorly lineata, new species (p. 81). 

Hind margin of eighth tergite between the processes nearly straight, the 
emargination nearly rectangular (fig. 123) ; seventh and eighth tergites 
lacking such a line; side of eighth tergite not at all angulate posteriorly 
(fig. 124) brevipennis (Say) (p. 78). 

5. Hind margin of eighth tergite bisinuate, the lateral angles and median point 

about equally produced (fig. 129) modica, new species (p. 81). 

Hind margin of eighth tergite with the lateral angles rounded and the median 
portion apiculate or much produced 6 

11 In partially collapsed or distorted specimens, the seventh tergite is prone to fold 
along the lines of the lateral and central carinae ; these accidental and usually unsym- 
metrical folds must not be mistaken for the true carinae which are clear-cut and sym- 
metrical. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 77 

6. Median portion of hind margin of eighth tergite apiculate (fig. 131a). 

apiculata, new species (p. 81). 

Median portion of hind margin of eighth tergite produced in a rather long, 

keel-like process (figs. 134, 135) pollex, new species (p. 82). 

REMARKS ON PREVIOUSLY DESCRIBED SPECIES OTHER THAN THOSE INCLUDED IN THE) KEY AND 

SYNONYMY. 

aflinis [Emesa] Dohkn, Emesina 1860, pp. 222-3 [Columbia]. 

No hypopygial characters mentioned; the color markings de- 
scribed in themselves have no significance; examination of type 
necessary to identification. Champion (Biologia, vol. 2, 1898, p. 168) 
synonymizes this species with longipes De G*EER=brevipennis Say. 
longipes [Emesa] Fabricius, Systema Bhyngotorum, 1803, p. 263 [America]. 
Stal refers this to Zelus. See p. 39. 

SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF THE SPECIES. 

(Females only.) 

Eighth tergite with the lateral angles produced farther than middle of hind 
margin. 

Seventh tergite with a pair of divergent carinae. brevicoxa. 

banksi. 
Seventh tergite lacking such carinae. brevipennis. 

lineata. 
Eighth tergite with lateral angles not so much produced or even rounded, me- 
dian portion of this tergite more or less produced posteriorly. 

modica. 

apiculata. 

pollex. 

EMESAYA BREVICOXA (Banks). 

Emesa brevicoxa Banks, N. Emesidae, 1909, p. 48 [Los Angeles, Calif.]. 

Described from a single female which remains the unique repre- 
sentative of the form. This specimen, now in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology has been studied in the course of the present revi- 
sion. The carinae of seventh tergite, not mentioned in original 
description are very distinctive, grouping the species with the new 
form banksi described below. The coloration is scarcely different 
from that of E. brevipennis; however it was noted that the mid and 
hind tibiae are entirely pale except for a sub-basal dusky band on 
each. Approximate measurements are: Length of head and body 
together 29 mm. ; of front coxa, 5 mm. ; of front femur 7.5 mm. 

EMESAYA BANKSI, new species. 

Agrees with E. brevieoxa Banks in carination of seventh tergite 
(fig. 116 ; lateral view of female hypopygium, fig. 117) but differs in 
measurements of front legs as indicated in key. The posterior 
lateral angles of eighth tergite are less produced than in E. brevi- 
eoxa and much less than in average specimens of E. brevipennis 



78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM 70L. 67 

Si\y. General color pale reddish-brown, short gray pubescence 
abundant; leg bands only faintly indicated. 

Length about 29 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, San Antonio, Texas, Sept. 18-27 (Museum of 
Comparative Zoology). 

Paratype. — Female, vicinity of La Paz, Lower California, 1903, 
L. Diguet (Paris Mus.). 

EMESAYA INCISA, new species. 

Somewhat smaller than E. brevipennis, and most of the specimens 
are paler than the average color in the genus, this being especially 
true of the legs and antennae; the dark annuli therefore unusually 
prominent. 

Male. — Ground color stramineous, broad vittae on sides of head 
and posterior lobe of pronotum (sometimes whole of this expan- 
sion), dorsum of abdomen more or less, leg bands and dots fuscous. 
Genitalia as described in key (see figs. 118, 119, 120). 

Length, 24-27 mm. 

Males from Palm Springs, Calif., Feb. 25, H. G. Hubbard (holo- 
type) ; Monclova, Mex., Nov. 23, 1909, E. A. Schwarz (U.S.N.M.) ; 
Higley, Ariz., July 10, 1917, E. G. Holt (Biol. Survey). 

Type and paratype.— -Male, Cat. No. 26734, U.S.N.M. 

This may be the male of one of the preceding two species. 

EMESAYA BREVIPENNIS (Say). 

Ploiaria brevipennis Say, Thomas. American Entomology, vol. 3, 1S28, pp. 
105-6, pi. 47 [Philadelphia] ; Complete Writings, vol. 1, 1859, pp. 105-6. 

Cimex longipes De Geeb, Charles. Memoires pour servir a l'Histoire des 
Insectes, vol. 3, 1773, pp. 352-4, pi. 35, figs. 16-17 [Pennsylvania]. This name 
though older than Say's is preoccupied by Cimex longipes Linnaeus, Systema 
Naturae, ed. 12, 1767, p. 724. 

Emesa filum? Griffith, Edward. The Animal Kingdom arranged in con- 
formity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier * * * with supple- 
mentary additions to each order by Edward Griffith, vol. 15, 1832, p. 244, pi. 97, 
fig. 3. [North America.] Index p. 786 states "Emesa filum f Filum, read 
brevipennis of Mr. Say." 

Emesa pia Amyot, C. B. J. and Serville, A. Histoire naturelle des Insectes, 
1843, p. 394. [Philadelphia.] 

Emesa pia Herrich-Schaffer, G. A. W. Die wanzenartigen Insecten, IX, 
1853, p. 114, fig. 937. [North America.] 

Dmesa choctaivana Kirkaldy, G. W. Hemiptera, Old and New, No. 2, Can. 
Ent, vol. 41, No. 11, Nov. 1909, p. 388. New name for brevipennis Dohru not 
of Say. However, Dohrn's brevipennis probably is Say's species and no new 
name was required. The generic name an obvious typographical error. 

KBT TO THE SUBSPECIES. 

1. Processes of 8th tergite shorter and more rounded as seen from above ; disk 
of tergite stramineous, with more copious and longer pubescence, giving it 
a sericeous appearance occidentalis. 



akt. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 79 

Processes of 8th tergite longer, more slender and pointed ; disk of tergite 

darker, pubescence shorter and sparser 2 

2. Pale annuli on mid and hind legs tending to obsolescence, especially in males, 

often the knees only pale australis. 

Full complement of pale leg markings usually evident in both sexes. 

brevipennis. 

EMESAYA BREVIPENNIS BREVIPENNIS (Say). 

In general color this subspecies varies from rubiginous to fuscous 
with the pale leg markings distinct; nymphs and teneral specimens 
are paler, mature specimens redder or darker. Genitalia as described 
in key (figs. 121 to 124). Fore tibia and tarsus as in figure 136; 
wings as in figures 137, 138. 

Length, 28-36 millimeters. 

Many specimens have been examined from a range with the fol- 
lowing States as its extremes : Massachusetts, Missouri, Florida, and 
Texas. The species has been recorded also from Iowa. 

The eggs (fig. 125) of this species are about 2 millimeters in 
length, long-elliptical in outline, the opercle with a large central, 
truncately conical tubercle, the periphery of which is more or less 
eroded at the base; the main body of the egg is black in ground color, 
somewhat compressed and with longitudinal rows of membranous, 
saw-tooth-shaped exfoliations, the bases of which are almost con- 
tinuous; these lines of projections are arranged more or less in con- 
centric ellipses (if we may use the expression) on the flat sides of the 
egg. Specimens examined were laid by a female captured on Plum- 
mer Island, Md., October 6, 1912. This individual laid about 20 
eggs before October 11. M. Faunce. Another female collected at 
the same locality by E. A. Schwarz and H. S. Barber, November 16, 
1912, also laid eggs in confinement. 

Nymphs about 6 millimeters long collected at Plummer Island, 
April 20, by H. S. Barber are pale ivory color with fuscous markings 
as follows : A slender vitta from base of antenna along side of head, 
interrupted at eye ; two more or less interrupted vittae along sides of 
all divisions of thorax; a slender line along outside of each front 
coxa and trochanter; front femur with a short vitta and 2 partial 
bands; mid and hind femora and tibiae each with 2 bands near the 
knee; apex of abdomen below with 2 series of markings, each con- 
sisting of a dot and 2 dashes; spiracles black. The posterior lol>e of 
head is much more swollen than in adult. 

EMESAYA BREVIPENNIS AUSTRALIS, new subspecies. 

From the Gulf States southward to Panama occurs what seems to 
be a geographical race characterized by a strong tendency, which is 
almost universal among the males, to lack all pale leg markings 
except at knees. We have not been able to correlate this character 



80 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

with any structural differences, whether of genitalia or otherwise, 
although it is noticeable that in this form the processes of the eighth 
tergite often are shorter than in northern specimens. 

The obvious question as to whether any of the several synonyms of 
Emesa brevipennis apply to this subspecies apparently must be 
answered in the negative. Two of these names, longipes De Geer and 
pia Amyot and Serville, were founded on specimens coming from 
the same State as Say's material, namely from Pennsylvania, where 
only one form is known to occur. E. pia Herrich-Schaffer has the 
characters of the old, not the new, subspecies, and choctaioana Kirk- 
aldy applies to a form agreeing in description with, and which prob- 
ably is, true E. brevipennis Say. Dohrn's key 12 attributes the prin- 
cipal character of our new subspecies to E. longipes De Geer, but his 
fuller description (pp. 221-2), based on De Geer's type, contradicts 
the statement in the key ; De Geer's description does not mention the 
character at all, and his name is unavailable, as we have noted in the 
synonym}^. 

Specimens of the new subspecies examined are : 

Holotype. — Male, Taboga Island, Panama, Feb. 27, 1912. A. 
Busck; allotype, same locality and collector, June 14, 1911 (U.S. 
N.M.). 

Paratypes with the following data : Taboga Island, Panama, June 
14, 1911, Feb. 22, 27, 1912, A. Busck; Ancon, Ganal Zone, Panama, 
A. H. Jennings ; Limon, Canal Zone, Panama, Aug. 24, 1918, H. Mor- 
rison; Gamboa, Canal Zone, Panama, July 17, 1918, H. Dietz and J. 
Zetek; Panama, June 25, Wirt Robinson; Paraiso, C. Z., Panama, 
Jan. 28, 1911, E. A. Schwarz ; Cacao Trece Aguas, Guatemala, April 
8, E. A. Schwarz; Altenas, Costa Rica, Schild and Burgdorf ; Ana- 
huac, Tex., Nov. 8, 1918, H. S. Barber (U.S.N.M.) ; Orange, Tex., 
July, 1914, Wm. T. Davis (Davis) ; Spring Creek, Decatur Co., Ga,, 
July, 1912; Bainbridge, Ga., July 15, 1912 (Cornell Univ.) ; Gaines- 
ville, Fla., July 20, 1918, C. J. Drake (Drake). 

Type, allotype, and paratypes.— Male, Cat. No. 26735, U.S.N.M. 

EMESAYA BREVIPENNIS OCCIDENTALIS, new subspecies. 

A pair of specimens from the Uhler Collection (U. S. Nat. Mus.) 
marked L. Cal. are selected as holotype (female) and allotype 
(male) of this subspecies. The general color is rufo-stramineous 
with all markings whether darker or paler much less noticeable 
than in E. b. brevipennis. Length 31-34 mm. 

A paratype female from Palo Alto, Calif., July 25, 1892, W. G. 
Johnson (Cornell Univ.) agrees in hypopygial characters (fig. 126) 
but is much shorter (26 mm.) and somewhat darker in coloration. 

»-' Emesina, 18G0, p. 217. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 81 

A female of the brevipennis complex from La Belle, Fla., April 
28, 1912 (Amer. Mus.) has the 8th tergite merely concave posteriorly, 
the lateral angles not forming teat-like processes, but since a male 
collected at same place and time is not separable from E. brevipennis 
the unusual character of the female is attributed to individual 
variation. 

EMESAYA LINEATA, new species. 

Female. — Knees of posterior two pairs of legs pale, the middle 
legs with, the hind legs without, a faint subbasal pale annulus on 
femur; legs in general pale, head and body dark reddish-brown. 
Apex of abdomen as in figure 127. 

Length, 31 mm. 

Holotype— Female, Crescent City, Fla. Broken specimen 
(U.S.N.M.) 

T !/P e.— Female, Cat. No. 26736, U.S.N.M. 

EMESAYA MODICA, new species. 

A dark species varying from reddish-brown to fuscous, the usual 
pale markings present, however; bare spots about setae on ventral 
surface of abdomen much less conspicuous than in E. brevipennis; 
hypopygium as described in key (figs. 128, 129). 

Length, 33 mm. 

Holotype.— Female, Cordoba, Mex., F. Knab. (U.S.N.M.) 

Type.— Female, Cat. No. 26737, U.S.N.M. 

Another female specimen probably of this species, but having the 
genitalia badly mashed is from Cachi, Costa Rica. April 27, 1910, 
C. H. Lankester (Acad. Sci. Phila.). 

Length, 34 mm. 

EMESAYA APICULATA, new species. 

Male. — General color deep castaneous, coxal margins, beak except 
apex, antennal tubercles, wedge-shaped markings behind and inside 
eyes, margins of posterior lobe of pronotum and connexivum ivory- 
colored. First joint of antenna pale at apex and near" base. Legs 
in general much paler than body; front ones with the lower sur- 
faces and a broad subterminal and narrower subbasal annulus on 
tibia, and two narrow annuli near apex of femur ivory color; mid 
and hind legs with apices of femora and bases of tibiae ivory, 
sharply contrasting with general color, the other annuli but faintly 
indicated. Wings dusky hyaline, scarcely paler at bases. 

Hypopygium (fig. 130) of moderate length, opening upward, 
hind margin and claspers as described in key (fig. 131) hind margin 
of sixth sternite slightly concave medianly, more so laterally; seventh 



82 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

nearly straight across; process of sixth tergite long, but not quite 
reaching apex of hypopygium, almost parallel-sided for most of its 
length, a little constricted beyond middle, transversely wrinkled 
basally, rather abruptly narrowed, bluntly-pointed and punctate 
apically. 

Length, 30-32 mm. 

Specimens: Males, Province del Sara, Bolivia, December, 1913. 
J. Steinbach (Carnegie Museum, Ace. No. 5068) ; Buena Vista, 
Bolivia, J. Steinbach (Carnegie Mus. Ace. 5573) ; Rio Autuz, Ama- 
zon, September, Roman (Stockholm Mus.). The last specimen dif- 
fers in having hind margin of sixth sternite convex instead of 
slightly concave medianly. A female nymph, E. Bolivia, J. Stein- 
bach (Carnegie Mus., Ace. No. 5572) probably is this species; as 
usual with nymphs of the genus it is more profusely and boldly 
marked than the adults. 

IloJotype. — The first specimen listed. 

An adult female, for geographical reasons regarded as belonging 
to this species, bears the following data : French Guiana, R. Oberthur, 
1899 (Paris Mus.). It differs in coloration from the male only in 
being a little duller, the markings especially of the front legs being 
less contrasted. The seventh tergite is very broad apically, the whole 
margin of the disk a little swollen; eighth tergite strongly carinate 
along the nearly parallel sides of disk, the carinae thickest at base, 
each with deep impression basally, apex of tergite rounded subangu- 
late medianly (figs. 131a, 132). 

Emesaya precatoria (Emesa precatovius Fabricius, J. C. 13 [Middle 
America] ) , seems to be much like E. apiculata. We have been sup- 
plied, through the kindness of Dr. William Lundbeck, with sketches 
and notes relating to the type specimen, which differs chiefly from 
the species here described in the emargination of the male clasper 
(fig. 1315) and shape of the apical hypopygial process (fig. 131c). 

EMESAYA POLLEX, new species. 

Male. — Chiefly castaneous, the legs and antennae paler; the tylus, 
middle of head just behind it, areas inside eyes and posterior lobe of 
thorax tending to be paler. Darkening of the disk of latter in some 
specimens gives the effect of pale marginal stripes. The connexivum 
is touched with luteous. Front tibia and femur with pale areas but 
scarcely banded; mid and hind femora with evident terminal and 
faint subterminal, tibiae with basal and subbasal, pale annuli. Tip 
of first antennal segment pale. Wings hyaline, a little denser at 
base. 

13 Systema Rhyngotorum, 1803, pp. 263-264. 



.art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 83 

Hypopygium long, opening upward (fig. 132«) ; spine and claspers 
as described in key (fig. 133). Sixth sternite with a shallow rounded 
emargination medianly, the sides first convex, then concave, pos- 
teriorly; 7th sternite with hind margin of approximately the same 
shape, but lacking median emargination. Process of 6th tergite 
narrowing very gradually, rounded apically, not quite reaching 
apices of claspers. 

Length, 23-26 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Corumba, Brazil, May (Carnegie Museum, Ace. 
No. 2966). Paratypes male, two, same locality as type, highlands 
in March; and another, Province del Sara, Bolivia, February, 1913, 
Steinbach (Carnegie Museum) ; male, Brazil, G. Fallon (Paris Mus.). 

A female certainly of this species from Santarem, Brazil (Ace. 
No. 2966, Carnegie Mus.) is selected as allotype. Coloration agrees 
very closely with that of the male. The seventh tergite is somewhat 
narrowly rounded apically, and the eighth is rather compressed, 
deep-sided and pointed apically, otherwise as described in key and 
figured (figs. 134, 135). Another female, labeled merely Amazon 
River (Stockholm Mus.), and one Goyaz, Jatahy, Brazil, Breddin 
(Berlin Mus.). 

EMES~AYA MANNI, new species. 

General color castaneous, posterior lobe of pronotum, wings, and 
legs paler brown, the fore femur with a subapical and the fore tibia 
with two pale bands. Male hypopygium as noted in key, the claspers 
oblong, not touching each other apically, the extremity pointed within, 
apical tergite moderately pointed and slightly surpassing hypopy- 
gium. Length, 32 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Huachi Beni, Bolivia, September, 1921, Wm. M. 
Mann (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Male, Cat. No. 26738, U.S.N.M. 

Genus METAPTERUS Costa. 

Metapterus, Costa, Achille. Additamenta ad Centurias Cimicum Regni 
neapolitani. Atti del real Istit. d ' Incorag. Sci. nat. Napoli. 1860, p. 10. 

This is the only bibliographical reference in the paper not personally veri- 
fied. We have been unable to find this publication in the largest scientific 
libraries in the United States. The genotype is Metapterus linearis Costa, 
whether by original designation or otherwise, we are unable to say. 

Barce, Stax, C. Hemiptera Africana descripsit, vol. 3, 1805, pp. 102-163. 
[A genus without species here.] Analecta hemipterologica, Berliner Entomolo- 
gische Zeitschrift, vol. 10. 1800, p. 108. [Monobasic, B. annulipes, new species, 
genotype.] 

Carambis Stal, C. Hem. Afr. 3, 1SG5, p. 103. [A genus without species here.] 
Anal, hemip. Berlin Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 10, 1800, p. 108. [Monobasic, genotype, 
Emesa caspica Dohrn.] This synonymy clears up Stal's reference to specimens 
of Carambis from America. (Emim. Hemip. 2, 1872, p. 127.) 



84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

Ilantisoma, Iakovlev, V. E. Materials for the entomological fauna of Euro- 
pean Russia, Proc. Russian Ent. Soc, St. Petersburg, vol. 7, 1874, pp. 34-35, 
pi. 1, fig. 2. [Monobasic, genotype M. apiera, new species.] The citation 
of this genus from Horae Soc. Ent. Ross., sometimes seen, is, of course, in- 
correct. 

In the form of the forelegs this genus resembles Emesaya, Gar- 
denia, and Ghilianella, but is readily distinguished from them by the 
characters indicated in the generic key (figs. 139, 141.) . In the caudal 
elongation of the apical abdominal tergite of the male, which covers 
the dorsal surface of the hypopygium to or beyond the apex, the 
genus resembles some of the species in Ghilianella, but the cephalic 
and some other characters readily separate it from that genus. The 
venation of the forewings (fig. 142) is evidence of relationship to 
Emesaya and Gardena, but the fore tarsal structure and the form 
of the hypopygia are quite different and indicate that Metapterus 
is no more closely related to these genera than to Ghilianella. The 
apical antennal segment is at least four times as long as the sub- 
apical. 

Our identification of Barce with Metapterus is based on compari- 
son of the two type species, the specimens of Metapterus linearis in 
our hands being some identified by Dr. A. "L. Montandon. The male 
hypopygium of this species has a longer central spine than in the 
most closely related American species (uhleri, neglectus) and this 
causes the last tergite to appear more decidedly arcuate. The hy- 
popygial claspers are rectangularly bent at about midway to apices r 
the apical half projecting upward like the central thorn, whereas 
in the North American species the claspers are slightly or almost 
imperceptibly curved. The female of M. linearis resembles that of 
uhleri most closely, the apical tergite being without notch, and the 
sixth sternite without a broad central emargination ; the apical tergite 
is broadly deflexed on apical half. 

... KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Males. 

1. Basal spine of postero-ventral series on fore femur less than its own length 

from base of femur; apical outline of hypopygium from side irregular (fig. 

147) aberrans, new species (p. 86). 

Basal spine of postero-ventral series on fore femur more than its own length 
from base of femur ; apical outline of hypopygium from side usually 
regularly rounded 2 

2. Head with a pale yellowish stripe along venter which is of about equal width 

on its entire length, filling the interocular space, and without a dark spot 
on each side behind eye ; upper margin of hypopygium with a squarish 
backwardly curved process which is more or less emarginate at tip (fig. 
15S), no erect spine within the upper border of hypopygium 3 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 85 

Head with a pale yellowish stripe along venter which is narrower than inter- 
ocular space or has a distinct dark spot on each side behind eye ; upper 
margin of hypopygium not produced backward at apex, with a long 
spine within upper border (figs. 151, 152) 5 

3. Fore coxa about twice as long as fore tibia 4 

Fore coxa less than 1.5 as long as fore tibia banksii (Baker) (p. 87). 

4. Mid and hind femora each with more than one brown band; seventh tergite 

obtusely rounded, projecting little if any beyond hypopygium (fig. 157). 

annulipes (Stal) (p. 88). 
Mid and hind femora each with only one brown band ; seventh tergite more 
acutely rounded and projecting more or less beyond hypopygium. 

fraternus (Say) (p. 89). 

5. Apical spine of hypopygium conspicuously backwardly curved at tip (fig. 

150) ; general color fuscous ; surface rugulae of abdomen both above and 

below forming a distinct reticulation uhleri (Banks) (p. 86). 

Apical hypopygial spine straight or almost so, only slightly curved at tip (fig. 
153) ; general color stramineous; surface rugulae of abdomen chiefly longi- 
tudinal, not forming a reticulation neglectus, new species (p. 87). 

Females. 

1. Basal postero-ventral spine on fore femur less than its own length from base 

of femur; apical tergite entire aberrans, new species (p. 86). 

Basal postero-ventral spine on fore femur more than its own length from 
base of femur 2 

2. Head with a pale yellowish stripe on venter which is not decidedly nar- 

rower than interocular space nor with a dark spot on each side behind 

eye 3 

Head with a pale yellow stripe on venter which is narrower than interocular 
space or has a dark spot on each side behind eye 5 

3. Fore coxa only about one third longer than fore tibia __banksii (Baker) (p. 87). 
Fore coxa nearly or quite twice as long as fore tibia 4 

4. Mid and hind femora each with more than one brown band ; spines on pos- 

tero-ventral surface of fore femur less elongate, the process between bases 
of antenna less pronounced, wing pads in apterous forms less developed 
than in fraternus; notch in apex of apical tergite of an open type, its sides 

varying from concave to nearly straight annulipes (Stal) (p. 88). 

Mid and hind femora each with one brown band ; spines on postero-ventral 
surface of fore femur more elongate, the process between bases of an- 
tennae more pronounced, the wing pads in apterous forms better developed 
than in annulipes ; notch in apical tergite of a narrower type, its sides 
more or less convex, the apex of the notch more acute (fig. 162). 

fraternus (Say) (p. 89). 

5. Seventh tergite entire or barely emarginate at apex (fig. 148) general color 

of species fuscous uhleri (Banks) (p. 86). 

Seventh tergite with a short and acute apical incision (fig. 154) ; general 
color stramineous neglectus, new species (p. 87). 

SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF THE- SPECIES. 

Male hypopygium with an erect spine inside of hind margin. 

Fore coxa but little longer than fore tibia; first spine of fore femur at less 
than its length from base of femur. aberrans. 



86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

Fore coxa 1.5 or more longer than fore tibia ; first spine of fore femur at 
more than its own length from base. uhleri. 

neglectus. 

Male hypopygium with a squarish process on hind margin ; first spine of fore 

femur at more than its length from base. 

Fore coxa less than 1.5 times as long as fore tibia. banksii. 

Fore coxa nearly twice as long as fore tibia. annulipes. 

fraternus. 
METAPTERUS ABERRANS, new species. 

A small, dark, robust species, wth characters of male hypopygium 
and female genital segments similar to those of uhleri. The head 
lacks the process between the bases of antennae and the labrum is 
but little protruded, in one specimen almost imperceptibly so. The 
pronotum has a very deep constriction near posterior margin and 
its hind margin has a short backwardly projecting process in middle. 
Wing pads small. Apical tergite in female as in uhleri but shorter ; 
male hypopygium as seen from the side as in figure 147, the upper 
posterior margin with an erect spine. 

Length, 7-8 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, allotype, and one male paratype, Austin, Tex., 
January 3, 1901 (Bueno). 

METAPTERUS UHLERI (Banks). 

Barce uhleri Banks, N. Emesidae, 1909, p. 47 [Southern Pines, N. C.]. 

This species, aberrans and neglectus, agree with linearis, the 
genotype, in having an erect spine inside the hind border of male 
hypopygium, but like all the other American species known to us 
differs from linearis in that the male claspers are not abruptly 
bent apically and directed upward on each of the apical spine. 
M. aberrans, uhleri, and neglectus have another character also in 
common with linearis, namely that the pale streak on lower surface 
of head is narrower than interocular width or is interrupted by a 
dark spot behind each eye. The external genital characters of both 
sexes of M. uhleri are illustrated by figures 148 to 151, the fore 
leg by figure 14G. 

Length, 7-9 mm. 

Data for specimens examined : Forest Hills, Mass., March 30. 1915, 
F. X. Williams; Truro, Mass., Sept. 4, 1904; North Attleboro, 
Mass., Oct. 3, 1920, C. A. Frost (Parshley) ; Hyannisport, Mass., 
Aug. 18, 1899, J. L. Zabriskie (Am. Mus.) ; New York (Cornell 
Univ.); Central Park, Long Island, N. Y., April 11, 1915, G. P. 
Englehardt (Bueno) ; Sea Cliff, Long Island, N. Y., N. Banks 
(Paratype, McAtee) ; Ithaca,, N. Y., July 21, 1921, Aug. 22, 1892 
(Cornell Univ.) ; White Plains, N. Y., Oct. 25, 1908 (Bueno) ; Cape 
May County, N. J., April 10, 11, 1911, Wm. T. Davis (Davis) ; Lake- 
hurst, N. J., May 2, 1908, H. G. Barber; Vienna, Va., Aug., 1919, 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIABIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 87 

H. G. Barber (Barber) ; Southern Pines, N. C, December, N. 
Banks (Paratypes, U.S.N.M.) ; also same locality, Feb., March, 
June, Sept., Dec, A. H. Manee (Davis Coll. Cornell Univ., Bueno, 
Drake, Barber, Parshley) ; South Dakota (Parshley) ; Oxbow, 
Saskatchewan, April 14, 21, 22, 1907, F. Knab (U.S.N.M.). 

Rarely a female specimen of this species has a distinct notch in 
posterior margin of apical tergite. The color varies somewhat and 
the varietal name brunnea Banks 14 was applied to specimens with 
pale spots on the connexivum and pale irrorations on the venter; 
the color of the dorsum suggests bronzed leather. Type examined 
at the Museum of Comparative Zoology. The proportion of winged 
specimens in the whole material is small. 

METAPTERUS NEGLECTUS, new species. 

A larger and much paler species than uhleri, the general color 
being yellowish brown. Male hypopygium similar to that of uMeri, 
differing in having the apical spine without a conspicuously recurved 
tip (fig. 152, 153). Female differing as stated in the key, the apical 
tergite as in figure 154. 

Length, 11-12 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Lakehurst, N. J., May 13, 1917, under a pile 
of old bricks, W. T. Davis (Davis). Allotype, Winchester, Mass., 
L. L. Thaxter (U.S.N.M.). Paratypes: male, Lakehurst, N. J., 
March 30, 1907, H. G. Barber (Barber) ; White Plains, N. Y., one 
male, August 31, 1909; one male, March, 1919, under a stone; one 
male, April 4, 1909; one male, April 9, 1911; one female, April 30, 
1911; Staten Island, N. Y., March 29, 1903 (Bueno). 

A llotype.— Female, Cat. No. 26739, U.S.N.M. 

METAPTERUS BANKSII (Baker). 

Barce banksii Baker, C. F. California Emesidae, Pomona Coll. Journ. Ent. 
2, No. 2, May, 1910, p. 227 [Claremont, Calif.]. 

Similar in color to fratemus, differing as stated in ke} 7 . The fore 
tibia of male is about three-sevenths as long as fore femur while in 
the preceding two species it is but little over one-third as long. The 
male hypopygium is very much less keeled on apical half than in 
fratcrnus and has the small process at apex above larger, while from 
the rear view it is much less tapered below (fig. 155) . Both sexes have 
the process between bases of antennae moderately well developed. 

Length, 9-12 mm. 

Data for specimens examined: 

Palm Springs, Calif., February 17; California, no other data, 
Uhler Coll. (U.S.N.M.); San Mateo County, Calif. (Cornell 
Univ.) ; Pasadena, Calif., June 17, 1908 (Ball). 

14 Emesidae, 1909, p. 47. 



88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

METAPTERUS ANNULIPES (Stal). 

Harce annuUpes Stal, C. Berlin Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 10, 1866, p. 168 [Wis- 
consin]. 

Emesodcma si»iplicipcs Say Ms., Uhler, P. R. Notices of the Hemiptera 
Heteroptera in the collection of the late T. W. Harris, M. D. Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 19, pp. 430-431, Nov. 1878 [Salem, Mass.]. The synonymy 
of this name with annuUpes is by no means certain, and would not be adopted 
on the basis of the original description. The type specimen, however, is re- 
ported to agree with annuUpes. Without this testimony we should be inclined 
to use the same simplicipes for the following species and to drop Say's name 
as unidentifiable. 

A brownish fuscous species, varying considerably in intensity of 
color, the darker specimens having the annulations of the legs 
most distinct. The broad yellowish stripe on ventral surface of 
head is uniform in width throughout and not narrower than interocu- 
lar space, a character annuUpes has in common with banksii and 
fraternvs. 

The principal structural characters for distinguishing annuUpes 
among this group of species are enumerated in the key and illus- 
trated in figures 156, 157, 158, 159; the comparatively small size 
of the process between bases of antennae appears to be a reliable 
character, judging from our material, which is quite extensive. The 
fore tibia and tarsus are illustrated by figure 145. 

Length, 10-11 mm. 

Data for specimens examined : Monmouth, Me., Oct. 10, 1920, 
C. A. Frost; Jackson, N. H., Sept. 22, 1907, Bryant (Parshley) ; Con- 
toocook, N. H., Aug. 23, 1923, E. W. Hall (Iowa State Coll.) ; 
Andover, Mass., Nov. 9, 1915, F. X. Williams; Sherborn, Mass., 
Oct. 17, 1920, C. A. Frost; North Attleboro, Mass., Oct. 3, 1920, 
C. A. Frost; Cold Spring Harbor, L. I., N. Y., July 30, Aug. 2, 1922, 
H. M. Parshley (Parshley) ; Cypress Hills, L. I., N. Y., May 18, 
1909, Chas. J. Martin (Am. Mus.) ; Indian Lake, Sabael, N. Y., Aug. 
15, 1921 (Barber) ; White Plains, N. Y., March 2, 1919, Aug. 31, 
1908, Oct. 19, 1919, Nov. 21, 1914 (Bueno) ; N. Y., Scudder 
(U.S.N.M.) ; Paterson, N. J., July 25 (Am. Mus.) ; Koselle, N. J., Oct. 
5, 1913, H. G. Barber (Barber.) ; Penn Station, Pa., June 6 (Cornell 
Univ.) ; Aug. 2, 1902. M. Wirtner (Bueno), Aug. 6, 1905, M. Wirt- 
ner (Cornell Univ., U.S.N.M.) ; Henson Creek, Prince Georges 
County, Md. (Cornell Univ.) ; Plummer Island, Md., July 5, 1911, 
July 17, 1914, July 20, 1911, Sept. 2, 10, 1916, E. A. Schwarz and 
H. S. Barber, July 22, 1915, Aug. 29, 1905, and 1912, H. S. Barber 
(U.S.N.M.) ; Glen Echo, Md., July 23, 1921, J. R, Malloch (Biol. 
Surv.) ; Great Falls, Va., Sept. 5, 1916, W. L. McAtee; Virginia near 
Plummer Island, Md., March 18, 1917, W. L. McAtee (McAtee), 
July 21, 1912, R. A. Cushman, Sept. 21, 1912, H. S. Barber, Fair- 
fax County. Va., Aug. 16, 1911, H. S. Barber (U.S.N.M.) ; Glen- 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 89 

carlyn, Va., Oct. 10 (Cornell Univ.) ; Vienna, Va., Aug. 9, 1916, 
H. G. Barber (Barber) ; Ridgeway, Ont., Aug. 6, 1887 (Iowa State 
Coll.) ; Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 14, 17, 1906 (Ball) ; Wis. (U.S.N.M.) ; 
Winnipeg, Manitoba (Ball) ; Ames, Iowa, Sept. 13, 1907 (Iowa 
State Coll.), Aug. 13, 1895 (Ball). 

METAPTERUS FRATERNUS (Say). 

Ploiaria fraterna Say, Thomas, Descriptions of new species of Heteropter- 
ous Hemiptera of North America, 1831 ; Complete Writings, vol. 1, 1859, pp. 
358-359 [New Orleans]. 

A fairly common species, closely related to the preceding, averag- 
ing larger, and with more southern and western distribution. All our 
specimens from Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, and one from Mis- 
souri are winged, the others including one from Missouri are fur- 
nished with minute wing pads only. In the winged forms the fore 
wings are brownish with upper surface irregularly granulose, the 
slight elevations or granules darker than the remainder of wing. 
Distinguishable from annulipes as stated in the key, and illustrated 
in figures 160 to 162. 

Length, 12-13 mm. 

Data for specimens examined: Cold Spring Harbor, L. L, N. Y., 
July 1902, H. G. Barber (Barber) ; White Plains, N. Y., August 31, 
1909, September 4, 1911, September 13, 1919, October 10, 1909, Octo- 
ber 23, 1921, November 7, 1909; Palisades, N. J., August 20 (Bueno) ; 
Woodbury, N. J., January 1, 1905 (Drake) ; Bay Ridge, Md., August 
3, 1905. (Cornell Univ.) ; Plum Point, Md., August 10, 1913, W. L. 
McAtee (McAtee) ; Chesapeake Beach, Md., August 3, 1913, A. Wet- 
more (Biol. Survey), September 4, N. Banks, September 2, 1908 
(Cornell LTniv.) ; Cabin John Bridge, Md., August, 1907, W. Palmer; 
Plummer Island, Md., October 4, 1912, October 26, 1913, laid eggs 
(See figs. 163, 164), H. S. Barber; Jackson Island, Md., July 3, 1911; 
Offutt Island, Md., October 3, 1919, II. S. Barber (U.S.N.M.) ; Glen 
Echo, Md., October 15, 1892, O. Heidemann (Iowa State Coll.) ; 
Washington, D. C, October 7, 1885, November 5, 1881 (U.S.N.M.), 
July 10, Feb. 5, 1893, F. C. Pratt (Cornell Univ.) ; Great Falls, Va., 
September 5, 1916, October 4, 1916. W. L. McAtee (McAtee, Drake, 
Biol. Survey) ; Falls Church, Va., August 30, 1904. October 1, Sep- 
tember 5, November 2, N. Banks (Cornell LTniv.) ; Southern Pines, 
N. C, December (Parshley) ; Daytona, Fla., (Cornell Univ.) ; Ohio 
(Drake) ; Natchez, Miss., May 13, 22, 25, 1909, E. S. Tucker; Baton 
Rouge, La., June 1, 1893, H. S. Weed (U.S.N.M.) ; Falls City, Nebr., 
July 31, H. G. Barber (Barber) ; Lincoln, Nebr., July, at light (Iowa 
State Coll.); Wichita, Kansas; Missouri; Charleston, Md., October 
28, 1915; Durant, Okla., June 2, 1905, F. C. Bishopp; Texas; Dallas, 
Tex., May 10, 1908, E. S. Tucker, November 27, 1906, R. A. Cush- 
man; Columbus, Tex., June 16 (U.S.N.M.). 



90 PKOCEEDINQS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. C7 

It is only by assumption that this species has been identified with 
that described by Say. The original description is very inadequate, 
and the few tangible characters mentioned in it do not apply well 
to the present species. It would be no injustice to drop Say's name, 
as unidentifiable. 

Genus GHILIANELLA Spinola. 

Ghilianella Spinola, M. Di alcuni Generi d'Insetti Artroidignati nuovamente 
proposti dal Socio Attuale Signor Marcbese Massimiliano Spinola nella sua 
Tavola Sinottica di questo Ordine. Meinorie di Matematica e di Fisica del la 
Societa Italiana delle Scienze residente in Modena, vol. 25, pt. 1, 1852, pp. 
142-143. Monobasic: Genotype, G. fiUventris, new species [Para]. 

The inclusion and brief definition of Ghilianella in the Tavola 
Sinottica (p. 85) of the same work, is responsible for citation of 
that reference as the original description of the genus. However, 
we prefer the reference here given where the genus and its genotype 
are described at length. 

Characters of the genus besides those mentioned in the key to 
genera are: the presence between bases of antennae of a projection 
varying from a mere wart to a prominent porrect or decurved spine 
(fig. 165) ; head and thorax more or less granulate, the former with 
a profound constriction anterior of eyes; meso- and meta-thorax 
each tricarinate (or with a median carina and lateral rows of tu- 
bercles above) and usually unicarinate below; abdomen more or 
less carinate or keeled below ; front tibia with a patch of short pale 
golden hairs on inner side apically and a tuft of longer ones at the 
apex inferiorly; mid and hind legs and antennae each longer than 
body. Color varies much according to age, usually the nymphs are 
pale and the color darkens steadily with age until the final stage is 
dark reddish brown or even blackish; in some species, however, the 
adults are pale; when the legs have pale markings they are almost 
invariably as follows: mid and hind femora with two postmedian 
bands and a subapical spot, and tibiae with a sub-basal spot; in the 
pale species, dark markings tend to appear at these same places; 
frontal and femoral spines mostly pale. The whole head and body 
of Ghilianella species are sparsely pale haired, the hair tending 
to aggregate in patches about base of frontal spine, juncture of 
head and pronotum, and on sides anteriorly of meso- and meta- 
thoraces. 

The principal characters for separating the species are derived 
from the terminal segments of the abdomen and are rarely men- 
tioned in previous descriptions. We have had little success therefore 
in identifying described species of which we have not seen specimens. 
Precise determination of these species depends upon examination 
of the types practically all of which are in Europe. We have fortu- 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 91 

nately been able through the kindness of Dr. E. Bergroth to examine 
the types of his species, aid which has been of the utmost value in 
the study of the present genus. 

However, inability to inspect other type specimens can not be per- 
mitted to prevent a revision of the genus which proves to be richer in 
species than has previously been suspected. This latter fact in itself 
insures that few of our species will prove identical with the older 
ones, while the total to be discovered in neotropical regions can only 
be indicated by an estimate so large that it would be considered ab- 
surd by many entomologists. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Males. 

1. Mesothorax distinctly longer than prothorax ; shape of abdomen various- 2 
Mesothorax little if any longer than prothorax ; abdomen gradually widen- 
ing from base 20 

2. Abdomen with an abrupt bulbous swelling behind middle (figs. 196, 

201) 3 

Abdomen without bulbous swelling (figs. 169, 210) 14 

3. Spine between antennae well developed, acute ; head and prothorax usually 

distinctly granulose ; elaspers of hypopygium with upper and lower mar- 
gins in most species without a rounded subapical notch above or below ; 

metathorax usually much attenuated anteriorly 4 

Spine between antennae not developed, a mere wart, blunt ; head and pro- 
thorax but little granulose ; elaspers of hypopygium long, obtriangular 
with at least the upper margin notched 13 

4. Hypopygium with a large apical hook like process which has an emargina- 

tion or concavity on each side of hook, not entirely filled by the elaspers 

(figs. 193, 194, 200) 12 

Hypopygium with a small apical process which is visible only under high 
magnification, the upper margin of hypopygium but little concave, the 
elaspers entirely filling the space between the margin and the process 
(fig. 197) 5 

5. Fifth tergite bearing a pair of strongly divergent long conical horns, equal in 

length to entire bulbosity (fig. 205) mirabilis, new species (p. 124). 

Fifth tergite without such horns 6 

6. Seventh tergite short, sixth entirely incorporated into the bulbosity which 

thus appears almost terminal (fig. 201) 7 

Seventh tergite long, sixth not wholly incorporated into bulbosity which is 
distinctly subterminal 8 

7. Sixth tergite more than half as long as fifth, provided with a smaller ele- 

vation similar in shape to that of fifth (fig. 201). 

filiventris Spinola (p. 123). 
Sixth tergite less than half as long as fifth, without elevations. 

atriclava Bergroth (p. 123). 

8. Widest part of bulbosity in fourth segment ; top of abdomen with 2 distinct 

longitudinal lines of gray hairs globifera Bergroth (p. 110). 

Widest part of bulbosity in fifth segment 9 

9. Fifth tergite lacking subangulate ridged elevations; sixth trisinuate poste- 

riorly claviventris Bergroth (p. 109). 

Fifth tergite with subangulate ridged elevations; sixth slightly convex 
posteriorly 10 



92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 6T 

10. Elevation of fifth tergite distinctly inside lateral margins of disk. 

approximata, new species (p. 117). 

Elevations of fifth tergite on lateral margins of disk, the margins passing 

over as carinae 11 

11. Elevations of fifth tergite at middle ; clasper oblong, about a third as wide 

as long (fig. 197) perigynium, new species (p. 120). 

Elevations of fifth tergite nearer posterior margin ; clasper much narrower, 
terete recondita, new species (p. 119). 

12. Seventh tergite with a longitudinal carina on apical half, tip of tergite pro- 

jecting well beyond apex of hypopygium ; apical central hook of latter rela- 
tively small, not much curved at base and not standing well clear of the 
sternite at base so that it is only visible as a hook under a moderate 

magnification (fig. 193) globulata, new species (p. 118). 

subglobulata, new species (p. 121). 

Seventh tergite without longitudinal carina, tip of tergite projecting little if 

any beyond apex of hypopygium ; apical hook of latter much curved at 

base, standing well clear of the sternite so that if is usually visible as a 

hook to the unaided eye (fig. 200) uncinata, new species (p. 122). 

13. Hypopygial claspers each with a deep excavation on upper margin before 

apex, the lower margin entire (fig. 199) ; fifth sternite with regular mi- 
scroscopic striae which run from base to apex and are slightly outwardly 

directed strigata, new species (p. 121). 

Hypopygial claspers each with a deep rounded excavation on upper margin 
before apex, and a deep incision about opposite on lower margin (fig. 
194) ; fifth sternite lacking regular striae, granular, the granulations be- 
ing partially grouped in irregular transverse rows. 

patruela, new species (p. 119). 

14. Abdomen nearly as wide at hypopygium as at any point proximad of it__ 15 
Abdomen notably widest at third or fourth segment ; seventh tergite re- 
markably elongated and slender, projecting beyond apex of hypopygium 
by at least the length of latter (figs. 187, 188) 19 

15. Hypopygium almost annular, the terminal hook large, flanked each side by 

a space which is not filled by the broadly triangular claspers ; seventh 
tergite not especially narrowed subapically, apex a strong process project- 
ing well beyond hypopygium (fig. ISO) apiculata, new species (p. 111). 

Hypopygium more elongate, hook small, concealed between apices qf 
claspers ; apex of seventh tergite not strongly tuberculate nor project- 
ing far beyond hypopygium (fig. 181) 16 

16. Hypopygium somewhat inflated, notably deeper vertically than adjacent 

part of abdomen 18 

Hypopygium scarcely inflated and but little deeper than abdomen 17 

17. Claspers oblong, almost truncate apically, slightly beveled off at inferior 

angle ica, new species (p. 111). 

Claspers broader basally, rather pointed apically, superior angle sloped off 
with a long bevel (fig. 1S1) pachitea, new species (p. 111). 

18. Seventh tergite longer, much narrowed and slightly transversely corrugated 

subapically, the apex pointed and slightly keeled. 

aracataca, new species (p. 112). 
Seventh tergite shorter, but little narrowed and faintly transversely 
wrinkled subapically, the apex triangular, bluntly pointed. 

colona, new species (p. 112). 

19. Abdomen widest at fourth segment, each tergite with a pair of small round 

spots of pale yellow pile on hind margin; spiracles yellow. 

assa-nutrix Bergroth (p. 114). 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 93 

Abdomen widest at fifth segment, tergites lacking pilose spots ; spiracles 
blackish gladiator, new species (p. 115). 

20. Hind margin of sixth sternite almost straight ; head and thorax copiously, 

coarsely granulate ; seventh tergite triangular apically, not keeled, ex- 
rending little if any beyond hypopygium (fig. 175) ; apical antennal seg- 
ment only a little longer than subapical pascoei Bergroth (p. 106). 

Hind margin of sixth sternite with a broad central rounded concavity and 
smaller lateral ones, the sternite longest at a point between the lateral 
margin and median line 21 

21. Head and thorax conspicuously granulate; length 15 to 17 mm. 

minimula, new species (p. 105). 
Head and thorax not conspicuously granulate ; longer species 22 

22. Eighth sternite visible on its entire width, the spiracle moderately peduncu- 

late \ 23 

Eighth sternite with the sides more or less concealed 27 

23. Abdomen nearly cylindrical ; clasper very broadly triangular, width at apex 

equaling length (fig. 177) personata, new species (p. 108). 

Abdomen otherwise ; clasper not so broadly triangular 24 

24. Abdomen clavate, posterior angles of tergites subangularly ampliate ; 

tergites lacking dark warts on middle of hind margins. 

angulata (Uhler) (p. 128). 

Abdomen parallel-sided ; tergites 2-6 each with a small dark wart at 

middle of hind margin 25 

25. Narrowed portion of seventh tergite distinctly longer than terminal ex- 

panded part (fig. 170) persimilis, new species (p. 103). 

Narrowed portion of seventh tergite distinctly shorter than terminal ex- 
panded part 26 

26. Claspers of about same width throughout their length; pale species. 

productilis Barber (p. 102). 
Claspers wide subbasally, much narrowed apically ; dark species. 

simillima, new species (p. 102). 

27. Eighth sternite visible only at center, its sides, including spiracles, covered ; 

abdomen with flecks of denser pubescence ; fore femur gradually thickened 

from base to first ventral spine maculata, new species (p. 108). 

Spiracles of eighth sternite exposed ; head, thorax and abdomen with 
patches of dense golden pubescence; fore femur thickened on basal half 
of that part basad of the first ventral spine (fig. 215). 

insidiatrix Bergroth (p. 126). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Females. 

1. Mesothorax (viewed from above) longer than prothorax 2 

Mesothorax not longer than prothorax 17 

2. Abdomen with a bulbous swelling beyond middle, and prominent lateral 

elevations on either fifth or 'sixth tergites (figs. 196,201) 3 

Abdomen without bulbous swelling or lateral elevations on fifth and sixth 
tergites . 12 

3. Fifth tergite the widest, its sides before hind margin prominently ele- 

vated, usually standing above connexivum 4 

Sixth tergite about as wide as or wider than fifth, bearing a large median 
tubercle (fig. 184) 15 



94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

4. Sixth tergite lacking a large median tubercle, though fifth and sixth ter- 

gites may be more or less elevated at middle of hind margin 5 

Sixth tergite with a prominent, median, falcate tubercle on its hind margin. 

bethei (Dohrn) (p. 112). 

5. Fifth tergite with a pair of divergent, long conical horns, each nearly equal 

in length to width of tergite (fig. 208) mirabilis, new species (p. 124). 

Fifth tergite without such horns 6 

(i. Elevations of fifth tergite distinctly inside lateral margins of disk. 

approximata, new species (p. 117). 

Elevations of fifth tergite on lateral margins of disk, the margins passing 

over them as carinae . 7 

7. Pronotum not noticeably granulose ; abdomen with one or more pairs of 

large pale pilose spots on dorsum and venter__signata, new species (p. 120). 

Pronotum distinctly granulose ; abdomen not or very inconspicuously 

spotted 8 

8. Eighth tergite as long as wide 10 

Eighth tergite much shorter than wide 9 

9. Posterior lateral angles of seventh tergite produced no farther posteriorly 

than median convexity of hind margin which is more or less tuberculate. 

globulata, new species (p. 118). 
Posterior angles of seventh tergite produced distinctly beyond middle of 
hind margin, which is merely convex, not at all tuberculate. 

subglobulata, new species (p. 121). 

10. Posterior lateral angles of seventh tergite produced distinctly beyond middle 

of hind margin which is not tuberculate gladiator, new species (p. 115). 

Posterior lateral angles of sixth tergite produced no farther than median 
convexity of hind margin which is slightly tuberculate 11 

11. Seventh sternite about twice as long on median line as sixth, with a broad 

convex process apically which is slightly emarginate medianly. 

perigynium, new species (p. 120). 
Seventh sternite only a third longer than sixth; somewhat angulate apically. 

recondita, new species (p. 119). 

12. Seventh tergite with the posterior angles produced as divergent, acute proc- 

esses; other tergites ornamented on their hind margins with a pair of spots 

of golden pubescence; abdomen boat-shaped assa-nutrix Bergroth (p. 114). 

Posterior angles of seventh tergite not so produced ; abdomen clavate, not 
so ornamented 13 

13. Tergite 7 about as wide as long, with a distinct median tubercle posteriorly; 

sternite 7 merely convex medianly, but little produced. 

filiventris Spinola (p. 123). 
Tergite 7 not tuberculate ; sternite 7 much produced and acute poste- 
riorly 14 

14. Tergite 7 much longer than wide, middle of hind margin conspicuously 

declivate, the lateral angles prominent, acute ; sternites 5 to 7 as in 

figure 191 stipitata, new species (p. 116). 

Tergite 7 little longer than wide, hind margin not declivate medianly, almost 
straight across, the lateral angles and median point only very slightly em- 
phasized ; stemites 5 to 7 as in figure 192.._siniilata, new species (p. 116). 

15. Fifth tergite about equal in length to its width at hind margin; abdomen 

with a bulbous swelling beyond middle pendula, new species (p. 116). 

Fifth tergite about twice as long as its width at hind margin ; abdomen 
tapered from base to apex, or slightly clubbed apically 16 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 95 

16. Seventh sternite very slightly longer than sixth, the latter with the hind 

margin slightly concave cuneata, new species (p. 113). 

Seventh sternite at least 1.5 as long as sixth on median line, the latter with 
a very deep concavity on hind margin aracataca, new species (p. 112). 

17. Posterior angles of tergites more or less ampliate or produced, the outline 

of dorsum of abdomen as seen from above not a continuous straight or 
curved line (fig. 210) 18 

Posterior angles of tergites (except sometimes the seventh) not produced, 
the outline or dorsum of abdomen a continuous straight (fig. 169) or 

curved line 23 

IS. Fore femur notably thicker near base than at first strong spine (fig. 
213) 19 

Fore femur enlarging gradually from base to first strong spine (fig. 
185) 21 

19. A strong tubercle on hind margin of sixth tergite (fig. 184) 20 

No obvious tubercle on hind margin of sixth tergite. 

glabrata, new species (p. 128). 

20. Eighth tergite with disk prominently elevated each side of a broad median 

sulcus ; ninth tergite convex medianly the margin slightly elevated ; cor- 
rugations of these tergites indistinct insidiatrix Bergroth (p. 126). 

Eighth and ninth tergites with disk depressed and margin's elevated, each 
longitudinally carinate and transversely corrugated. 

amicula, new species (p. 127). 

21. Angulations of tergites more pronounced ; apex of sixth notably wider 

than that of seventh (fig. 210) 22 

Angulation of tergites less pronounced ; apex of sixth tergite scarcely wider 
than that of seventh peruviana, new species (p. 125). 

22. Elevated margins of ninth tergite produced apically as distinct spines (fig. 

211) annectens, new species (p. 125). 

Elevated margins of ninth tergite not forming spines (fig. 213). 

truncata, new species (p. 126). 

23. Basal spine of fore femur at less than its own length from base of femur 

(i. e. juncture of the trochanter) ; fore tibia and tarsus combined three- 
fourths as long as femur (fig. 167) ; spine between bases of antennae 

much reduced, a mere wart galapagensis Heidemann (p. 100). 

Basal spine of fore femur at distinctly more than its own length from 
base of femur; other characters not as above 24 

24. Seventh sternite distinctly produced on middle of hind margin 25 

Seventh sternite not produced 31 

25. Hind margin of seventh tergite without tubercle 26 

Hind margin of seventh tergite more or less tuberculate 28 

26. Hind margin of seventh tergite concave medianly. 

personata, new species (p. 108). 
Hind margin of seventh tergite not concave medianly 27 

27. Hind margin of seventh tergite straight across_semipallida Bergroth (p. 100). 
Hind margin of seventh tergite angulate, produced medianly but not tu- 
berculate alterata, new species (p. 107). 

28. Median tubercle on hind margin of seventh tergite extending farther poste 

riorly than lateral angles ; ninth tergite with 3 finger-like ridges at apex. 

(fig. 172) persimilis, new species (p. 103). 

Median tubercle on hind margin of seventh tergite not extending as far 
posteriorly as laterial angles; apex of ninth tergite lacking finger-like 
longitudinal ridges 29 



96 PROCEEDINGS OP THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

29. Apex of ninth tergite distinctly upcurved, transversely wrinkled and with a 

low median longitudinal carina; process of seventh sternite large. 

productilis Barber (p. 102). 
Apex of ninth tergite otherwise ; process of seventh sternite small 30 

30. Apex of ninth tergite distinctly decurved, longitudinally strigate, and with 

a strong median carina, the lateral margins depressed. 

succincta, new species (p. 105). 
Apex of ninth tergite slightly decurved, the lateral margins strongly ele- 
vated, depressed median area with a carina which extends from the 
upper transversely corrugated third of the sternite. 

aliena, new species (p. 106). 

31. Eighth tergite visible only as two small rounded laterally situated protu- 

berances, below apex of seventh tergite, not continued downward in center 

over base of ninth tergite (fig. 174) alveola, new species (p. 104). 

Eighth tergite covering base of ninth tergite 32 

32. Sixth tergite with a prominent protuberance, seventh with a smaller one 

on middle of hind margin (fig. 178) 33 

Sixth tergite without a prominent protuberance 34 

33. Abdomen ten times as long as its greatest width; first antennal joint with 

several dark bands varicornis Dohrn (p. 101). 

Abdomen not so long and slender, clavate; ninth tergite rounded apically, 
the depressed apex overlaid by two short tapering ridges (fig. 179). 

perversa, new species (p. 110). 

34. Hind margin of sixth sternite almost straight; apex of ninth tergite with 

a strong bidentate tubercle on each side bicaudata, new species (p. 101). 

Hind margin of sixth sternite more or less concave 35 

35. Sixth sternite a third longer on sides than in middle (fig. 176). 

pascoei Bergroth (p. 106). 
Sixth sternite not so deeply emarginate posteriorly 36 

36. Apex of ninth tergite overlaid by two strong finger-like processes (fig. 173) ; 

length over 30 mm longula, new species (p. 104). 

Apex of ninth tergite with a low median carina ; length less than 20 mm. 

minim ula, new species (p. 105). 

REMARKS ON PREVIOUSLY DESCRIBED SPECIES OTHER THAN THOSE INCLUDED IN THE KEY. 

analis (Emcsa) Dohrn. Emesina, 1S60, pp. 229-230, pi. 1, fig. 5 [Surinam]. 

This species runs to the division of our key including apiculata 
and aracataca. Dohrn's figure shows that the hypopygium is not 
annular with a large hook as in the former, and that the sixth tergite 
projects far beyond hypopygium which is not true of the latter. 
annulata (Emesa) Dohrn. Nachtrage, 1863, pp. 65-6 [S. A.?]. 

Closely related to analis, " last dorsal segment scarcely petiolate." 
This indicates that the species is to be compared with aracataca and 
may possibly be identical. 

argentina Berg, Carol. Tres Reduviidae novae argentinae. Communicaciones 
del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, vol. 1, No. 6, May 23, 1900, pp. 
189-190 [prope Buenos Aires]. 

Not a Ghilianella, possibly a Ploiaria but the characters given do 
not permit its being run in our key to that genus. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 97 

brasiliensis (Emesa) Dohrn. Emesina, 1860, pp. 227-8 [Brazil]. 

Abdomen with high and sharp lateral carinae, mid and hind 
femora each with 2 yellowish rings. 

bulbifwa Champion. Biologia, vol. 2, 1898, p. 171, pi. 10, figs. 17-18 [Panama]. 
The male runs to recondita among our species, but has the sixth 
segment less involved in the bulbosity and the seventh tergite not 
surpassing hypopygium and apparently not apiculate. The female 
described by Champion probably is a different species; specimens 
seemingly agreeing with Champion's description of that sex are 
given a new name on page 116. 
geistaeclceri (Emesa) Dohrn. Emesina, 1860, pp. 223-4 [Haiti]. 

There is very little doubt that all of the American species in sec- 
tion B or Dohrn's key to Emesa, are Ghilianella. The present 
species is said to have the sixth (that is seventh) segment bispinose 
apically. 

gibbiventris Champion. Biologia, vol. 2, 1898, p. 172, pi. 10, fig. 20 [Panama]. 
This species is of a different type from any we have seen, since 
while the pro- and meso-thorax are subequal in length, the abdomen 
in the male is bulbous. 

Granulata Champion. Biologia, vol. 2, 1898, pp. 171-2, pi. 10, fig. 19 [British 
Honduras]. 
Unidentifiable, the terminal abdominal segments of the type be- 
ing missing. 

ignorata Dohrn. Emesina, 1860, pp. 238-9, pi. 1, figs. 9, 11 [La Guayra, and 
Brazil]. 
The male runs to recondita in our key but does not have the 
seventh tergite produced beyond hypopygium. Champion 15 de- 
scribes and illustrates a species under Dohrn's name, but he de- 
fines the species on characters not mentioned by Dohrn, and does not 
speak of seeing the type; hence there is no certainty that the identi- 
fication is correct. 
imbecilla (Emesa) Dohrn. Emesina, I860, pp. 228-9 [Para]. 

Mid and hind femora each with three pale rings; described from 
a specimen with collapsed abdomen ; may not be identifiable. 
signoreti (Emesa) Dohrn. Emesina, 1860, p. 227, pi. 1, fig. 1 [Jamaica]. 

This species has the mid and hind femora each with apex and two 
subapical rings paler, not agreeing in this respect with any species 
having the same shaped abdomen (figured) that we have examined. 
spinolae Dohrn. Emesina, 1860, p. 238 [Amazon River]. 

Abdominal segments 1-3 yellow and longer even than in filiven- 
tris indicates a species distinct from any here described. 



15 Biologia, vol. 2, pp. 170-1, pi. 10. figs. 15-16. 1898. 
94993—25 7 



98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 07 

SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF THE SPECIES. 

Claws of fore tarsus two, the inner short, closely applied to the base of outer. 

(Subgenus Ghilianclla Spinola.) 

Inner row of armature of fore femur consisting of hairs or bristles which 

may or may not arise from wart-like bases (fig. 186), usually a 

single spine at apical end of the series ; fore femur usually slender. 

enlarging slightly from base toward first stout spine (fig. 185). 

Fore femur rather stout, first strong spine at less than its own length 

from base (that is apex of trochanter) ; abdomen racket-shaped. 

galapagensis. 

Fore femur usually more slender, first strong spine at more (usually 

considerably more) than its own length from base. 

A small wart (dark in mature specimens) at middle of hind margin 

of each of tergites 2-6; spiracles dark, prominent; a dark blotch 

or spot on inner side of upper surface of fore femur near apex. 

Metathorax shorter than mesothorax ; unspined portion of fore 

femur shorter than spined part semipallida. 

varicornis. 
bicaudata. 
Metathorax nearly or quite as long as mesothorax ; unspined por- 
tion of fore femur nearly equal in length to spined part. 

simillima. 
productilis. 
persimilis. 
longula. 
No such warts on tergites 2-6 ; species lacking the above combina- 
tion of characters. 
Mesothorax not longer than prothorax ; abdomen not bulbous. 
Prothorax longer ; spineless part of fore femur shorter than spined 

portion alveola. 

minimula. 
succincta. 
Mesothorax and prothorax about equal in length. 

Spineless part of fore femur distinctly shorter than spined 
portion. 

aliena. 
pascoei. 
alterata. 
Spineless part of fore femur nearly as long as spined 
portion. 

maculata. 
personata. 
Mesothorax distinctly longer than prothorax ; abdomen bulbous. 

claviventris. 
globifera. 10 
Inner row of armature of fore femur consisting of spines (which may 
alternate large and small or be almost equal in size) and between 
them longer fine hairs (fig. 204). 
Fore femur slender in most cases, with the unspined portion rela- 
tively long; abdominal tergites not angulate produced. 
Mesothorax shorter than prothorax ; abdomen nearly parallel- 
sided perversa. 

ia See footnote 17, p. 99. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 99 

Mesothorax longer than prothorax. 

Abdomen long, nearly parallel-sided apiculata." 

ica. 

Abdomen clavate pachitea. 

colona. 
bethei. 
aracataca. 
cuneata. 
assa-nutrix. 
[filiventris, female], 
gladiator, male, 
stipitata. 
similata. 
Abdomen bulbous. 

Bulbosity longer than wide gladiator, female. 

pendula. 
Bulbosity as wide as or wider than long. 

Bulbosity subterminal approximata. 

globifera. 18 

globulata. 

patruela. 

perigynium. 

recondita. 

signata. 

strigata. 

subglobulata. 

uncinata. 

Bulbosity terminal atriclava. 

filiventris, male, 
mirabilis. 
Fore femur stouter, the unspined portion relatively short, but little 
longer than basal spine; abdominal tergites angulate produced 
at sides posteriorly ; prothorax longest, mesothorax and meta- 

thorax successively shorter peruviana. 

truncata. 
annectens. 
Claw of fore tarsus single ; inner row of armature of fore femur consisting of 
chitinous tubercles or spines, with a few long hairs intermixed (fig. 212) ; 
a strong spine on outer side slightly distad of basal spine, out of alignment 
with the others and slightly outwardly directed ; posterior angles of ab- 
dominal tergites slightly ampliate. 

Claw separated from tarsus by a suture ; fore femur rather slender as a 
whole, but notably thicker near base than at first strong spine (fig. 
215) (Subgenus Ploeodonyx new subgenus, type species GMlianeUa 
insidiatrix Bergroth). 

insidiatrix. 
amicula. 
glabrata. 
Claw entirely fused with tarsus ; fore femur rather stout, little if any 
thicker at base than at first strong spine ; hind margin of prothorax 
with two rather long, blunt, divergent teat-like processes. ( Subgenus 
Lissonyx, new subgenus, type species Emcsa angulata Uhler.) 

angulata. 

17 Armature of fore femur unknown. 

18 Armature of fore femur unknown, the species entered in two places in the list. 



100 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SPECIES. 
GHILIANELLA GALAPAGENSIS Heidemann. 

GhiliancUa galapagensis Heidemann, O. H. Papers from the Hopkins Stan- 
ford Galapagos Expedition, 1898-1899. Entomological Results (1) Hemiptera, 
Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 3, pp. 367-8, Aug. 23, 1901 [Hood Island]. 

Female. — General color testaceous, the abdomen considerably 
clouded with fuscous; abdomen gradually widened to juncture of 
fifth and sixth segments and tapered from thence to apex, the expan- 
sion involving more segments (3-7) and having more of them (4-7) 
of nearly equal width than in other species ; dorsal sutures transverse, 
the tergites with small but progressively increasing elevations on the 
hind margins of 2-6 ; posterior angles of tergite 7 rather prominent, 
the hind margin between nearly straight, with a median elevation; 
eighth tergite two-thirds as long as broad, very slightly sculptured, 
apex very broadly rounded; exposed portion of tergite 9 much 
shorter than 8, depressed apically on each side of a short keel ; hind 
margins of sternites 4-5 nearly transverse, slightly inclined anteri- 
orly, of 2, 3, and G, more or less emarginate medianly and arcuate 
laterally, 6 most so; seventh tergite convex medianly, concave later- 
ally, eighth just the reverse, with a large median emargination, 
seventh with a small one. Fore leg and its armature as in figures 
167, 168. 

Length, 12.5 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Hood Island, Galapagos Archipelago, May 
18, 1899 (type No. 4931, U.S.N.M.). 

A nymph also, Albemarle Island, March 11, 1899 (U.S.N.M.). 

GHILIANELLA SEMIPALLIDA Bergroth. 

Ghilianella semipallida Bergroth, E. Ploeariinen 1906, pp. 317-318 
[Venezuela]. 

Female. — A specimen without antennae, or mid and hind legs, 
and with the abdomen collapsed, Corozal, Collection E. Bergroth, 
is the only one we have seen. General color of upper surface stra- 
mineous, of lower pale castaneous. Frontal spine porrect, sharp. 
Head sparsely granulate, divisions of thorax with practically no 
granulations on top and only a few along the sides; mesothorax 
longer than either of the other divisions. Abdomen very long and 
slender, apparently widening gradually from base to apex; tergites 
without tubercles; hind margin of seventh about straight across; 
eighth semicircular; ninth longer, cuneate portion of disk raised 
above lateral portions, its point coalescing at apex with the slightly 
elevated margins. Seventh sternite slightly angulate medianly, 
slightly concave laterally; eighth sternite broadly exposed on each 
side. 

Length, 23 mm. 

Corozal, Venezuela (Coll. E. Bergroth). The type. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 101 

GHILIANELLA VARICORNIS (Dohrn). 

E.[mesa] varicornis Dohrn, A. Emesina, 1860, pp. 226-227 [Porto Rico]. 
Ghilianella variicomis Berg roth, E. Ploeariinen 1906, p. 317. 

Dohrn had a male with collapsed abdomen and his description 
deals mainly with coloration; Bergroth describes the structural 
characters from a female, the specimen examined during the present 
revision. 

Female. — Closely related to G. productilis Barber, of the same 
long slender form, and coloration including the characteristic dark 
dots; those on posterior lobe of head and on pronotum are obsolete, 
however, in the specimen at hand, while there is a faint pair on 
front lobe of head. Legs stramineous, mid and hind pairs va- 
riegated, the mid tibiae each with a single distinct, and the femora 
with numerous indistinct, fuscous annuli ; some longitudinal striping 
each side of the knee-joint. Basal segment of antenna with nu- 
merous faint brown annuli. Frontal spine prominent, decurved; 
head and thorax moderately granulate; the divisions of thorax de- 
creasing in length from front to rear; a tubercle each side of base 
of head on anterior margin of pronotum, prominent, rather pointed, 
much more distinct than in G. productilis. Abdomen widening very 
gradually from base to apex, tubercled as in G. productilis, the lat- 
eral angles and median tubercle of 7 about equally produced ; eighth 
semi -octagonal in shape, transversely wrinkled and indistinctly lon- 
gitudinally keeled, the apex rather pointed, and the margins be- 
tween apex and lateral angles slightly concave; ninth longer than 
eighth, faintly transversely corrugated, slightly narrowed apically, 
apex concave, with the lateral angles each side of the concavity dis- 
tinctly pointed as seen from behind, broader as seen from side. 
Seventh sternite distinctly concave medianly, the sides of hind mar- 
gin also shallowly concave. 

Length, 26.5 mm. 

Porto Rico (Coll. E. Bergroth). 

GHILIANELLA BICAUDATA, new species. 

Female. — Testaceous, legs and thorax above washed with rufous 
and lightly marked, the thorax below and abdomen above more 
heavily, variegated, with fuscous; a pair of dark blotches near 
hind margin of each sternite; species in general appearance much 
like productilis. Abdomen widening gradually to juncture of fourth 
and fifth segments, then tapering very slightly to end; connexivum 
slightly elevated; central strips of tergites with a longitudinal 
ridge; seventh tergite with the lateral angles slightly flaring and 
projecting well posteriorly, the hind margin between them nearly 
straight and bearing at the middle a terete, pointed, porrect tubercle, 
which slightly exceeds the lateral angles (fig. 169) ; eighth tergite 



102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

more than twice as wide as long, strongly transversely corrugated, 
apical margin wide, erose; ninth tergite longer than eighth, trans- 
versely wrinkled, narrowed apically, the posterior angles raised into 
two strong bidentate tubercles; hind margins of sternites 2-6 
slightly concave; seventh somewhat convex medianly and concave 
laterally ; eighth narrowly visible on each side. 

Length, 24 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Cayamas, Cuba, Jan. 24, E. A. Schwarz 
(U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Female, Cat. No. 26740, U.S.N.M. 

GHILIANELLA SIMILLIMA, new species. 

A species closely allied to productilis, agreeing with it even in 
shape of seventh tergite (in contrast to persimilis) , but in the single 
male specimen at hand, dark castaneous so that the characteristic 
dark dots of this group of species are much obscured. However, 
they are discernible upon close inspection. Legs and antennae paler 
castaneous than body but without pale annuli. Hypopygium rather 
short, opening upward, the sides rather pinched in, the upper mar- 
gin flaring laterally and ridged posteriorly, claspers as described 
in key. 

Length, 29 mm. 

Holotype.— Male labelled "Cuba, Sojo, 6 Al. 83" (Paris Mus.). 

GHILIANELLA PRODUCTILIS Barber. 

Ohilianella prodiwtilis Barber, H. G. Insects of Florida, vol. 2, Hemiptera, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 33, pp. 502-3, Aug. 21, 1914. [Marco, Fla.] 

Male. — General color light reddish-brown, more or less variegated 
with fuscous; the legs and antennae stramineous, punctate but not 
annulate with the general color. There is a distinct black dot on 
the upper surface of each fore femur near the apex, a pair of dots 
about middle of posterior lobe of head, and another pair sometimes 
larger than the preceding about middle of pronotum; each abdom- 
inal sternite from 3-6, also bears near its hind margin a pair of 
black dots which tend to become larger and blotch-like posteriorly. 
Pilosity fine, short, pale, more abundant toward apices of mid and 
hind legs and antennae. Abdomen almost parallel-sided, widest at 
hypopygium, a black wart on middle of hind margin of tergites 
2-6, the connexivum more or less elevated, the spiracles dark. Sev- 
enth tergite somewhat longer than sixth, a little constricted beyond 
middle, the apical moiety faintly transversely corrugated, lanceolate 
in outline, with a rounded keel apically, and projecting a little 
beyond hypopygium. Posterior margins of sternites 2-6, more or 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 103 

less emarginate medianly, and arcuate laterally, most pronounced 
on 6 ; 7 a little emarginate, 8 a little convex medianly, both slightly 
concave laterally ; claspers oblong. 

Female. — Color as in male; form of abdomen much the same, 
seventh tergite about one-third shorter than sixth, the lateral angles 
produced distinctly beyond the keeled and slightly tuberculate mid- 
dle of hind margin; eighth tergite about semicircular, keeled longi- 
tudinally and corrugated transversely; ninth somewhat longer than 
eighth, keeled, corrugated herringbone fashion, narrowed, rounded, 
and upturned apically; sutures between sternites less sinuate than 
in male; seventh sternite somewhat shorter than sixth, its hind 
margin concave laterally and forming a distinct rounded process 
medianly; eighth sternite appearing as an elliptical plate on each 
side, spiracle barely visible. 

Length, 23-25 mm. 

Holotype.—Mz\z, Marco, Fla., April 19, 1912, Wm. T. Davis (Coll. 
Davis) ; males, females, and nymphs from Big Pine, Fla., March 8, 
1919, H. S. Barber; and Vict, de las Tunas, Cuba, W. M. Mann 
(U.S.N.M.). 

In the male nymph the eighth tergite is broadly visible across 
base of anal tube, the ninth apparently is membraneous, the seventh 
has a large upwardly and backwardly projecting pointed process, 
and the lateral angles slightly pointed tuberculate; in the female 
nymph the seventh tergite has a rather prominent erect tubercle, the 
eighth and ninth are keeled and less rounded apically than in adult 
since they form the roof of complete segments inclosing the anal tube. 

GHILIANELLA PERSIMILIS. new species. 

Male. — Very similar to male of prdductilis; the only tangible 
difference seems to be that in this species the narrowed portion of the 
seventh tergite is distinctly longer than the terminal expanded, then 
apiculate part (fig. 170), while in productilis it is distinctly shorter. 
Hypopygium of male as in figure 171. 

Female. — Color much as in male ; very similar to female of produc- 
tilis, the chief distinction, being in the form of tergites 7-9 and 
sternite 7 ; these have been mentioned in the key, to the descriptions 
in which may be added that the eighth tergite is much broader than 
long, transversely wrinkled, and very obtusely angulate at apex; 
tergite 9 is somewhat wrinkled above and much narrowed apically ; 
hind margin of sternite 7 is only slightly convex medianly and con- 
cave laterally (fig. 172). 

Length, 21-23 mm. 

Eolotype. — Male, allotype female, Vict, de las Tunas, Cuba, 
W. M. Mann. (U.S.N.M.) 

Type and allotype.— -Male, Cat. No. 26741, U.S.N.M. 



104 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

A female nymph with same data has the lateral angles of seventh 
tergite less prominent, the median tubercle long, and elevated at an 
angle of 45° ; eighth and ninth tergites indistinctly keeled and trans- 
versely wrinkled. Another female nymph, apparently of this species 
has the data: Havana, Cuba, 1908, P. Serre (Paris Mus.). 

GHILIANELLA LONGULA, new species. 

Female. — Color dark reddish brown, legs paler, femoral and 
frontal spines whitish; head and thorax only slightly granulate; 
hairs throughout abundant, short grayish to yellowish; abdomen 
attaining nearly its full width at third segment, widening almost 
imperceptibly caudad, except at end of seventh tergite, the posterior 
angles of which are flaring and moderately angulate-produced ; hind 
margin of this tergite between the produced angles nearly straight, 
bearing medianly a porrect tubercle considerably shorter than the 
lateral productions; eighth tergite broad, much wrinkled, the proc- 
esses much elevated, free and pointed apically (fig. 173) ; hind mar- 
gins of sternites 2-6, moderately emarginate medianly, and slightly 
sinuate laterally ; seventh sternite convex medianly, concave laterally. 

Length, 32 mm. 

Holotype.— Female, San Bias, Pinar del Kio, Cuba, 1918, W. M. 
Mann (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Female, Cat. No. 26742, U.S.N.M. 

GHILIANELLA ALVEOLA, new species. 

Female. — Legs stramineous tinged with reddish; head and thorax 
testaceous, darker below, conspicuously granulate; abdomen testa- 
ceous, marbled with fuscous, lightly above and heavily below ; ab- 
domen widening gradually to apex of seventh tergite, lateral strips 
of tergites and the connexivum coelevated, vertical except at extreme 
apex; sutures between tergites transverse, each tergite with an in- 
distinct longitudinal ridge, darker colored posteriorly; seventh 
tergite roughened on disk, expanded apically, the posterior angles 
prominent, rounded, the margin between them convex, bearing at 
the middle a short pointed tubercle; eighth tergite as described in 
key; ninth transversely corrugated, and broadly longitudinally 
sulcate from base to near apex where elevations each side of the 
sulcus are interrupted, apical margin elevated, calloused (fig. 174) ; 
hind margin of sixth sternite decidedly sinuate laterally, the preced- 
ing sternites with only a suggestion of this form; hind margin of 
seventh sternite very broadly and shallowly emarginate; eighth 
sternite visible as an elliptical plate on each side. 

Length, 20 mm. 

Holotype.— Female, Balthazar, Grenada, H. H. Smith (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Female, Cat. No. 26743, U.S.N.M. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 105 

GHILIANELLA MINIMULA, new species. 

Male. — Head and body dark reddish-brown, legs and antennae 
yellowish, fuscous near joints; head and thorax decidedly granulate, 
pubescence short and sparse. Frontal spine strong, porrect, head 
with a pair of divergent pointed tubercles just behind transverse 
sulcus. Abdomen widest at the anterior part of fifth segment, 
tapering gradually both fore and aft; seventh tergite narrowing 
rather rapidly from middle to the rather broadly rounded apex which 
projects a little beyond hypopygium. Hind margins of all sternites 
emarginate medianly, those of 5 and 6 most so, that of 7 very broadly 
and shallowly, and that of 8, narrowly and slightly. Hypopygium 
short, opening upward, claspers short, tapering from base to apex. 

Female. — Color, granulation and pubescence, also spine and tuber- 
cles of head as in male. Abdomen widening to end of seventh ter- 
gite, which has a moderate median tubercle a little farther produced 
than the hind angles. Eighth tergite short, semi-elliptical, ninth 
moderately long, rounded at apex, each with a median carina and 
transverse corrugations. Sutures between sternites on the same plan 
as in male, hind margin of seventh prominent but not produced 
medianly, concave laterally; eighth visible only on sides. 

Length, 15-17 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, paratype female, allotype, female, Chapada, 
Brazil, September, no date, and August, respectively (Carnegie 
Mus.). 

GHILIANELLA SUCCINCTA, new species. 

While this species runs in our key to the same couplet with G. pro- 
ductilis, it is not as closely related to that species as is persimilis, 
lacking the long terete head and characteristic dark dots, in addition 
to having a distinctively shaped abdomen. 

Female. — Fuscous, spotted and marbled with ochraceous; head 
and thorax indistinctly granulate, but with plentiful, short, crinkly, 
pale reddish hair, abdomen more sparsely provided with similar but 
straight hairs; the seventh tergite is but little longer than wide (in 
productilis it is twice as long as wide) ; lateral pieces of this tergite 
produced posteriorly as short rounded angles, the hind margin be- 
tween them slightly convex but not tuberculate medianly; eighth 
tergite semi-elliptical, with broad median carina and transverse cor- 
rugations ; ninth as described in key. Hind margin of sixth sternite 
slightly emarginate medianly and less so laterally, of seventh rather 
strongly concave, with a short triangular process in the middle. 

Length, 23 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Para, Brazil (Carnegie Mus.). 
94993—25 8 



106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 07 

GHILIANELLA ALIENA, new species. 

Female. — Legs and antennae yellow, head and body darker, brown, 
the former practically without markings, the abdomen with some 
paler marblings. Frontal spine porrect, stramineous; pubescence 
short, grayish. Prothorax longest, metathorax shortest; thorax 
and head conspicuously granulate. Abdomen long and smoothly 
clavate, widest at distal part of fourth segment. Seventh tergite 
nearly square, the hind margin declivate, the posterior angles and 
median tubercle slightly and about equally produced ; eighth tergite 
semicircular, carinate medianly, corrugated laterally; ninth as 
described in key. Seventh sternite moderately convex medianly, 
concave laterally. 

Length, 18 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Sarare, Venezuela, 1896, F. Geay (Paris 
Mus.). 

A teneral female, same data, apparently of the same species, is 
21 mm. long. 

GHILIANELLA PASCOEI Bergroth. 

Ghilianella pascoci Bergroth, E. Ploeariinen 1906, pp. 315-317 [Venezuela]. 

Male. — General color dark reddish brown (less mature specimens 
yellow-brown, variegated with darker), hairs numerous but short 
and little aggregated into patches; abdomen widening gradually 
from base to hypopygium; seventh tergite a fourth longer than 
sixth, somewhat corrugated transversely on posterior two-thirds; 
second sternite slightly sinuate laterally, third and fourth almost 
transverse, fifth rounded emarginate medianly, sixth almost trans- 
verse, seventh and eighth shallowly emarginate medianly, slightly 
convex laterally, spiracle of latter included within border of seg- 
ment; hypopygium rather short, claspers oblong, narrowed apically 
the upper margin convex (fig. 175). Sternites 2-7, finely wrinkled 
transversely. 

Female. — Color as in male; in pale specimens the abdomen is 
marbled and leg markings are evident ; abdomen widening gradually 
from base to juncture of fourth and fifth segments, narrowing little 
posterior of that point ; connexivum more or less carinate ; hind mar- 
gins of tergites 2-6 very slightly elevated medianly, otherwise un- 
modified; tergite 7 with the posterior angles prominent and very 
slightly flaring, middle of hind margin with a small angulate prom- 
inence, extending about as far posteriorly as lateral angles, margin 
between prominences slightly concave and declivate; eighth tergite 
rather long, convex posteriorly, short median line, two transverse 
lines near upper end of former, and margin, slightly elevated, ar- 
cuate both transversely and longitudinally, median line almost 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 107 

carinate on upper third, apex rounded; hind margins of sternites 
2-6 emarginate medianly, 6 most so, this sternite a fourth longer on 
side than on middle (fig. 176) ; seventh sternite a third longer than 
sixth on median line, its hind margin convex medianly, concave 
laterally, eighth sternite visible as an elliptical plate on each side, 
or when exposed, rounded emarginate medianly, convex laterally. 

Length, 17-22 mm. 

Pair from La Guaila, Venezuela (Coll. E. Bergroth), male, the 
type. Three males, Trinidad, March 26, 1916, R. A. Wood (Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila.) ; one male Botanic Garden, Port-of -Spain, Trini- 
dad, Oct. 13, 1918, Harold Morrison (U.S.N.M.). 

Females agreeing with pascoei in general appearance and in most 
characters but differing in details of eighth and ninth tergites from 
the female assigned to this species by Bergroth are left without 
definite determinations for the present. All of these have the head 
and thorax conspicuously granulate, the sternites finely corrugated 
transversely, and both sternites and tergites up to and including 
7 similar to those of pascoei. Three from Trinidad, March 26, 
1916, R. A. Wood (Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.), and one from Mont- 
serrat, Trinidad, June 29, A. Busck (U.S.N.M.), have the eighth 
tergite depressed medianly, with transverse wrinkles or irregular 
elevations each side of the depression; and ninth tergite is arcuate 
both transversely and longitudinally, but is depressed apically and 
more or less concave between the apices of the somewhat elevated 
lateral margins. A single female from Ivon Beni, Bolivia, January, 
1922, M. R. Lopez (U.S.N.M.), has the eighth tergite distinctly 
carinate medianly and corrugated transversely on each side; the 
ninth tergite has a median carina above which widens so as to cover 
the whole apex, this part of the tergite being distinctly elevated 
above the sides of the disk, apex truncate. While these variations 
are rather greater than we should expect in a single species, the 
weight of evidence in hand seems to be against attributing them to 
specific distinctness. 

GHILIANELLA ALTERATA, new species. 

Female. — Dark castaneous; beak, antennae and mid and hind legs 
yellow-brown but unmarked ; frontal spine stramineous. Head and 
thorax copiously granulate and yellowish-white haired ; prothorax 
longest, metathorax shortest of the three divisions. Abdomen 
smoothly clavate, attaining its greatest width at posterior part of 
fourth segment; tergites except 1, longer than wide, seventh with 
the posterior angles prominent but not produced, median portion 
declivate and triangularly produced, slightly surpassing lateral 
angles. Eighth tergite short and broad, faintly rugose; ninth much 
longer, narrowing rapidly and rounded apically; middle of apex 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

and some irregular small areas each side of the median line de- 
pressed. Seventh sternite moderately subangulately produced in the 
middle of hind margin, concave laterally. 

Length, 22 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Sarare, Venezuela, 1899, F. Geay (Paris 
Mus.). 

GHILIANELLA MACULATA, new species. 

Male. — Head, thorax and legs yellow brown; frontal and femoral 
spines pale; abdomen reddish brown; pilosity of head and thorax 
gray, abundant, markedly pollinose; pile of abdomen pale tawny, 
aggregated into irregular spots especially on segments 3-6, spots 
more numerous anteriorly and on sides of both tergites and sternites ; 
abdomen nearly circular in cross-section, forming almost a smooth 
cone based on hypopygium ; seventh tergite a little longer than sixth, 
transversely corrugated on posterior third, tapered from the middle, 
and apiculate, terminating in a moderate point which extends well 
beyond hypopygium. Sternum without keel; sutures between ster- 
nites emarginate medianly, arcuate laterally, this condition most 
pronounced between sixth and seventh ; eighth sternite almost trans- 
verse posteriorly, with a narrow rounded emargination ; ninth ster- 
nite very narrowly visible, with a similar but smaller emargination ; 
claspers closely fitting the upper margin of hypopygium, their own 
upper margin broadly emarginate medianly. Fore leg and its arma- 
ture as in figures 185 and 186. 

Length, 28 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Cayamas, Cuba, Jan. 16, E. A. Schwarz. 
(U.S.N.M.) 

Type.— Male, Cat. No. 26744, U.S.N.M. 

GHILIANELLA PERSONATA, new species. 

Male. — Light to dark reddsh-brown, almost uniform; head and 
thorax without granulations, short gray slightly flocculent pubescence 
abundant, much shorter and less conspicuous on abdomen. Abdomen 
widening gradually to hypopygium, dorsum convex, without ridges 
or tubercles, sutures mostly obsolete; seventh tergite long, narrowed 
gradually from a point two-fifths of its length from base, terminal 
fifth more abruptly tapering, moderately pointed, thickened and 
projecting beyond hypopygium. Sternum unkeeled, ventral sutures 
as described in key, hind margin of seventh sternite nearly straight, 
and eighth narrowly and slightly emarginate; ninth sternite or 
hypopygium long, with a transverse impression bounding the 
thickened margin, opening upward and backward, the apex pro- 
jecting as a rounded triangle, the claspers broadly triangular, (fig. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIAMINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 109 

177), filling the space between hypopygium and seventh tergite, ex- 
cept for a narrow vertical space between their apices. 

Female. — Color and pubescence as in male; abdomen widening 
gradually from base, the dorsal sutures evident; seventh tergite 
with the hind angles moderately produced as obtusely pointed pro- 
cesses, margin between distinctly concave, without tubercle; eighth 
tergite semielliptical, with a median carina interrupting the trans- 
verse corrugations; ninth tergite rather short, median carina and 
cross corrugations low, indistinct, apex narrowly rounded. Seventh 
sternite moderately produced medianly as a rounded lobe, the sides 
of hind margin concave ; eighth sternite visible only as a long ellipse 
on each side. 

Length, 25-28 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, paratype male, allotype female, Chapada, 
Brazil, collected in July, April, and August, respectively (Carnegie 
Mus.). 

GHILIANELLA CLAVIVENTRIS Bergroth. 

Ghilianella claviventris Bergroth, E. Ploeariinen 1906, pp. 318-9 [Vene- 
zuela]. 

Male. — Dark reddish-brown, frontal spine, connexivum, hind edge 
of sixth tergite, posterior third of seventh and a few other edgings, 
yellowish. Head and thorax scarcely granulate; pale reddish 
pubescence very short, fine and sparse. Abdomen widening gradually 
to apical fourth of fourth segment, which is abruptly inflated and 
together with the fifth and most of the sixth segment forms a 
globular expansion of the abdomen ; remainder of abdomen tapering 
posteriorly and upcurved. The fifth tergite is finely longitudinally 
strigate and is smoothly inflated, without ridged elevations laterally. 
The sixth tergite is distinctly trisinuate posteriorly, and the seventh 
narrowing from the basal third, has the posterior half transversely 
wrinkled and an acuminate apex which slightly surpasses hy- 
popygium. Sutures between sternites concave anteriorly, that be- 
tween sixth and seventh most so ; hind edge of seventh conspicuously 
emarginate medianly and only slightly less so laterally; eighth 
sternite visible on its entire width, nearly straight posteriorly ; ninth 
sternite, or hypopygium, rather long, more or less granulate and 
transversely wrinkled, opening upward, claspers oblong, somewhat 
upturned and bluntly pointed at apex. 

Length, 26 mm. 

Two males, Colonia Tovar, E. Simon 1.11.88 (Coll. E. Bergroth). 
One the type. Another male Cerro del Avila, 6,000 feet, Venezuela, 
December, 1913, S. M. Klages (Carnegie Mus.). 



110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

GHILIANELLA GLOBIFERA Bergroth. 

Ohilianella glotiifera Bergroth, E. Ploeariirien 1906, pp. 319-320 [Vene- 
zuela]. 

Color throughout dark reddish-brown, legs and antennae without 
pale markings ; the sharp downwardly slanting frontal spine, most of 
beak, the spiracles and edgings on genital segments pale. Gray 
pubescence rather plentiful, a little more prominent on fourth to 
sixth sternites and in two percurrent lines on dorsum. Bulbosity 
farther forward than in any other species examined, widest at fourth 
segment and sixth not at all involved in it ; seventh tergite long, the 
process making up two-thirds of length, wrinkled transversely, ridged 
longitudinally, and punctate apically, rather pointed. Seventh stern- 
ite well exposed, eighth moderately long, opening upward, claspers 
oblong, narrowed and incurved apically. 

Length, 19 mm. 

Male, Caracas (Coll. E. Bergroth.). The type. 

Two males, Sarare, Venezuela, F. Geay, 189G; and two (one teneral 
and damaged), Llanos, Venezuela, F. Geay, 1896 (Paris Mus.). 

Length of these specimens, 18.5-20 mm. 

GHILIANELLA PERVERSA, new species. 

Female. — Legs testaceous with more or less distinct dark bands, 
ground color elsewhere testaceous, but obscured largely above, and 
almost entirely below, by fuscous to black marbling; granulations 
prominent on head, inconspicuous on thorax; pubescence short and 
fine; proportions of pro-, meso-, and meta-thoraces as 8, 6, and 3; 
abdomen widening gradually to junction of fifth and sixth segments, 
tapering gradually posteriorly; unusually narrow median strips of 
tergites with indistinct longitudinal ridge; hind margin of tergite 6 
with a prominent backwardly projecting tubercle; that of tergite 7 
with a short, porrect, blunt tubercle from which the margin slopes 
away on each side to the simply rounded lateral angles; eighth ter- 
gite nearly as long as wide, the general form broadly elliptical, the 
disk wrinkled and granulate, the apex apiculate. Hind margins of 
all sternites more or less sinuate laterally, 3 least and 6 most so, the 
latter sternite a fourth wider on sides than in middle ; seventh sternite 
slightly convex medianly and concave laterally; eighth visible as an 
elliptical plate on each side (fig. 178). Appearance of female hypo- 
pygium from rear as in figure 179. 

Length, 18 mm. 

Eolotype. — Female, Aracataca, Magdalena, Colombia, August 12, 
1920, in heavy forest with dense undergrowth, J. A. G. Rehn (Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Phila.). 



ABT. 1 AMERICAN FliOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 111 

GHILIANELLA APICULATA, new species. 

Male. — General color dull blackish, pale vestiture unusually abun- 
dant, patch at anterior end of metathorax crossing the notum, pubes- 
cence on top of abdomen arranged in lines; beak, frontal and 
hypopygial spines pale yellow to reddish, spiracles concolorous; sixth 
tergite with a slight prominence on middle of hind margin ; sternum 
without keel; sternites 4-6 more or less emarginate medianly and 
sinuate laterally, this feature becoming more pronounced posteriorly ; 
seventh sternite broadly emarginate medianly, eighth about trans- 
verse; ninth with supero-posterior angles prominent, extending as 
far posteriorly as base of hypopygial hook (fig. 180), the latter ante- 
riorly and upwardly directed, the apex bent forward, divaricate, 
and apparently otherwise modified. 

Length, 27 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Blanton Mine, north of San Christobal, Repub- 
lic of Dominica, July 26, 1919, Harold Morrison (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Male, Cat. No. 26745, U.S.N.M. 

GHILIANELLA ICA, new species. 

Male. — Color castaneous, chiefly dark", scarcely relieved by pale 
markings. Frontal process mammiform; head and thorax scarcely 
granulate- Seventh tergite narrowed gradually from middle to near 
apex, then rather abruptly pointed, transversely corrugated on pos- 
terior half. Seventh sternite rounded emarginate medianly, almost 
straight laterally; eighth nearly straight posteriorly, spiracle mod- 
erately pedicellate; ninth rather long, opening upward, a little 
elevated along hind margin which is produced between the claspers, 
where it bears the anteriorly directed somewhat curved process, 
which is a little widened and slightly concave at apex; claspers 
oblong, beveled off on lower side at apex. 

Length, 28 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Rio lea, Crevaux, 1880 (Paris Mus.). 

GHILIANELLA PACHITEA, new species. 

Male. — Differs from pascoei Bergroth in having the ventral spines 
on fore femora and the one between the bases of antennae dark 
brown instead of stramineous; also the spine between bases of an- 
tennae is much stouter and a little shorter than in pascoei; the cross 
striation of abdominal sternites is much finer than in that species, 
and the hypopygium is as in figure 181. 

Length, 22 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Pachitea, Peru (Bueno). 



112 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 07 

GHILIANELLA COLONA, new species. 

Male. — Similar in general to G. aracataca, but the pubescence of 
head and thorax less abundant and none of it pollinose; abdomen 
gradually widening to seventh segment, which differs from that of 
aracataea as described in key ; eighth sternite almost straight on hind 
margin, the spiracles conspicuously pedunculate. 

Length, 22 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Don Diego, Dept. Magdalena, Colombia (Car- 
negie Mus.). A nymph with same data probably is this species. 

GHILIANELLA BETHEI Dohrn. 

Ghilianella bethel Dohrn, A. Nachtrage, 1S63, pp. 68-70 [Bogota]. 

Female. — Fuscous, relieved by ochraceous spots and clouding; leg 
bands faint. Head and thorax distinctly granulate, short pale pu- 
bescence rather abundant, that of abdomen shorter and less plenti- 
ful. Frontal spine pale, decurved. Abdomen widening to apex 
of fifth segment and narrowing gradually to end, clavate rather 
than bulbous in shape. Fifth tergite with angular dilatations near 
hind angles, sixth with a prominent, acute, falcate tubercle ; seventh 
nearly straight across hind margin, the middle of latter slightly 
elevated and with a short pointed tubercle; eighth tergite semi-cir- 
cular, transversely rugose, but scarcely longitudinally carinate; 9th 
rather inflated basally, obsoletely rugose, depressed subapically, with 
the apical margin rounded and elevated. Sutures between sternites 
inclined anteriorly and showing more or less anterior curvature 
medianly; hind margin of seventh moderately angulate, prominent 
medianly and slightly concave laterally. 

Length, 20-22 mm. 

Cacagualito, Colombia, May; Bonda, Colombia, June (Carnegie 
Mus.). 

The specimens listed seem to answer well to the original descrip- 
tion, the only real discrepancy being that none of them show " a 
slight cross furrow " on the apic'al half of tergite 5. However, this 
appearance in Dohrn's specimen may have been due to bending at 
the time of capture or to some effect of drying. 

GHILIANELLA ARACATACA, new species. 

Male. — Dark reddish-brown, pubescence rather abundant, more 
or less pollinose in character anteriorly ; beak yellow-brown, frontal 
spine whitish, leg bands moderately distinct; abdomen gradually 
widened to fifth segment, sixth narrowed, seventh swollen, as thick 
as fifth; tergites slightly elevated at the middle of their posterior 
margins, seventh twice as long as sixth; sternites 2-7 more or less 
emarginate apically and sinuate laterally, the sixth most pronounced 



art. 1 AMERICAN P1.0IAR1INAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 113 

in these respects, eighth with a small, triangular median projection, 
the supero-posterior angles rounded, and the spiracles not conspicu- 
ously pedunculate (fig. 182). 

Female. — Similar to the male in color, pilosity somewhat less con- 
spicuous, pollinosity rather more so; abdomen widest at fifth seg- 
ment, tapering gradually both fore and aft, tubercle of sixth tergite, 
projecting posteriorly, bluntly falcate; seventh tergite with 'a straight 
median porrect process extending considerably beyond the promi- 
nent but not produced lateral angles; eighth tergite rounded tri- 
angular somewhat broader than long; ninth with the sides convexly 
sloping apically, the median line keeled and apiculate (fig. 183) ; 
sternites 2-4 slightly emarginate medianly, and sinuate laterally, en- 
tire posterior margins of sternites 5 and 6 anteriorly arcuate, the 
latter most deeply, this sclerite being a fifth longer on sides than 
in middle: seventh sternite concave on sides of posterior margin, 
with a rather prominent rounded median projection ; eighth sternite 
visible as an elliptical plate on each side (fig. 184). 

Length, 22-24 mm. 

Tlolotjfpe. — Male and allotype female. Aracataca, Magdalena, Co- 
lombia, Aug. 6, 1920, in heavy forest with dense undergrowth, J. A. 
G. Kehn (Acad. Nat, Sci., Phila.) 

GHILIANELLA CUNEATA, new species. 

Female. — Yellowish to reddish brown, the leg bands more or less 
distinct, the abdomen marbled with fuscous; pubescence in no way 
unusual; abdomen widened gradually to apex of sixth segment, then 
tapering to apex of seventh ; hind margin of all of the tergites promi- 
nent medianly, sixth with large slightly falcate tubercle, and the 
posterior angles a little prominent and expanded; the hind margin 
of the seventh with a short, median, pointed tubercle which extends 
slightly farther posteriorly than the prominent lateral angles ; eighth 
tergite considerably wider than long, with transverse corrugations 
and a central keel which is produced in a point slightly beyond gen- 
eral line of the posterior margin; ninth tergite much longer than 
eighth, somewhat wrinkled transversely, the narrowed apex with a 
broad prominent keel; sutures between sternites 2-6 slightly anteri- 
orly directed, that between six and seven quite concave anteriorly; 
sternite seven about a fourth longer than six on the median line, its 
hind margin slightly concave laterally, somewhat produced medianly, 
the extreme apex with a small emargination ; eighth sternite narrowly 
visible on each side. 

Length, 23-26 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Alhajuelo, Panama, April 18, 1911, Aug. 
Busck; five female paratypes, Porto Bello, Panama, March 16, 1911, 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

Feb. 19, A. Busck; Feb. 17, 1911, E. A. Schwarz; Upper Pequiru 
River, Camp No. 3, Panama, A. H. Jennings; Buena Ventura, 
Panama, March 1911, A. Busck (U.S.N.M.). 

Type and paratopes. — Female, Cat. No. 26746, U.S.N.M. 

GHILIANELLA ASSA-NUTRIX Bergroth. 

Ghilianella assa-nutrix Bergeoth. Ploeariinen 1906, pp. 314^5 [Venezuela]. 
Male. — General color dark reddish-brown, frontal spine pale; the 
usual patches of pilosity a little more extensive than in average 
species, the metathoracic patches contiguous over dorsum, color of 
pile in general sordid yellowish, tending to be golden in the denser 
patches; in addition to the typical patches there are two small 
rounded spots on the posterior margin of each tergite from 2-6, 
largest on 4; most of the first tergite and adjacent disk of second 
also are covered by a patch of golden pubescence; seventh tergite 
more than twice as long as sixth, strongly transversely corrugated 
about the middle, and tapering apically into a long, roof-shaped, 
pointed process which exceeds hypopygium by more than length of 
latter; sternum unkeeled; sutures between sternites directed moder- 
ately forward ; posterior margin of six and seven rounded emarginate 
medianly, and arcuate laterally ; eighth narrow, transverse, spiracle 
moderately pedunculate; hypopygium with a terminal, anteriorly 
and upwardly directed hook, margin receding and arcuate each side 
of this; claspers oblong, bluntly rounded apically (fig. 187). 

Female. — Color and pubescence as in male. Abdomen widening 
gradually from anterior part of second segment to about middle of 
fifth, and increasing in depth, as seen from side, to anterior part of 
seventh segment. Hind margins of tergites 1-5 nearly straight, of 
six slightly convex posteriorly, of seven slightly prominent medianly, 
concave each side of this, with acute divergent lateral processes as 
described in key; eighth tergite short, semielliptical, depressed 
medianly, and with obliquely transverse wrinkling each side of the 
depression; ninth tergite longer than eighth, an oblique impression 
each side of middle near base, the median line elevated, especially 
near apex, where it forms a distinct carina joining the raised apical 
margin; the surface near apex is polished, with two subsidiary 
oblique ridges each side of the median one. Hind margins of sternites 
more or less concave posteriorly, that of six most so; seventh slightly 
convex medianly, and concave laterally; eighth moderately exposed, 
the spiracle barely visible from the side. 

Length, 28-30 mm. 

Male and female San Esteban, Venezuela, March, 1888, E. Simon 
(Coll. E. Bergroth). One the type. 

Two males, San Esteban, Venezuela, Oct.-Nov., 1910, M. A. Car- 
riker, jr. (Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.). One male, Caracas (Cophenhagen 
Mus.). 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIAEIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 115 

GHTLIANELLA GLADIATOR, new species. 

Male. — General color dark reddish-brown, pilosity much more 
abundant than usual, short, grayish; abdomen widest at fifth seg- 
ment, tapering gradually both fore and aft ; seventh tergite twice as 
long as sixth, with a projection similar to that of assa-nutrix ; all 
sternites more or less emarginate medianly and arcuate laterally, 
6 and 7 most pronouncedly so ; eighth varying from slightly emargi- 
nate to transverse, narrow, spiracle moderately prominent; hypo- 
pygial spine small, margins not excavated each side of it, claspers 
long, narrow, slightly enlarged apically (fig. 188). 

Female. — General color reddish-brown to blackish ; short, fine 
yellowish pubescence abundant, much denser than usual on head and 
thorax, particularly about rear parts of the posterior divisions of 
the latter and on the fourth and fifth tergites ; bulbosity of abdomen 
rather long, including half of fourth, all of fifth and sixth, and 
half of seventh segments; sutures between tergites 2-7 all nearly 
transverse; the ninth tergite is narrowly keeled along the sides, and 
more prominently elevated medianly, especially at the narrowed 
apex; the sutures between sternites 2-5 slope anteriorly, the hind 
margin of the fifth is emarginate medianly and arcuate laterally, 
and that of the sixth concave throughout; the seventh sternite is 
prominently angulate produced medianly, and the eighth is nar- 
rowly visible on each side. 

Length, 24-26 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, allotype female, and paratype male, Trinidad, 
March 26, 1916, R. A. Wood. (Ac. Nat. Sci., Phila.) 

Paratype. — Female, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, F. W. Urich 
(U.S.N.M.), Cat. No. 26747, U.S.N.M. 

The latter specimen is accompanied by some eggs (figs. 189. 190) 
and newly emerged nymphs ; the former are 1.75 mm. in length, with 
sparse longitudinally arranged, irregular granulations, a nipple-like 
longitudinally striate cap, which is surrounded by about 18 delicate, 
tapered, and finely pointed appendages of the main egg case, the 
apices of which are bent inward at about the same level as peak of 
the cap (fig. 189). The nymphs are notable chiefly for the surpris- 
ingly advanced state of development of the thorax and its append- 
ages, and for the very undeveloped condition of the abdomen ; they 
are certainly equipped for capture before digestion of prey. 

The males and females here listed are associated as one species not 
only because of their general agreement in color and form but specif- 
ically because they share a character unusual in the genus, namely, 
absence of central keel on meta- and meso-sterni. 



116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

GHILIANELLA STIPITATA, new species. 

Female. — Much like the same sex of G. filiventris except in shape 
of abdomen and details of genital segments. Length of prothorax 
and mesothorax as 3 is to 4. The abdomen is smoothly, almost round 
clavate, with the fifth segment the largest in all dimensions; tergites 
4-7 are relatively longer than in fiUventris, the last especially being 
distinctive as described in key (fig. 191). Eighth tergite rather long 
and narrow, the middle line and margins slightly elevated, apex 
rounded; ninth tergite longer than eighth, narrowing and rounded 
apically, the median line, some irregular oblique branches from it, 
and the apex somewhat elevated. Seventh sternite rather strongly 
and acutely produced medianly, concave laterally. 

Length, 25 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Llanos, Venezuela, 1895, F. Geay (Paris 
Mus. ) . 

GHILIANELLA SIMILATA, new species. 

Female. — Much like stipitata in form, but head and thorax de- 
cidedly less granulate, and the mid and hind femora each with 3 
pale bands on apical half, instead of unicolorous as in that species. 
Length of prothorax and mesothorax as 3.75 is to 4. The seventh 
tergite is as described in key, the eighth nearly semicircular, de- 
pressed medianly, and obscurely wrinkled; ninth about as long as 
eighth, but considerably narrower and somewhat tapered posteriorly, 
margins and median line elevated, apex blunt, slightly convex. Ven- 
ter as in figure 192. 

Length, 19-20 mm. 

Holotype. — And another female, Caracas, Meinert (Copenhagen 
Mus.). 

GHILIANELLA PENDULA, new species. 

Ghilianella bulMfera Champion (females) Biologia, vol. 2, p. 171, fig. 18, 
Oct. 1S9S. [Bugaba, Panama.] 

Female. — Color varying from yellowish- to dark reddish-brown, 
the paler specimens have the abdomen more or less variegated with 
fuscous and the leg bands more distinct; pubescence and granula- 
tion in no way unusual. Abdomen rather smoothly clavate, widest at 
fifth and sixth segments (the sixth tergite widest), but the bulbosity 
includes the entire sixth segment; posterior angles and middle of 
hind margin of segments 4-7 prominent, most conspicuously so on 
six where the median elevation is a large slightly posteriorly in- 
clined cone ; on the hind margin of seventh tergite a small triangular 
prominence extends slightly farther posteriorly than the prominent 
but blunt lateral angles; eighth tergite broader than long, rounded 
apically, ninth a trifle longer than eighth, narrowed, and the margins 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 117 

raised apically, but 8 and 9 with low median keels and more or less 
corrugated ; hind margins of sternites 4-6 emarginate medianly, ar- 
cuate laterally, the lateral convexity on 6 being almost angulate; 
seventh sternite a third longer than 6, slightly angulate-produced 
medianly ; eighth narrowly visible on each side. 

Length, 21-24 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Cabima', Panama, May 18, 1911, Aug. Busck; 
paratype female, Alhajuela, Panama, A. H. Jennings; another fe- 
male without locality. 

Type and paratype.— -Female, Cat. No. 26748, U.S.N.M. 

For disposition of males of bulbifcra see page 97. 

GHILIANELLA APPROXIMATA, new species. 

Male. — Head, thorax and appendages, bulbosity and hypopygium 
piceous, remainder of abdomen chiefly, frontal spine, anterior tibia 
and tarsus, and spines of front femur, yellow-brown or paler. Pubes- 
cence sordid gray, rather dense and matted over thorax and in 
patches elsewhere. Bulbosity formed chiefly by fifth segment, fourth 
and sixth only slightly involved. Seventh tergite rather long, 
neither wrinkled nor coarsely punctate as in many species, rather 
sharply apiculate and slightly surpassing hypopygium. Sternites of 
ordinary form, eighth almost straight across on hind margin, slightly 
concave laterally, moderately exposed. Ninth sternite long, open- 
ing upward, claspers oblong, pointed apically. 

Female. — Generally paler than male, with edgings and much mar- 
bling of yellow-brown ; legs with usual pale markings. Mesothorax 
shorter than in male, but longer than either of its fellow thoracic 
parts. Bulbosity involving more of fourth and sixth segments, the 
elevations of fifth tergite more remote from lateral margins than in 
male. Hind margin of sixth tergite concave each side the median 
point, which is about as far produced posteriorly as the rounded 
lateral angles; hind margin of seventh tergite of similar shape, 
declivous each side of median prominence; eighth tergite semi-cir- 
cular, low carinate medianly and radiately corrugated each side in 
best developed specimen; ninth longer, narrowed and notched at 
apex, the margins elevated above the disk which has three coarse 
transverse wrinkles. Eighth sternite broadly exposed, angles each 
side the median cleft are thickened, pointed, black, and with a tuft 
of long golden hairs. 

Length, 24—25 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Kurrenabaque, Bolivia, Oct. 1921; allotype fe- 
male, Huachi, Bolivia, 1922; another fejinale Corenda, Bolivia, 1921, 
and two males, Huachi, Bolivia, Sept. 1921, W. M. Mann (U.S.N.M.) . 

Type, allotype, and paratypes. — Cat. No. 26749, U.S.N.M. 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol. 67 

GHILIANELLA GLOBULATA, new species. 

Ohilianella ignorata Champion, Biologia, vol. 2, pp. 170-171, pi. 10, figs. 
15-16, 1898 [Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Panama], not of Dohrn, Emesina, 
1860, pp. 238-9, pi. 1, figs. 9-11 [La Guayra and Brazil]. 

Male. — Color dark reddish-brown, sometimes with irregular dark 
maculations, legs and antennae without pale annuli or sometimes 
with markings as described for female; head and thorax strongly 
granulate; segments 2-4 of abdomen slender, widening gradually 
to apical fourth of fourth, which is abruptly expanded, bulbosity 
composed chiefly of the fifth segment which is about three times 
as wide as anterior part of fourth; fifth tergite angulate dilated at 
about middle of sides, margin receding abruptly behind the dila- 
tion; sixth segment about half as wide as fifth, the tergite rounded 
emarginate posteriorly ; seventh tergite about twice as long as sixth, 
projecting considerably beyond hypopygium, strongly transversely 
corrugated, and with a conspicuous central keel on posterior half. 
Sixth sternite with a rather deep rounded median emargination, 
seventh emarginate, both medianly and laterally, eighth transverse, 
narrow; hypopygium inflated, with a slightly projecting, moderately 
large terminal hook, the tip of which is concealed between the ob- 
long claspers (fig. 194). 

Female. — Color somewhat paler, front femora with two partial 
bands, mid and hind femora with two bands and a subapical spot, 
and hind tibiae with subbasal spot, pale; the abdomen is stouter 
throughout, the fourth and fifth segments in particular being broader 
and more involved in the bulbosity ; sixth tergite slightly emarginate 
and a little elevated in the middle behind; seventh tergite equally 
but only slightly prominent; eighth tergite about a third shorter 
than ninth, the latter transversely wrinkled and longitudinally keeled, 
depressed on each side of keel apically; fifth sternite shallowly and 
sixth more deeply emarginate posteriorly; 7th with a short rounded 
projection; eighth sternite visible as a narrow elliptical plate on each 
side. 

Length, 23-26 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Cacao Trece Aguas, Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala, 
April 9 ; allotj^pe female, same locality April 23, 8 male and 4 female 
paratypes, same locality, March 27, 29, 30, April 2, 7, 15, 18, 22, 26, 
29, E. A. Schwarz and H. S. Barber ; 1 male paratype, same locality 
June, 1907, and 1 female Nov.-Dec, 1906, G. P. Goll; 1 female, 
Polochi River, Guatemala, March 22, Barber and Schwarz, 1 male, 
La Ceiba, Honduras. Jan. 24, 1916, F. J. Dyer (U.S.N.M.) ; 1 female, 
Yurimaguas, Peru, June 14, 1920, H. S. Parish (McAtee). 

Type, allotype, and paratypes. — Cat. No. 26750, U.S.N.M. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 119 

Nymphs. — Several nymphs presumably of this species are at hand 
from Cacao, Trece Aguas, March 27 to April 2G. There is a rather 
prominent triangular elevation on the middle of the hind margin of 
each tergite, that on the seventh being most prominent and angularly 
projecting; the lateral angles also are tuberculate prominent; the 
eighth and ninth tergite roofing the anal tube of the female have 
only suggestions of the corrugations and keels they later acquire. 

GHILIANELLA PATRUELA, new species. 

Male. — Color dark reddish brown, pale markings of legs merely 
suggested; granulations of head and thorax nearly obsolete, a few 
small ones on sides of mesothorax; abdomen about as in strigata, 
lacking the wartlike elevations, however, and the suture between the 
fourth and fifth tergites is straight across, instead of posteriorly 
convex as in that form; all sternites rounded emarginate medianly, 
arcuate laterally, the posterior ones more pronouncedly so; hy- 
popygium rather long, the posterior margin bisinuate on each side, 
the lower angle conspicuous but by no means so much so as in strigata, 
the more slender genital hook arising from within the angle and 
directed posteriorly and upwards, the apex simply truncate ; claspers 
and fifth sternite as described in key (fig. 194). 

Length, 20 mm. 

Holotj/pe. — Male, San Carlos, Costa Rica, Schild and Burgdorf. 
(U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Male, Cat. No. 26751, U.S.N.M. 

GHILIANELLA RECONDITA, new species. 

Color reddish-brown to pitchy-black, legs and antennae without 
pale annuli, spines of fore tibiae yellowish; spine between antennae 
also yellowish, and with an enlarged base; head, and thorax dis- 
tinctly granulate. 

Male. — Segments 2-4 of abdomen very slender, the fourth abruptly 
expanded apically, forming anterior fourth of the bulbosity; the 
latter composed chiefly of the fifth segment which is greatly ex- 
panded, the sides elevated and forming rather pointed tubercles 
somewhat behind the middle ; sixth segment posteriorly only a third 
as wide as fifth and somewhat shorter; seventh tergite almost twice 
as long as fifth, acuminate apically and projecting somewhat beyond 
hypopygium (fig. 195) ; seventh sternite slightly emarginate at the 
middle of hind margin, eighth half as long as the seventh. 

Female. — Segments 2-4 of abdomen less slender, the fourth not 
so abruptly expanded, about half of sixth segment involved in the 
bulbosity (fig. 196) ; seventh tergite slightly bisinuate apically, the 



120 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

posterior lateral angles and median convexity not at all prominent; 
eighth tergite about as long as ninth, the latter not especially modi- 
fied apically, that region being only slightly impressed medianly; 
fourth and fifth sternites broadly but shallowly emarginate at the 
middle of hind margin ; seventh sternite slightly angulated at middle 
of hind margin; eighth sternite narrowly visible on each side of 
hypopygium. 

Length, 18-20 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, allotype, female, and 3 paratypes, 2 males and 
1 female from Minca, Magdalena, Colombia, 2,500 feet, July 24—25, 
1920, and 1 paratype male from Aracataca, Magdalena, Colombia, 
dense undergrowth, J. A. G. Kehn (Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila.). 

GHILIANELLA PERIGYNIUM, new species. 

Male. — Similar to recondita in many respects, but longer and with 
more abundant grayish-yellow pile; general color reddish-brown, 
connexivum of segments 2-4 narrowly pale ; hypopygium much as in 
recondita, claspers differing as described in key (fig. 197) ; seventh 
sternite more deeply emarginate and sixth sternite also with a broad, 
deep median emargination. 

Female. — Similar in color to male, tending to be somewhat paler 
with dark mottlings; structure about the same as in female of 
recondita, eighth tergite not depressed medianly near apex and the 
latter somewhat flaring or upturned and notched medianly, while it 
is rather rounded off in recondita; hind margin of seventh sternite 
concave laterally, convex medianly, with a slight emargination at the 
extreme apex. 

Length, 23-28 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, allotype female, and one paratype female, Pachi- 
tea, Peru (Bueno). 

GHILIANELLA SIGNATA, new species. 

Female. — General color dark reddish brown, shading to blackish 
on distal parts of legs and abdomen ; head and thorax unusually free 
from granulations, some present along dorsal carinae of mesothorax; 
pile pale tawny, distribution on head and thorax about typical, 
aggregated into scattering minute tufts and regularly arranged large 
patches on abdomen, a pair of latter on posterior margin of fourth 
tergite, and a pair covering postero-lateral angles of fourth, fifth, 
and sixth sternites; bulbous expansion of abdomen including fifth 
segment, posterior third of segment 4, and anterior third of segment 
C; lateral elevations of segment 5 somewhat posteriorly directed, a 
little wrinkled dorsally and bluntly falcate; segments 6 and 7 con- 
jointly elevated at middle of suture, the elevation surmoimted by a 
minute nipple on 6; tergite 7 a little longer than 6, hind margin 



akt. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 121 

moderately prominent medianly and laterally, thus being slightly 
bisinuate; eighth tergite much broader than long, broadly rounded 
apically, strongly corrugated and keeled ; ninth tergite pale basally, 
with broad, rounded, low, pale side margins; disk dark, corrugated, 
and keeled, the apex narrowed and bent so that it is at right angles 
to general plane of tergite (fig. 198) ; ventral sutures little special- 
ized; hind margin of seventh sternite slightly angulate-produced 
medianly, concave laterally; eighth sternite rather broadly exposed 
each side, the spiracle, however, only barely visible, the hind margin 
deeply rounded emarginate medianly. 

Length, 25 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Hacienda Cincinnati, Sierra San Lorenzo, 
Magdalena, Colombia, Trail to Vista Nieve, 4,500-4,700 feet, July 21, 
1920, J. A. G. Rehn (Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.) ; female paratype, Vista 
Nieve, Colombia, Dec. 16, 1922 (C. Carriker). 

GHILIANELLA STRIGATA, new species. 

Male. — General color yellowish-brown, legs with faint yellowish 
annuli in the standard positions; the head and thorax are only ob- 
soletely warty, almost smooth; the mesothorax and the metathorax 
with a few warts on the sides; abdomen abruptly expanded at pos- 
terior third of segment 4, segment 5 widest, the tergite with rounded 
elevations laterally ; segments 2-5 each with a wart-like elevation on 
middle of hind margin, most conspicuous on 4; segment 6 rapidly 
tapering to about half width of 5 ; tergite 7 half again as long as 6, 
transversely corrugated posteriorly, moderately acuminate and ex- 
tending slightly beyond hypopygium; sternites 6-8 rounded emar- 
ginate medianly, arcuate laterally, the eighth about a third as wide 
as seventh, the spiracle conspicuously pedunculate; ninth sternite 
longest on lower half, which forms apically a prominent rounded 
angle from which arises the long anteriorly and upw T ardly directed 
genital hook, the apex of which is bluntly trilobate; claspers and 
fourth sternite as described in key (fig. 199). 

Length, 22-23 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, San Carlos, Costa Rica; paratype male, Costa 
Rica, Schild and Burgdorf (U.S.N.M.). 

Type and paratype.— Cut No. 26752, U.S.N.M. 

GHILIANELLA SUBGLOBULATA, new species. 

MaU. — Practically a copy of globulata except in the following 
particulars. Pedicel of abdomen is shorter and thicker, each of seg- 
ments 2-4 being shorter than width of bulbosity which the corre- 
sponding segments of globulata equal ; sixth tergite not longer than 
wide at base, while it is distinctly longer in globulata. Ninth sternite 
not opening so nearly posteriorly as in globulata, the hook higher 



122 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.67 

therefore, and less easily distinguished ; claspers oblong, incurved at 
tips, each with a distinct rounded subapical notch in upper margin. 

Female. — Females assigned to this species are still closer dupli- 
cations of globulata than is the male, for the reason that the abdomen 
is short and the segments of the same proportions as in that species. 
The only tangible difference is that the posterior angles of seventh 
tergite are distinctly produced beyond median part of hind margin 
which is merely convex and not at all tuberculate. 

Length, 19-21 mm. 

Holotype. — And one other male, allotype female, Venezuela, Noual- 
hier, 1898 (Paris Mus.) ; two other females, Maraeaibo, Venezuela, 
Wibske (Copenhagen Mus.). 

Two teneral and damaged females which may belong here have 
the prominences of fifth tergite more conspicuous, projecting dis- 
tinctly beyond sides of abdomen. If assignment to the present 
species is correct the indication would be that these prominences 
may undergo a reduction from the condition attained in the 
nymphal or teneral state in the processes of ecdysis or hardening. 
The data for these specimens is Venezuela, one collected by G. Fal- 
lon, 1895, the other by Noualhier 1898 (Paris Mus.). 

GHILIANELLA UNCINATA, new species. 

Male. — Color dark reddish-brown, head and thorax with more 
abundant short, semipollinose hair than usual in the genus; legs 
with faint pale bands disposed as in last species; abdomen a little 
stouter than in allied species, about a third of segment 4, and about 
half of segment 6 involved in the bulbosity; tergite 5 widely angu- 
larly emarginate anteriorly, tergite 6 almost transverse posteriorly, 
with a small rounded elevation on middle of hind margin; seventh 
tergite about half again as long as sixth, faintly corrugated, without 
keel but more or less apiculate, extending little if any beyond hypo- 
pygium. Sternites all more or less angulate emarginate posteriorly 
and sinuate laterally, the former condition most marked on 7, the 
latter on 6; eighth sternite plainly visible, shallowly rounded emar- 
ginate; ninth sternite long, straight, rather trough-like, terminating 
in a large, prominent hook; claspers oblong, narrowed above sub- 
apically, the apices turned inward and slightly upward (fig. 200). 

Length, 21-25 mm. 

Holotype. —Male, Trinidad Rio, Panama, March 29, 1912, A. 
Busck; paratype males same locality March 23, November 2, 5; 
Cabima, Panama, May 18, 1911; Alhajuelo, Panama, April 15, 1911; 
Porto Bello, Panama, March 10, 13, 1911; April 21, 1912, all A. 
Busck; last locality, Feb. 17, 1911, E. A. Schwarz; and no date, A. H. 
Jennings, 12 in all (U.S.N.M.). 

Type and paratypes.— Cat. No. 26753, U.S.N.M. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 123 

GHILIANELLA ATRICLAVA Bergroth. 

GMlianella atriclava Bergroth, E. New Neotropical Ploeariinae. Psyche, 
vol. 18, No. 1, Feb., 1911, pp. 19-20 [French Guiana]. 

Body in general yellow-brown, bulbosity and legs piceous, the 
latter practically without pale markings. Frontal spine pale, short, 
decurved. Abdomen long pedicillate, increasing but slightly in 
thickness from base to posterior third of fourth segment which ab- 
ruptly expands and together with the fifth and sixth segments forms 
an almost globular expansion beyond which the short seventh seg- 
ment projects but little. Elevations of fifth tergite large, subacute, 
compressed, longitudinal^ ridged; sixth and seventh tergites very 
short, the latter transversely corrugated on the apical half, which is 
short acuminate; ninth sternite short, opening upwards, the claspers 
oblong, the upper posterior angles truncate. 

Length, 24 mm. 

Male, French Guinana (Coll. E. Bergroth). The type. 

GHILIANELLA FILIVENTRIS Spinola. 

Ghilianella ftUventris Spinola, M. Generi Insetti Artroidignati, 1852, pp. 
143, 144 [Para]. 

Dohrn 19 describes and illustrates a species of Ghilianella as filiven- 
tris Spinola and it is upon this work that the present identification 
is based. Certainly the males before us are the same species that 
Dohrn figured ; discrepancies in color from what he described are not 
a matter for concern in this genus. The specimens agree also with 
Spinola's description and some of them are from the type locality. 
The association of sexes here made is based on examination of a 
series of 18 specimens from the same locality collected at the same 
season, the genitalia of a number of which show evidences of recent 
use. 

Male. — Color chiefly dark reddish (one specimen has peduncle 
yellowish) ; head and thorax copiously granulate; fine, short 
pubescence plentiful on head and thorax, sparse on abdomen and 
legs. Abdomen reaching the greatest degree of pedunculation 
seen in any species, segments 2, 3, and most of 4 forming a stalk of 
almost uniform diameter, the apex of fourth segment abruptly ex- 
panded, and together with the fifth and sixth forming a globular 
expansion which on account of the shortness of the seventh segment 
seems almost to terminate the abdomen (fig. 201) ; this is the only 
species observed to have ridged prominences near posterior angles 
of the sixth as well as on the fifth tergite; the seventh tergite has 
the basal portion almost square, this tapering rapidly into a short 
more or less upturned apiculation, slightly surpassing the hypopygium 

19 Emesina, 1860. pp. 237, 238. pi. 1, figs. 8, 10. 



124 PKOCEEDINGS OP THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

(fig. 202). Sternites 5, 6, and 7 are shorter than in less bulbous 
species and each is broadly emarginate medianly; the ninth sternite 
or hypopygium is short and opens upward; the claspers are short- 
oblong, narrowed apically. Fore leg and its armature as in fig- 
ures 203, 204. 

Female. — In color like the male, with a greater tendency, how- 
ever, to yellowish spotting or marbling; granulation and pubescence 
about the same. The abdomen widens gradually from base to apex 
of fourth segment, from which point to end of seventh the width is 
nearly uniform; it is thus a veiw good illustration of the clavate 
form: the median line of tergites is slightly elevated, subapically 
the lateral margins of tergite 6 tend to project beyond the common 
lateral outline of abdomen, and the hind margin of tergites 5 and 

6 is bisinuate, the slight median angulation and the lateral angles 
projecting about equally posteriorly; hind margin of the seventh 
tergite slightly concave, with a distinct small median tubercle; 
eighth tergite almost semicircular, radiately wrinkled; ninth trun- 
cate cuneate, the base faintty transversely corrugated, the apex raised 
medianly, more or less concave distally, sometimes faintly longitudi- 
nally ridged ; the hind margins of sternites 2 and 3 are emarginate 
medianly, those of 4, 5, and 6 are nearly simply concave; that of 

7 is convex medianly and slightly concave laterally; and the ex- 
posed portions of 8 are elliptical. 

Length, 23-27 mm. 

Santarem, April-July 1919, S. M. Klages; Chapada, Para, all 
Brazil (Carnegie Mus.) ; a male labelled Amazon, Stevens (Stock- 
holm Mus.) ; two females Itaituba, Amazon, Brazil, Noualhier, 1898; 
three males, Para, and one Amazonas, Noualhier, 1898 (Paris Mus.). 

GHILIANELLA MIRABILIS, new species. 

Male. — Head and thorax moderately granulate; pubescence short; 
color castaneous, varying in depth, but without definite pale mark- 
ings anywhere ; frontal spine porrect, sharp, stramineous. Abdomen 
terete and of nearly uniform diameter from base to posterior fourth 
of fourth tergite which expands abrupt!} 7 to form anterior wall of 
bulbosity. The largest component of the latter is the remarkably 
horned fifth segment described in key (figs. 205, 206), but the sixth 
segment is wholly included and the seventh is so short that the 
bulbosity is practically terminal. Seventh tergite an approximately 
equilateral triangle (fig. 207), corrugated transversely, and elevated 
and apiculate distally. Hind margin of the fourth sternite with 
a shorter and deeper median, and broader but shallower lateral con- 
cavities ; fifth deeply concave, thus being very short on median line ; 
sixth also deeply concave but of about same length in middle as on 
'sides; seventh longer, with a short but distinct median emargina- 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 125 

tion; eighth sternite barely visible; ninth short, strongly curved, 
opening upward; claspers oblong, narrowed apically. 

Female. — Similar in general to male, but showing traces of pale 
leg markings, and abdominal marblings. Abdomen from base to 
and including fifth segment like that of male, the horns of fifth 
tergite shorter however (fig. 208) ; bulbosity much longer than in 
male, due to greater length of sixth and seventh segments which 
may be said to form part of it. Hind margin of seventh tergite 
with the median point and lateral angles slightly more prominent 
than intervening portions; eighth semicircular; ninth much longer, 
cuneate, faintly corrugated basally and striate apically, the apex 
rounded, margin slightly thickened (fig. 209). Sternites up to 6 
inclusive of about same shape as in male, seventh much longer on 
median line than fifth and sixth together, the hind margin some- 
what convex medianly and slightly concave laterally ; eighth broadly 
exposed on each side. 

Length, 27-29 mm. 

Male holotype, female allotype, and a teneral male, Rio Autuz, 
Amazon, Roman (Stockholm Mus.). 

GHIILIANELLA PERUVIANA, new species. 

Female. — Dark castaneous, pubescence short and inconspicuous; 
head and thorax rather strongly granulate ; central region of tergites 
with a percurrent ridge ; a strong blunt tubercle at hind margin of 
6 ; seventh with the hind margin nearly straight, bevelled off medianly 
on each side of the fairly prominent apex of longitudinal ridge; 
eighth tergite semicircular, considerably depressed medianly, with a 
low carina in the depression; ninth tergite tapering rather rapidly, 
rounded and slightly emarginate apically; with indistinct corruga- 
tions and no prominent longitudinal or marginal ridges. 

Length, 22 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, El Campamiento, Col. Perene, Peru, June 
21, 1920, Cornell University Expedition, Lot 569 (Cornell Univ.). 

GHILIANELLA ANNECTENS. new species. 

Emesa angulata Uhleb, P. R. Heteroptera of St. Vincent, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., pp. 717-8, Nov. 21, 1893 [Panama specimens in part]. 

Female. — Testaceous, more or less variegated with fuscous and 
washed with rufous; thorax and head decidedly granular; pu- 
bescence sparse; abdomen widening gradually to apex of sixth seg- 
ment, seventh somewhat narrower but nearly parallel-sided ; tergites 
with a percurrent nodulose median ridge, becoming more prominent 
posteriorly and culminating in a large backward sloping tubercle 
on hind margin of tergite 6; posterior angles of tergites 3-6 pro- 
gressively elevated and expanded, thus interrupting the lateral out- 



126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM VOL. 6T 

line of abdomen as seen from above (fig. 210) ; seventh tergite almost 
straight across hind margin, the lateral angles slightly prominent 
and the median line near apex with a small recumbent tubercle which 
scarcely projects beyond the medianly depressed hind margin ; eighth 
tergite broadly elliptical, wrinkled transversely and with a median 
keel which is elevated posteriorly and forms a small projection on 
hind margin; ninth tergite twice as long as eighth, with sinuate 
transverse wrinkles, a low median keel, the sides elevated and toothed 
posteriorly, the apex narrowed, depressed and black in color (fig 
211) ; sutures between sternites while not greatly modified have a 
tendency toward median emargination and lateral sinuation; 6 is 
more concave behind and 7 somewhat produced medianly and con- 
cave laterally; an elliptical, vertically ridged and horizontally 
wrinkled portion of eighth sternite visible on each side. Arma- 
ture of fore femur as in figure 212. 

Length, 20 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, Panama, Scudder (Uhler Collection, U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Male, Cat. No. 26754, U.S.N.M. 

GHILIANELLA TRUNCATA, new species. 

Emesa angulata Uhler, P. R. Heteroptera of St. Vincent, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., pp. 717-8, Nov. 21, 1893 [Panama specimens, in part]. 

Very similar to the preceding; ninth tergite differing as noted in 
key; eighth with the median keel not projecting behind posterior 
margin (figs. 213, 214). 

Length, 21 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, labelled Emesa angulata Uhler, Panama 
(U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Cat. No. 27091 U.S.N.M. 

GHILIANELLA (PLOEODONYX) INSIDIATRIX Bergroth. 

Ghilianella insidiatriw, Bergroth, E. Konowia, vol. 1, pp. 219-220, August 20, 
1922 [French Guiana]. 

Male. — Head and body dark, legs and antennae paler castaneous; 
front femora with 2 pale bands across the spined portion ; antennae 
pale at base; mid and hind legs with faint pale annuli. Frontal 
spine short but pointed and decurved; head and thorax practically 
without granulation but prothorax is obsoletely rugulose; tubercles 
of pronotum each side of neck rather prominent, also a pair on hind 
margin; divisions of thorax successively shorter posteriorly. 
Pubescence golden, short and sparse in general, but aggregated in 
dense patches as follows: Posterior lobe of head above (front lobe 
also of more than average hairiness), top and sides of front end of 
pronotum, top and sides of thorax at sutures between meso- and 
meta-thoraces, and between metathorax and abdomen ; upper surfaces 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARIINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 127 

of mid and hind coxae, first termite, series of blotches practically 
forming a ring about abdomen at front of fourth segment, and simi- 
lar patches or indications of them on following two segments. Ab- 
domen widest about middle of fifth segment, holding its width well 
posteriorly, but narrowed considerably anteriorly especially segment 
2; a slight elevation on the ampliate posterior angle of each tergite, 
and on middle of hind margin of sixth; median strip of dorsum 
with a series of squarish depressions; seventh tergite obsoletely 
ridged, wrinkled transversely on posterior half, narrowed in round- 
ing fashion then abruptly apiculate, apex projecting slightly beyond 
hypopygium. Sternites of ordinary shape, seventh shallowly emargi- 
nate medianly, nearly straight laterally, eighth well exposed and 
broadly convex medianly, retreating laterally but not covered by 
seventh, spiracle moderately pedunculate ; ninth sternite rather long, 
opening upward; claspers oblong, not narrowed apically. Fore leg 
and its armature as in figures 215, 216. 

Length, 21-22 mm. 

Holotype. — Male, French Guiana [Coll. Bergroth]. Other male 
specimens: Bourdon ville, French Guiana, R. Benoist, August, 1914; 
Lunier River, Tumac Humac Mts., French Guiana, 1898, F. Geay; 
Napo River, Upper Amazon, 1899, Sarkady (Paris Mus.). 

This series shows considerable variation in the extent of the 
patches of golden hair, and some in thickness of claspers, but these 
are not regarded as of taxonomic import. 

We are accepting the female (allotype from French Guiana, ex- 
amined by us) assigned to this species by Bergroth. His specimens 
of this sex apparently were collected at the same time and place as 
the males and probably are of the same species. However, among 
the three species of females of this group we have examined, one (f/la- 
brata) agrees better in structural characters with the male insidia- 
trix than does the specimen from Bergroth's collection. All of the 
females differ considerably from the male in characters other than 
those used in defining the subgenus. The frontal spine is much 
blunter, there are no patches of golden hair, and the leg markings 
are much fainter. 

The allotype from Bergroth collection is pale castaneous, with the 
head and thorax almost free from granulations. The hypopygium 
is as described in key; the following details may be added: There 
is no longitudinal carina in the depression of tergite 8 ; and the apical 
margin of tergite 9 has on each side two ridges which are confluent 
medianly. Length, 25 mm. 

GHILIANELLA (PLOEODONYX) AMICULA, new species. 

Female. — Description in most particulars would read like that of 
insidiatrix, from which the present species differs chiefly by hypo- 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

pygial characters as described in key; eighth tergite is moderately 
long, squarish apically, with subobsolete radiating ridges. 

Length, 23.5 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Charvein, French Guiana, November, 1914; 
R. Benoist (Paris Mus.). 

GHILIANELLA (PLOEODONYX) GLABRATA, new species. 

A rather dark species with the head and body fuscous and the 
appendages yellowish to reddish-brown. Head and thorax practi- 
cally without granulations; pubescence rather sparse, short, pale 
reddish. Central region of tergites nodulose but hardly tuberculate ; 
hind margin of seventh tergite slightly concave, with a small median 
pointed tubercle. Eighth tergite almost semicircular, strongly trans- 
versely wrinkled; ninth tergite with a few strong cross wrinkles, 
tapering rather rapidly, otherwise as described in key. 

Length, 24 mm. 

Holotype. — Female, Essequebo River, British Guiana, July, 1921, 
Aug. Busck (U.S.N.M.). 

Type.— Female, Cat. No. 26755, U.S.N.M. 

GHILIANELLA (LISSONYX) ANGULATA (Uhler). 

Emesa angulata Uhler, P. R. A list of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera col- 
lected in the Iskmd of St. Vincent by Mr. Herbert H. Smith, with Descriptions of 
New Genera and Species. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, pp. 717-718 [St. Vincent, 
W. I.]. 

Male. — General color yellow-brown, more fuscous on underside of 
thorax and hypopygium; legs banded and upper surface more or 
less variegated with dark-brown; mid and hind femora each with 
four dark bands and tibiae with 3, the latter also more or less 
darkened apically ; front tibiae each with one pale band, and femora 
with two bands and some pale spots above; head and thorax 
with few and inconspicuous granulations; each succeeding division 
of thorax is shorter than that in front of it; abdomen widening 
gradually to juncture of fifth and sixth segments and narrowing 
as gradually to middle of seventh tergite posteriorly; the posterior 
angles of tergites 3-6 are slightly expanded laterally; tergite 7 is 
decidedly narrowed about the middle, transversely corrugated and 
broadly rounded apically, with a prominent median apiculation 
reaching about as far posteriorly as any part of hypopygium; hind 
margins of sternites 2-5 fairly straight, a little emarginate medianly, 
that of sixth decidedly so and arcuate laterally, of seventh and 
eighth on same plan as that of sixth but less pronounced; spiracle 
of eighth rather pedunculate; ninth sternite elongate, rather com- 
pressed posteriorly, with a strong anteriorly and almost horizontally 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIARITNAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 129 

directed apical hook; claspers obtriangular, broadened apically, 
the angles rounded (fig. 217). 

Female. — Frontal spine and pronotal tubercles much smaller than 
in male, color of head, thorax, and legs paler, the dark markings 
merely indicated, abdomen more heavily maculated with fuscous; 
posterior angles of tergites 3-6 expanded laterally into rather promi- 
nent slightly backwardly directed teeth; tergites 4-6 each with a 
tubercle on median line near hind margin; seventh tergite almost 
parallel-sided, the hind angles but slightly concave, with a small 
median tubercle; eighth tergite about two-thirds as long as wide, 
transversely wrinkled and apiculate medianly; ninth tergite trans- 
versely corrugated, narrowed subapically, the margins raised, the 
disk depressed and smooth apically; hind margins of sternites 2-5 
slightly emarginate medianly and sinuate laterally, of 6 deeply 
concave; seventh sternite nearly twice as long as sixth, the hind 
margin convex medianly, slightly concave laterally; eighth sternite 
barely visible from side. 

Male, labelled St. Vincent Island, H. H. Smith. Length 17 milli- 
meters. 

Female, labelled Balthazar, Windward Side. Grenada, W. I.. 
H. H. Smith. Length 18 millimeters. 

The female from Grenada here described, with shorter pronotal 
tubercles, and with elevations on the hind margins of tergites 4-6, 
and other differences, may well be a species distinct from the true 
angulata of St. Vincent. However, settlement of this question may 
well await the availability of more material. 

APPENDIX 1. 

GENOTYPES OF THE FABRICIAN GENERA. 

Certain authors claim that Fabricius indicated types of various 
hemipterous genera by repeating generic characters in the specific 
descriptions of the so-called genotypes. Much is made also of the 
fact that in most cases some of the phrases in these descriptions begin 
with italicized words. 

In examining these claims it will be well to state the historical 
background of the case. Of the various early authors credited with 
the selection of genotypes in Hemiptera, Latreille (Considerations 
generates, etc., 1810) is the only one who asserts his definite inten- 
tion (l'indication de Pespece qui leur sert de type) and who consist- 
ently names only a single species to a genus. Lamarck and Laporte 
frequently .cite more than one species to a genus and are only credited 
with fixing types when they happen to name just one illustration of 
a genus. Now it is clear that using the term in the modern sense 
94993—25 9 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

these last two authors were not selecting genotypes. Because of ex 
2>ost facto considerations we credit them with so doing when they 
accidentally mention but one species for a genus, but essentially we 
are putting a false construction on their work. Their system of 
citing illustrations of genera was followed by much later authors 
(as for instance Fieber, 1866) ; Stal who named more genera than 
any other hemipterist described many of them without any species, 
and never made a practice of naming genotypes; Reuter also still 
later paid little or no attention to type designation. In fact conscious 
selection of genotypes is a comparatively modern development in 
taxonomy and it is only in the most recent catalogues that an effort 
has been made to indicate definite type fixations for all the genera in 
large groups of insects. 

In the light of these facts what probability is there that Fabricius 
in 1803 or earlier as in 1794 (as some authors claim) took action that 
we can consider as genotype fixation? The answer is there is no 
probability whatever that such was the case. Going further into 
the matter it should be said in this connection that the works of 
Fabricius have been viewed in an entirely different way than those 
of the other early authors. The latter are credited with type fixa- 
tion only when they chanced to name a single species as an illustra- 
tion of a genus or in connection with the description of a new genus. 
Fabricius had only one such instance in the Systema Rhyngotorum 
(1803), but in numerous cases he gave a preponderantly structural 
description of one of the species in a genus (not a repetition of the 
generic characters as has been stated) and in most of these instances 
he italicized the names of the different anatomical parts described. 
The statistics in the m'atter are: 45 genera are recognized in the 
Systema Rhyngotorum, of which 30 have species with special struc- 
tural descriptions, and all but 2 of these have the italicized words. 
If Fabricius had been intentionally indicating genotypes it is highly 
probable he would have given all the genera uniform treatment : in- 
stead of only two-thirds of them. Further light can be had by 
tracing the matter back to the Entomologica Systematica (vol. 4, 
1794). Kirkaldy finding some of the chiefly structural descriptions 
of species in that work logically accepted them as being as good in- 
dications of genotypes as those in the Systema Rhyngotorum. Other 
hemipterists do not agree with him, but the so-called type fixations 
in the earlier work stand or fall with those in the later, as they have 
exactly the same basis. In both works the descriptions in ques- 
tions are merely more structural than others (compare genus Mem- 
bracis for instance), and neither work gives them for all the genera, 
nor uniformly so far as italicization is concerned. 



art. 1 AMERICAN PLOIAMINAE McATEE AND MALLOCH 131 

The four genotypes accepted by Kirkaldy from the earlier work 
are here listed with comment on their treatment in the later. 

1794 1S03 

1. Coreus scapha Given a much shorter though structural de- 

scription. 

2. Lygaeus valgus The structural description is transferred to tene- 

prosus. 

3. Miris dolabratus No species has a structural description. 

4. Gerris lacustris Species is transferred to Hydrometra retaining 

the structural description. 

Again we would repeat the question, Does this look like type fixa- 
tion?, and again we answer, It does not. If Fabricius had been fixing 
genotypes he would not have altered his choice from a certain species 
in his earlier to 'another in the later work (2) ; after selecting a type 
in the former treatise he would not have left a genus entirely with- 
out one in the latter (3) ; nor would he have attempted to make the 
same species serve as type for two different genera (4). 

It has been asserted that Fabricius somewhere has mentioned his 
intention of selecting genotj^pes, and that Fallen says he did, etc. We 
have examined the Philosophia Entomologica, 1778, and there is 
nothing in it to indicate that Fabricius had any conception of geno- 
types. He says nothing about selecting types in the Systema Rhyn- 
gotorum so the requirements of the International Code of Nomen- 
clature, that type fixation must be definite, are not met. What Fa- 
bricius or any other 'author may have thought or said subsequent ito 
publication has no effect on nomenclatorial practice. 



132 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 
APPENDIX 2. 

SUMMARY OF GENERA AND SPECIES. 

Genera seen. 



vol. 67 



Genus synonyms indented. 


Described 
species 
seen*. 

1 

8 

2 

1 
1 
1 
2 


Described 

species 

not seen. 


New 
species. 


Total. 


Emesopsis Uhler 1893. _ 






1 


Empicoris Wolff 1811 


1 


4 
8 
1 


12 


Ploiariodes White 1881. 
Ploiariola Reuter 1888. 
Stenolemus Signoret 1858 


11 


Phantasmatophanes Kirkaldy 1908. 
Stenolemoides, new subgenus. 
Deliastes Dohrn 1863 __ __ _ __ 


2 


Panamia Kirkaldy 1907 


1 


Lutevopsis Champion 1898. _ 


1 

4 


5 

2 

14 

11 

"7 

2 
36 


2 


Emesa Fabricius 1803 


11 


Westermannia Dohrn 1860. 
Westermannias Kirkaldy 1904. 
Myiagreutes Bergroth 1911. 
Phasmatocoris Breddin 1904. 
Rothbergia, new subgenus. 
Pola.uchenia, new genus _ 


2 


Ploiaria Scopoli 1786 ____•_ 


8 

1 

2 

4 
13 


6 
2 

12 


28 


Cerascopus Heineken 1830. 
Emesodema Spinola 1840. 
Luteva Dohrn 1860. 
Ploiariopsis Champion 1898. 
Gardena Dohrn I860. 


12 


Emesaya, new name 


11 


Emesa Authors. 
Metapterus Costa I860.. 


6 


Barce Stal 1865. 
Carambis Stal 1866. 
Mantisoma Iakovlev 1874. 
Ghilianella Spinola 1852 


61 


Ploeodonyx, new subgenus. 
Lissonyx, new subgenus. 




Total 


44 


26 


90 


160 







° Three new subspecies also described. 

Genera not seen. 



Genus. 


Described 

species 

not seen. 


Total. 


Emesella Dohrn 1860 . _ _ 


3 
1 
2 


3 


Malacopus Stal 1862 __ 


1 


Palacus Dohrn 1863- _ - 


2 








Total... . 


6 


6 







INDEX 



Page numbers in boldface type indicate the principal account of the group concerned. 
Generic names in parentheses are those of combinations not valid in the sense of this 
paper. 



Page 

aberrans, Metapterus 84, 85, 86 

affinis, Emesa 77 

Emesaya 77 

agrippina, Gardena 63,69,73 

alata (Ploiaria) 23 

albipennis, Ploiaria 51, 53, 60 

aliena, Ghilianella 96,98, 106 

alterata, Ghilianella 95, 98, 107-108 

alveola, Ghilianella 96,98,104 

americana, Gardena 67, 69, 69-70, 74 

amicula, Ghilianella 95, 99, 127-128 

analis (Emesa) 96 

Ghilianella 96 

angulata (Emesa) 99, 125, 126,128 

Ghilianella 93, 99, 128-129 

annectens, Ghilianella 95, 99, 125-126 

annulata (Emesa) 96 

Ghilianella 96 

(Westermannia) 38,40 

annulatus, Emesa 40-41 

annulipes (Barce) 83,88 

Metapterus 83, 85, 86, 88-89 

apiculata, Ghilianella 92, 99, 111 

approximate, Ghilianella 92, 94, 99, 117 

aptera (Mantisoma) 84 

Metapterus 84 

Ploiaria 51, 53, 66 

aracataca, Ghilianella— 92,95,99, 112-113 

argentina (Ghilianella) 96 

arizonensis (Luteva) 26, 28 

Stenolemus -. 26, 28-29 

armata (Ploiariedes) 20 

armatus, Empicoris 16, 20—21 

assa-nutrix, Ghilianella 92, 94, 99, 114 

a triclava, Ghilianella 91, 99, 123 

australis, Emesaya 79-80 

Bactrodinae 2 

Ba.^auda 5 

Barce 4, 5, 11, 83, 84 

Bargylia 4 

banksi, Emesaya 76, 77-78 

banksii (Barce) 87 

Metapterus 85, 86, 87 

barberi, Empicoris 15, 16, 19 

(Ploiariodes) 19 

bethei, Ghilianella 94, 99, 112 

biannulata, Polauchenia 47,48 

bicaudata, Ghilianella 96, 98, 101-102 

bispina, Ploiaria 51, 53, 59 

brachmanni, Deliastes 34, 35 



Page 

brasiliensi3 (Emesa) 97 

Ghiliaoiella 97 

brevicoxa (Emesa) 77 

Emesaya 76, 77 

brevipennis, Emesaya 75, 76, 77, 78-81 

(Ploiaria) 75,78 

brunnea (Barce) 87 

Metapterus 87 

Ploiaria 52,53,54 

bulbifera, Ghilianella 97 

caesonia, Gardena 68, 69, 70 

californica (Ploiariodes) 17 

californiensis, Ploiaria 52 

canadensis (Ploiariola) 18 

canadensis (Cerascopus) 65 

Carambis 83 

Carolina (Emesodema) 58 

Ploiaria 51, 53, 58-59, 64 

caspica (Carambis) 83 

(Emesa) 83 

Metapterus 83 

cellularis, Malacopus 11 

Cerascopus 4, 5 

chilensis, Lutevopsis 38 

choctawana (Dmesa) 78, 80 

claviventris, Ghilianella 91, 98, 109 

colona, Ghilianella 92, 99, 112 

concolor (Luteva) 48 

crispina, Gardena 68,69, 70-71 

cubensis, Palacus " 11 

culiciformis (Cimex) 23 

Empicoris 16, 23-24 

cuneata, Ghilianella 95, 99, 113-114 

De)iaste3 9, 10, 12, 34-36 

denticauda, Ploiaria 50, 53, 63-64 

difflcilis (Westermannia) 38,46-47 

diffinis, Emesa 45, 46 

dohrni, Emesella 11 

domestica, Ploiaria 48 

domitia, Gardena 68,69,71 

Emesa 4, 7, 10, 12, 38-47, 74, 75 

Emesaria 4, 5 

Emesaya 6, 10, 12, 74-83 

Emesella 11 

Emesodema 48 

Emesopsis 9, 11, 12, 13 

Empicoris 4, 5, 9, 10, 12, 13-25 

errabunda (Ploiaria) 24 

(Ploiariodes) 23 

errabundus, Empicoris 15, 16, 24—25 

133 



134 



INDEX 



Page 

erraticus (Gerris) 23 

Eugubinus 5 

euryale (Ploiariodes) 17 

eutropia, Gardena 68, 69, 71 

fairmairei (Emesodema) 52 

faustina, Gardena 68, 69, 70, 78-74 

filiventris, Ghilianella 90, 

91, 94, 99, 128-124 

fllum (Emesa) 39,78 

floridana (Luteva) 59 

Ploiaria 51,53,59 

fraterna (Ploiaria) 89 

fraternus, Metapterus 85, 86, 89-90 

froggatti (Ploiariola) 17 

galapagensis, Ghilianella 95, 98, 100 

Gardena 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 66-74 

gerstaeckeri (Emesa) '. 97 

Ghilianella 97 

Ghilianella 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 13, 90-129 

gibbiventris, Ghilianella 97 

glabrata, Ghilianella 95, 99, 127, 128 

gladiator, Ghilianella 93, 99, 115 

globifera, Ghilianella 91, 98, 99, 110 

globulata, Ghilianella___ 92, 94, 99, 118-119 

Gomesius 5 

granulata, Ghilianella 97 

Ploiaria 50, 53, 57-58 

gundlachi (Luteva) 48,56 

Ploiaria 52, 53, 56 

hirticornis, Ploiaria 50, 53, 64-65 

(Ploiariopsis) 64 

hirtipes (Ploiariodes) J 18 

Stenolemus 27, 28, 32 

ica, Ghilianella 92, 99, 111 

ignorata, Ghilianella 97, 118 

imbeeilla (Emesa) 97 

Ghilianella 97 

immitis, Emesella 11 

incisa, Emesaya 76, 78 

insidiatrix, Ghilianella— 93, 95, 99, 126-127 

interstitialis, Stenolemus 27, 28, 81-32 

Ischnobaena 4, 5 

Ischnonyctes 4, 6, 11 

Loistarcharia 4, 5 

linearis, Metapterus 83 

lineata, Emesaya 76, 77, 81 

Lissonyx 6, 11, 99, 128-129 

longimanus, Lutevopsis 37-38 

longipes (Cimex) 77, 78, 80 

(Emesa) 39,77 

Emesaya 77 

(Zelus) 39,77 

longula, Ghilianella 96, 98, 104 

Luteva 4, 5, 10, 48, 50, 53 

Lutevopsis 10, 12, 87-38 

maerophtlialma (Luteva) 53 

Ploiaria 52, 53, 53-54 

maerophthalmus (Luteva) 48,53 

maculata, Ghilianella 93, 98, 108 

(Ploiaria) 23,24 

Malaeopus 4, 11 

manni, Emesaya 76, 88 

mansueta (Ploiariola) 20,21 

mantis, Emesa 38, 39, 40, 41, 74 

(Gerris) 41 

(Westermannia) 41 



Page 

Mantisoma 84 

marcia, Gardena 68, 69, 72 

marginata, Ploiaria 48, 51, 53, 65-66 

marginatus (Cerascopus) 48,65 

marmoratus, Emesa 40, 41-42 

megalops (Ploiariopsis) 49,52 

melinarthrum, Gardena 66 

messalina, Gardena 68, 69, 72 

Metapteraria 4, 5, 6 

Metapterus 4, 5, 11, 13, 83-90 

mexicanus, Stenolemus 27, 28, 32-33 

minimula, Ghilianella 93, 96, 98, 105 

minor, Emesa 43 

mirabilis, Ghilianella 91, 94, 99, 124-125 

modica, Emesaya 76, 81 

muiri (Phantasmatophanes) 25 

muscicapa, Lutevopsis 38 

Myiagreutes 40, 42-43 

Myiophanes 5, 10,39 

nebulosa, Emesella 11 

neglectus, Metapterus 85, 86, 87 

nubilus, Emesopsis 13 

nudus, Empicoris 16, 22 

occidentalis, Emesaya 78, 80-81 

ornata (Luteovopsis) 36, 37 

Panamia 86-87 

orthoneuron, Empicoris 15, 16, 18-19 

Orthunga 4, 5 

pachitea, Ghilianella 92, 99, 111 

Palacus 11,34 

pallida, Palacus 11 

Ploiaria 11 

pallidipennis, Stenolemus 27, 28, 80 

Panamia 10, 12, 36-87 

parshleyi, Empicoris 15, 16, 22-28 

(Ploeariola) 22 

pascoei, Ghilianella 93, 96, 98, 106-107 

patruela, Ghilianella 92, 99, 119 

pendula, Ghilianella 94, 99, 116-117 

perigynium, Ghilianella 92, 94, 99, 120 

perplexus, Stenolemus 27, 28, 33 

persimilis, Ghilianella— 93, 95, 98, 103-104 
personata, Ghilianella— 93, 95, 98, 108-109 

peruviana, Ghilianella 95, 99, 125 

perversa, Ghilianella 96, 98, 110 

Phantasmatophanes" 25 

Thasmatoeoris 40, 44 

pia (Emesa) 78,80 

pilicornis, Ploiaria 51, 53, 61 

pilosa (Ploearia) 18 

pilosus, Empicoris 18 

pipara, Gardena 68, 69, 72-73 

Ploearia 5, 49 

Ploeariodes 14 

Ploeariola 14 

Ploeodonyx 6, 99, 126-128 

Ploiaria 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 48-66 

Ploiariaria 4 

I loiariinae 2, 5 

Ploiariodes 10, 13, 14 

Ploiariola 5, 14 

Ploiariopsis 49 

Polauchenia 10, 12, 47-48 

pollex, Emesaya 76, 77, 82-83 

poppaea, Gardena 68, 69, 74 

praecatorius (Gerris) 39 



1NDKX 



135 



Page 

praecellens, Emesa 42-43 

(Myiagreutes) 42 

praedator (Ploiariopsis) 49, 52 

precatoria, Emesaya 82 

precatorius (Emosa) 38,39,82 

pristinus, Stenolemus 26, 28, 29-80 

productilis, Ghilianella— 93, 96, 98, 102-108 

protentor, Polauchenia 47-48 

punctipes, Ploiaria 51, 53, 62 

pyrallis, Gardena 68, 69, 73 

rapax, Emesa 44, 45-46 

recondita, Ghilianella___ 92, 94, 99, 119-120 

reticulata, Ploiaria 50, 53, 63 

(Ploiariopsis) 63 

reticulatus, Deliastes 34, 35 

Empicoris 15, 16, 20 

Rothbergia 40, 44-46 

rubromaculata (Ploiariodes) 16 

rubromaculatus, Empicoris 15, 16-17 

rufoannulata (Luteva) 57 

Ploiaria 52,53,57 

Saicinae 2, 5 

schwarzi (Stenolaemus) 30 

Stenolemus 27, 28, 30-31 

semipallida, Ghilianella 95, 98, 100 

setulifera, Ploiaria 52, 53, 55-56 

sicaria, Ploiaria 52, 53, 55 

signata, Ghilianella 94,99, 120-121 

signoreti (Emesa) 97 

Ghilianella 97 

similata, Ghilianella 94, 99, 116 

similis, Ploiaria 51, 53, 62 

simillima, Ghilianella 93, 98, 102 

simplicipes (Emesodema) 88 

Metapterus 88 

sonoraensis (Ploiariopsis) 52 



Page 

spectrum, Emesa 44 

(Phasmatocoris) 44 

spiniger, Stenolemus 27, 28, 88 

spiniventris, Stenolemus 25, 28 

spinolae, Ghilianella 97 

Steuolaemaria 5 

Strnolaemus 5, 25 

Stenolemoides 26, 28-29 

Stenolemus 4, 7, 10, 12, 25-33 

stipitata, Ghilianella 94, 99, 116 

stramineipes, Deliastes 34,36 

strigata, Ghilianella 92, 99, 121 

subglobulata, Ghilianella 94, 99, 121-122 

subparallelus, Empicoris 16, 21-22 

succincta, Ghilianella 96, 98, 105 

tenerrima (Westermannia) 38, 46 

testaceus, Emesa 44, 45 

texana, Ploiaria 52—53 

Tinna 4, 5 

truncata, Ghilianella 95,99,126 

tuberculata (Ploiariodes) 24, 25 

uhleri (Barce) 86 

Metapterus 85, 86-87 

umbrarum, Ploiaria 51,53,60 

uncinata, Ghilianella 92,99,122 

uniseriata, Ploiaria 51, 53, 61-62 

vagabundus (Cimex) 14, 17 

Empicoris 16, 17-18 

(Gerris) 13 

variatus, Stenolemus 27, 28, 81 

varicornis (Emesa) 101 

Ghilianella 96, 98, 101 

varlpennis, Ploiaria 52, 53, 56-57 

Westermannia 10, 38 

Westermannias 38, 75 

white! (Ploiariodes) 14 

winnemana, Empicoris 16, 19-20 



Plate 1. 

Fig. 1. Emesopsis nubila, fore wing, 3 mm. 20 

2. Empicoris rubromaculatus, apex of abdomen of male from below. 0.25 

mm. 

3. Empicoris vagabundus, apex of fore wing. 2.25 mm. 

4. Empicoris orthoneiu'on, fore wing, markings omitted. Apical notch 

possibly too pronounced. 2.75 mm. 

5. Empicoris orthoneuron, male hypopygium from below. 0.2 mm. 

6. Empicoris winnemana, apex of fore wing. 2 mm. 

7. Empicoris winnemana, cross-veins of hind wing. 1 mm. 

8. Empicoris armatus, apex of abdomen of male from below. 0.25 mm. 

9. Empicoris culiciformis, same from side. 0.25 mm. 

10. Empicoris culiciformis, hind wing. 2.75 mm. 

11. Empicoris errabundus, fore wing. 3 mm. 

12. Empicoris errabundus, apex of abdomen of male from below. 0.25 mm. 

13. Empicoris errabundus, fore tibia and tarsus. 1 mm. 

14. Stenolemus arizonensis, fore wing. 7 mm. 

15. Stenolemus arizonensis, hind wing. 5.5 mm. 

16. Stenolemus arizonensis, apex of abdomen of male from side. 0.75 mm. 

17. Stenolemus pristinus, fore leg. Femur 1.8 mm. 
S — Stigma ; B — Basal discal cell ; D — Discal cell. 

20 Since the scale of the drawings varies, length in mm. is given in each case for the 
object shown or some definite part thereof. 

136 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 67, ART. I PL. I 




15 16 

Structural Details of Emesopsis, Empicoris, and Stenolemus 

For explanation of plate see page 136 



04!)!>3 — 25 10 



131 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67. ART. I PL. 




Structural Details of Stenolemus and Myiophanes 

For explanation of plate see page 139 



L38 



Plate 2. 

Fig. 18. Stenolenius arizonensis, fore tibia and tarsus. 3.5 mm. 

19. Stenolenius pallidipennis, profile of head and thorax. Length without 

antenna, head to end of pronotum 3 mm. 

20. Stenolenius pallidipennis, fore leg. Femur '2 nun. 

21. Stenolenius pallidipennis, fore wing. 7..~> nun. 

22. Stenolenius pallidipennis, hind wing. .~>.7.~> nun. 

23. Stenolenius schwarzi, fore winy. 7 mm. 

24. Stenolenius variatus, basal discal eell of fore winy. 1 nun. 

25. Stenolenius interstitialis, same. 1 mm. 

26. Stenolenius hirtipes, fore wing. 7 mm. 

27. Stenolenius Mrtipes, fore tibia and tarsus. 2 mm. 

2S. Stenolenius mexicanus, basal discal cell of fore winy. 1.2 mm. 

29. Stenolenius spiniger, fore winy. (3.5 mm. 

•'in. Stenolenius spiniger, profile of head and thorax. Length without 

antenna, head to end of pronotum. 3.5 mm. 
31. Stenolenius spiniger, thoracic spines in profile. 0.75 mm. 
.".2. Stenolemus perplexus, same. 0.75 mm. 
33. Myioplianes tipulina, fore winy. 13 mm. 

139 



Plate 3. 

Fig. 34. Deliastes reticulatus, fore wing. 0.75 mm. 

35. Deliastes reticulatus, apex of male abdomen from behind. 1 mm. 

36. Deliastes reticulatus, apex of abdomen of female from behind. 1 mm. 

37. Deliastes stramineipes, process of hypopygium of male from behind. 

0.2 mm. 

38. Panamia ornata, fore wing. 4.75 mm. 

39. Panamia ornata, head from above. 0.5 mm. 

40. Panamia ornata, apex of abdomen of male from side. 0.5 mm. 

41. Panamia ornata, same from behind. 0.3 mm. 

42. Panamia ornata, hind wing. 4.5 mm. 

43. Lutevopsis longimanus, fore wing. 5.5 mm. 

44. Lutevopsis longimanus, head from above. 1.1 mm. 
45. a Emesa annulatus, fore wing. 

4G. 2 ' Emesa mantis, same. 

47. Emesa marmoratus, same. 8 mm. 

48. a Emesa annulatus, apex of abdomen of female from side. 

49. a Emesa annulatus. same from behind. 

50." Emesa mantis, apex of abdomen of female from side. 

51. 21 Emesa mantis, same, from behind. 

52. 21 Emesa mantis, head and anterior part of prothorax from above. 

53. Emesa marmoratus, hind wing. 7.5 mm. 

- 1 Figs. 45, 4G, 48, 40, 50, 51, 52, fiom sketches by W. E. China. 
140 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. I PL. 3 




Structural Details of Deliastes, Panamia, Lutevopsis, and Emesa 

For explanation of plate see page 140 

141 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. I PL. 4 




68 69 

Structural Details of Emesa. polauchenia, and Ploiaria 

For explanation of plate see pace 143 



142 



Platk 4. 

Fig". 54. Emesa praecettens, fore winy. 10.5 mm. 

55. Emesa praecellens, hind wing. '.* nun. 

56. Emesa spectrum, apex of abdomen of male from side. From type: 

not measured. 

57. Emesa rapax, prothorax from side. 2.75 mm. 

58. Emesa rapax, basal discal cell of fore wing. 2~> nun. 

59. Emesa testaceus, same. 1.9 mm. 

60. Emesa diffinis, same. 1.5 nun. 

61. Emesa diffinis, prothorax from side. 1.5 mm. 

62. Emesa.' difficilisf, fore wing, from sketch by W. E. China. 

63. Polauchenia protentor, head and prothorax in profile. 6.75 mm. 
t>4. Polauchenia protentor. fore femur. 4.f> mm. 

V>4a. Polauchenia protentor, fore tarsus. 1.1 mm. 

65. Polauchenia protentor. fore wing, markings omitted. 6 mm. 

66. Polauchenia biannulata, fore wing. 10 mm. 

67. Ploiaria macropJithahna, head from above. 1 mm. 

68. Ploiaria macrophthalma, apex of discal cell of fore wing. 1.5 mm. 

69. Ploiaria brunnea, head from above. 0.75 mm. 

70. Ploiaria sicaria, right clasper of male hypopygium. 0.2 mm. 

71. Ploiaria setulifera, fore wing. 5.5 mm. 

143 



Plate 5. 

Fig. 72. Ploiaria gundlachi, head from above. O.S mm. 

73. Ploiaria varipennis, lore wing, markings omitted. 7 mm. 

74. Ploiaria varipennis, fore leg. Femur 3.2 mm. 

75. Ploiaria Carolina, hypopygium male, hind margin. 0.33 mm. wide. 

76. Ploiaria florid an a, same. 0.3 mm. wide. 

77. Ploiaria bispina, same. 0.25 mm. wide. 

78. Ploiaria pilicomis, head from above. 0.66 mm. 

79. Ploiaria pilicomis, male hypopygium, hind margin. 0.2 ram. 

80. Ploiaria uniseriata, fore leg. Trochanter plus femur. 1 mm. 

81. Ploiaria uniseriata. discal cell of fore wing. 1 mm. 

82. Ploiaria punctipes, same. 1.2 mm. 

83. Ploiaria punctipes. hind wing. 3.5 mm. 

84. Ploiaria similis. fore wing. 5.9 mm. 

85. Ploiaria denticaiida. head from above. 0.66 mm. 

86. Ploiaria denticaiida, apex of abdomen of male from above, 0.66 nun. 

87. Ploiaria denticaiida. male hypopygium. hind margin. 0.2 mm. 

88. Ploiaria denticaiida. apical tergite of female. 0.33 mm. wide. 

89. Ploiaria denticaiida. fore wing. 4.25 mm. 

90. Ploiaria hirticornis, apical tergite of female. 0.33 mm. wide. 

91. Ploiaria hirticornis, male hypopygium. hind margin. 0.25 mm. wide. 

92. Ploiaria hirticornis, apical tergite of male. 0.25 mm. wide. 

93. Ploiaria marginata, male hypopygium. 0.6 mm. 

94. Gardcna americana. fore wing. 8 mm. 

95. Gardena americana, for tibia and tarsus. 3.75 mm. 

96. Gardena americana, hypopygium of male, hind margin. 0.75 mm. 

97. Gardena americana, apex of abdomen of male from above. 1.25 mm. 

98. Gardena crispina, male hypopygium, hind margin. 0.66 mm. 

99. Gardena eutropia. hypopygial clasper of male. 0.2 mm. 

100. Gardena marcia, same. 0.15 mm. 

101. Gardena pipara, same. 0.15 mm. 

102. Gardena faustina, male hypopygium, hind margin. 0.75 mm. 

103. Gardena faustina, hypopygial clasper of male. 0.1 ram. 

104. Gardena poppaea, male hypopygium, hind margin. 0.75 mm. 

105. Gardena domitia, same. O.S mm. 

106. Gardena domitia, hypopygial clasper of male. 0.1 mm. 

107. Gardena messalina, apex of abdomen of female from below. 0.G6 mm. 

144 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. I PL. 5 




100 '0' 

Structural Details of Ploiaria and Gardena 

For explanation of plate see page 144 



145 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. I PL. 6 




126 130 

STRUCTURAL DETAILS OF GARDENA AND EMESAYA 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 146 

146 



Plate 6. 

10S. Gardcna crispina, apex of abdomen of mule from above. 1.25 mm. 

109. Gardena domitia, same. 2 nun. 

110. (lard) an domitia, apex of abdomen of female from below. <>.:;:', mm. 

111. Gardena eutropia, apex of abdomen of male from above. 2 mm. 

112. Gardena tnarcia, same (».•"> nun. 

113. Gardena caesonia, apex of abdomen of female from below. 0.75 mm. 

114. Gardena poppnea, apex of abdomen of male from above. 1.25 mm. 

115. (tunic mi fa uxt hut. same. 1.25 mm. 

116. Emesaya banksi, apex of abdomen of female from above. 1.1 mm. 

117. Emesaya banksi, same from side. 1 mm. 

118. Emesaya incisa, apex of abdomen of male from below. 0.5 mm. 

119. Emesaya incisa, same from side. 1.25 mm. 

120. Emesaya incisa, hypopygial clasper of male from above. 0.66 mm. 

121. Emesaya brevipennis, apex of abdomen of male from side. 2.2 mm. 
121(/. Emesaya brevipennis, same from below. 0.75 mm. wide. 

122. Emesaya brevipennis, hypopygial clasper of male from above. 0.5 

mm. 

123. Emesaya brevipennis, apex of apical tergite of female. 0.6 mm. wide. 

124. Emesaya brevipennis, apex of abdomen of female from side. 1.25 

mm. 

125. Emesaya brevipennis, egg. 2.1 mm. 

126. Emesaya brevipennis, occidentals, apex of abdomen of female from 

above. 1.1 mm. 

127. Emesaya lineata, same. 0.66 mm. 

128. Emesaya modica, same from side. 0.5 mm. 

129. Emesaya modica, same from above. 0.5 mm. 

130. Emesaya apiculata, apex of abdomen of male from side. 1.0 mm. 

131. Emesaya apiculata, hypopygial clasper of male. 0.5 mm. 

131a. Emesaya apiculata, apex of abdomen of female from above. 0.S 

mm. 
1316." Emesaya precatoria, male from above. 
131c.'-' 2 Emesaya precatoria, male hypopygial process from behind. 

132. Emesaya apiculata, apex of abdomen of female from side. 0.8 mm. 
132<7. Emesaya poller, apex of abdomen of male from side. 1.25 mm. 

133. Emesaya poller, hypopygial clasper of male. 0.2 mm. 

134. Emesaya polio-, apex of abdomen of female from side. 1 mm. 

135. Emesaya poller, apex of last tergite of same from above. 0.2 mm. 

136. Emesaya brevipennis, fore tibia and tarsus. 4 mm. 

137. Emesaya brevipennis, fore wing. 10.5 mm. 

138. Emesaya brevipennis, hind wing. 10 mm. 

--From sketclips supplied by William Lundbeck. 

147 



Plate 7. 

Fig. 130. Metapterus fraterna, head from side. 1.25 mm. 

140. Ischnonyctes, species, head and prothorax in profile. 2.S mm. 

141. Metapterus fraternus, section of fore tarsus showing ventral arma- 

ture. 0.33 mm. 

142. Metapterus fraternus, fore wing-. G.5 mm. 

143. Metapterus fraternus, hind wing. 6 mm. 

144. Ischnonyctes, species, fore leg except coxa. Femur 3 mm. 

145. Metapterus annulipes, fore tibia and tarsus. 1.9 mm. 

146. Metapterus uhleri, fore leg except coxa. Femur 1.8 mm. 

147. Metapterus aberrant:, apex of abdomen of male from side. 1 mm. 
14S. Metapterus uhleri, apical tergite of female from above. 0.6 mm. 

149. Metapterus uhleri. apex of abdomen of female from below. 1.2 mm. 

150. Metapterus uhleri, apex of abdomen of male from side. 1 mm. 

151. Metapterus uhleri, hypopygial hook and apices of claspers of male 

from rear, 0.2 mm. 

152. Metapterus neglectus, male hypopygium from behind. 0.7 mm. 

153. Metapterus neglectus, hypopygial hook from side. 0.2 nun. 

154. Metapterus neglectus, apical tergite of female from above. 0.9 mm. 

155. Metapterus banlcsii. male hypopygium from behind. 0.7 mm. 

156. Metapterus annulipes, apex of abdomen of female from below. 1 mm. 

157. Metapterus annulipes, apex of male abdomen from side. 2 mm. 

158. Metapterus annulipes, hypopygial hook of male from behind. 0.15 mm. 

wide. 

159. Metapterus annulipes, hypopygial clasper of male. 0.6 mm. 

160. Metapterus fraternus, apex of abdomen of male from side. 1.8 mm. 

161. Metapterus fraternus, hypopygium of male from behind. 0.8 mm. 

162. Metapterus fraternus, apical tergite of female from above. 0.8 mm. 

163. Metapterus fraternus, egg. 1 mm. 

104. Metapterus fraternus, same, cross section. 0.3 mm. 
148 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. I PL. 7 




.52 "' '50 

Structural Details of Metapterus and Ischnonyctes 

For explanation o- plate see page 148 



14!) 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. I PI 




IS3 179 

Structural Details of Ghilianella 

for explanation of plate see page 151 



150 



Plate S. 

Fig. 165. Ghilianella, species. Head in profile. Aboul 2 nun. 

166. Ghilianella, species. Section of fore tarsus showing ventral anna 

ture. About <>..", nun. 
KiT. Ghilianella galapagcnsis, fore leg except coxa. Femur .'!.<> nun. 
16S. Ghilianella galapagensis, section of fore femur. About 0.2 nun. 
lti'.t. Ghilianella bicaiidata, apex of abdomen of female from above. 5.2 mm. 

170. Ghilianella persimilis, apical tergite of male from above. 2.."> mm. 

171. Ghilianella persimilis, apex of abdomen of male from side. 2 mm. 

172. Ghilianella persimilis, apex of abdomen of female from behind. 

0.8 mm. 
17-">. Ghilianella longula, same. 1 mm. 
17 1. Ghilianella alveola, same. 1 m. 

175. Ghilianella pascoei, apex of abdomen of male from side. 1.lT» mm. 
17<>. Ghilianella pascoei, apex of abdomen of female from side. 4 mm. 
177. Ghilianella personata, apex of abdomen of male from side. 2 mm. 
ITS. Ghilianella perversa, apex of abdomen of female from side. 5.5 mm. 
17!). Ghilianella pcrrcr.su, same from behind. 1.25 mm. 
180. Ghilianella apiculata, apex of abdomen of male from side. 2. mm. 
1S1. Ghilianella pachitea, same. 1.8 mm. 
182. Ghilianella aracataca, same. :j mm. 
is:'.. Ghilianella aracataca, apex of abdomen of female from behind. 

1.1 mm. 
184. Ghilianella aracataca, same from side. 2.2."> nun. 
is.".. Ghilianella maculata, fore leg except coxa. Femur 6.2 mm. 
1S6. Ghilianella maculata, section of fore femur. 0.5 mm 
1ST. Ghilianella ussa-nutrix, apex of abdomen of male from side. 

4.7."» mm. 
1S8. Ghilianella gladiator, apex of abdomen of male from side. -•'. mm. 

189. Ghilianella gladiator, egg. 1.6 mm. 

190. Ghilianella gladiator, same, cap. 0.2 nun. 

191. Ghilianella stipititata, abdomen of female from below. 6 nun. 

192. Ghilianella similata, same. 4.75 mm. 

1.11 



Plate 9. 

Fig. 193. Ghilianella globulata, apex of abdomen of male from side. 3.25 mm. 

194. Ghilianella patruela, same. 3 mm. 

195. Ghilianella recondita, same. 1.9 mm. 

196. Ghilianella recondita, apical portion of abdomen of female from 

above. G mm. 

197. Ghilianella perigynium, apex of abdomen of male from side. 1.5 mm. 
19S. Ghilianella signata, apex of abdomen of female from behind. 

1.25 mm. 

199. Ghilianella strigata, apex of abdomen of male from side. 2.25 mm. 

200. Ghilianella uncinata, apex of abdomen of male from side. 2.5 mm. 

201. Ghilianella filiventris, abdomen of male from above, in mm. 

202. Ghilianella filiventris, apex of same from side. 3.5 mm. 
20.".. Ghilianella filiventris, fore ley except coxa. Femur 5.5 mm. 

204. Ghilianella filiventris, section of fore femur. 0.7 mm. 

205. Ghilianella mirabilis, apex of abdomen of male from side. 6 mm. 

long. 5 mm. high. 

206. Ghilianella mirabilis, same from behind. 5 mm. across points. 

207. Ghilianella mirabilis, apical tergite of male from above. 0.S mm. 

208. Ghilianella mirabilis, apex of abdomen of female from side. 6 mm. 

209. Ghilianella mirabilis, same from behind. 1 mm. 

210. Ghilianella annectens, apex of abdomen of female from above. 6 mm. 

211. Ghilianella annectens, same from side. 1.5 mm. high. 

212. Ghilianella annectens, section of fore femur in front of basal spine. 

1 mm. 

213. Ghilianella truncata, apex of abdomen of female from side. 1.25 

mm. high. 

214. Ghilianella truncata, same from behind. 1.25 mm. high. 

215. Ghilianella insidiatrix, fore leg except coxa. Femur 7 mm. 

216. Ghilianella insidiatrix, section of fore femur. 1 mm. 

217. Ghilianella angulata, apex of abdomen of male from side. 2 mm. 
1 52 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. I PL. 9 




211 



214 

Structural Details of Ghilianella 

For explanation of plate see page 152 



04903—25 11 



153 



o 



NOTES ON THE METEORIC STONE OF COLBY, WIS- 
CONSIN 



By George P. Merrill 
Head Curator of Geology, United States National Museum 



The stone described below was made the subject of a preliminary 
description 2 shortly after its fall by Prof. H. L. Ward, then direc- 
tor of the Public Museum of Milwaukee. Other data than those 
given were subsequently secured by Mr. Ward and an informal 
agreement entered into by which a joint descriptive paper was to be 
prepared by Mr. Ward and the present writer. Ill health and busi- 
ness matters on the part of the first named prevented the carrying 
out of this agreement and the matter has lain dormant — indeed was 
forgotten — until recently found while clearing up matters relating 
to my recent investigations under a grant from the National Aca- 
demy of Sciences. As in the meantime the stone has been widely 
circulated, it would seem advisable to publish so much of the matter 
as pertains to my own studies, together with that which is essential 
from the first publication of Professor Ward. 

The fall took place about 6.20 in the afternoon, July 4, 1917, with- 
in the corporate limits of Colby, Clark County, Wis. According to 
Professor Ward's original paper 

two pieces fell, the smaller about one half mile NNE, from the other. The 
larger stone (said to weigh 150 pounds) fell in a pasture, striking a granite 
rock, at least 2 inches in thickness, lying upon or near the surface, breaking 
this rock into many fragments and itself breaking into 27 or more pieces. The 
larger mass, weighing 22% pounds, penetrated the stiff Colby clay to a depth 
of 5 feet. Some of the smaller pieces are said to have distributed themselves 
in the soil to the extent of about 4 feet. 

The smaller stone fell in a cultivated field without breaking and is said to 
have penetrated the soil about 2 feet. This stone is variously described as 
about 10 by 14 by 3 or 4 inches, 17 or IS inches by 9 by 9 inches and 21 by 11 
by 11 inches at larger end, sloping in two directions to a wedge shape with 
rounded corners. This piece was said to be entirely covered with crust and 
to have weighed from 75 to 85 pounds. 

The man who extracted it from the earth informs me that it was so cold 
that frost immediately formed on its surface when exposed to the air. 

1 Science, vol. 46, Sept. 14, 1917. 

No. 2574.— Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 67, Art. 2. 

22245—25 1 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. G7 

Of the 75 or 85 pounds of material mentioned above, two pieces 
weighing, respectively, 1,686 and 1.956 grams, were received at the 
United States National Museum, and it is upon these that the fol- 
lowing descriptive matter is based. 

Macroscopically the stone is of a fine compact texture, sufficiently 
firm to take a polish, showing on a sawn surface an abundant 
sprinkling of small white and gray chondrites in part breaking 
with the matrix and but little metal, though it must be confessed 
that there is apparently more than indicated in the analysis quoted 
below. There are a number of sharp black veins along which a slight 
movement has taken place, producing slicken-sided or hornischflache 
surfaces. They are plainly fractures due to crushing or some sudden 
shock, and not true veins. 

Microscopic examination shows the silicate portion of the stone 
(91.415 per cent) to consist of olivine and enstatite, with small 
amounts of a maskelynite and more rarely the calcium phosphate 
merrillite. (See pi. 1.) There are also small black granules, assumed 
to be chromite. Troilite is rather abundant. An analysis made by 
Dr. J. E. Whitfield for the Milwaukee Museum, which I am per- 
mitted to use here, yielded : 

Mineral portion 91. 415 

Metallic portion | 

Iron nickel alloy J 

Troilite (FeS) 7.590 

100. 000 
Composition of the m'neral portion: 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 45.280 

Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 3.103 

Chromic acid (Cr^0 3 ) 0.547 

Phosphoric acid (P-Oo) 0.284 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) 16.484. 

Manganese oxide (MnO) _* 0.500 

Calcium oxide' (CaO) none 

Magnesium oxide (MgO) 32.166 

Nickel oxide (NiO) 0.231 

Cobalt oxide (CoO) 0. 02S 

Soda (Na 2 0) 1.218 

Potash (K 2 0) 0. 158 

99. 999 

The composition of the metal alloy obtained by analysis of 0.4400 
grams separated from accompanying troilite is as follows: 

Per cent 

Iron , 0.4025=91.4777 

Nickel 0.0338= 7.682 

Cobalt 0.0037= 0.841 



-ART. 2 



COLBY, WISCONSIN, METEORIC STONE— MERRILL 



Recalculated, this gave the following totals: 

SiOc 41. 39 

A1 2 3 2. 83 

Cr 2 3 0. 50 

P 2 5 0. 25 

FeO 15. 06 

M11O 0. 45 

CaO none 

MgO 29. 40 

NiO 0. 21 

CoO 0. 02 

Na.O 1. 11 



KsO. 

Fe__ 
Ni__ 
Co__ 
Fe__ 

S___ 



0.14 
0.90 
0.07 
0.02 
4.83 
2.76 



Silicate portion. 



Metallic portion. 



•Troilite. 



99.94 

Two features of the fall of this stone, as reported, are of unusual 
interest. (1,) The force of impact which was such as to fracture a 
piece of granite two inches in thickness and to penetrate the stiff 
clay — probably ground moraine — to a depth of five feet, and (2,) the 
temperature, which was so low that frost formed immediately upon 
its surface. In this respect the fall resembles that of Dhurmsala. 

The statement made by Professor Ward that the stone was an 
achondrite is obviously an error, due either to a superficial examina- 
tion or perhaps a typographical error. According to the prevailing 
method it should be classed as an intermediate chondrite. 



o 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 2 PL. I 





Meteoric Stone from Colby, Wisconsin 



For reference to plate see page 2 



STUDIES ON THE LARVAE OF CRABS OF THE FAMILY 

XANTIIIDAE * 



By O. W. Hyman 

Of the College of Medicine, University of Tennessee 



The larval stages of the Xanthidae are better known than those 
of any other family of the Brachyura. This doubtless is due to the 
fact that the adults habitually are found in shallow water near 
the shore and usually are very abundant. Ovigerous females may 
be taken without trouble, and thus the early zoeal stages may be 
known with certainty. 

The family is well represented at Beaufort, N. C., and the writer 
is able to incorporate in these pages descriptions of the larvae of 
five genera based upon material collected there. Most of the known 
Xanthid larvae hatch with the prezoeal cuticle still intact. This 
is shed, however, within a few minutes. The first zoeal stage is 
characterized by the presence of dorsal, lateral, and rostral spines 
on the carapace and usually long and robust antennae. 

The known zoeas of the family are separable into two groups. 
Those of Panopeus and X ant ho have extremely minute exopoclites 
on the antennae. Those of the remaining genera so far known have 
a well-developed exopodite. When arranged in a series, the zoea 
of Panopeus is found to be most highly specialized, while that of 
Pilumnus is least so. 

The author is greatly indebted to Drs. Mary J. Rathbun and 
Waldo L. Schmitt of the United States National Museum for their 
generous aid in preparing the material of this paper for the press. 
The indebtedness of the author is also acknowledged to the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries for the use of the facilities of its Beau- 
fort, N. C, station. The director, Mr. Charles Hatsel, has been of 
great assistance in collecting the material presented here. 

1 This is the third of a series of studies on the larval stages of crabs. The first. 
Studies on larvae of crabs of the Family Pinnotheridae was published in the Proceedings 
of the U. S. National Museum (vol. 64, art. 7, pp. 1-9, pis. 1-6), and the second, Studies 
upon larvae of crabs of the Family Grapsidae, in the same serial, vol. Go, art. 10, pp. 1-8, 
pis. 1—2. A further study on the Development of Gelasimus [Uca] after hatching, Is 
cited in the accompanying bibliography. 

No. 2575. — Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 67, Art. 3 

22246—25 1 1 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM 



vol. 67 



KEY TO KNOWN ZOEAS 

a. 1 Exopodite of antenna minute. 

b. 1 Distal third of antenna smooth Neopanope texana sayi. 

ft. 2 Distal third of antenna hairy. 

c. 1 Antennule bearing pigment spot distally. 

Eurypanopeus depressus. 
c. 2 Antennule without pigment. 

d. 1 Third maxilliped distally bifurcated Xantho. 

d. 2 Third maxilliped not distally bifurcated. 

Panopeus herbstii. 
a. 2 Exopodite of antenna a distinct segment. 

b. 1 Antenna longer than rostral spine Pilumnus. 

b. 2 Antenna shorter than rostral spine. 

c. 1 Tip of rostral spine hairy Trapezia. 

c 2 Tip of rostral spine smooth. 

d. 1 Antenna one-half as long as rostral spine 

Menippe mercenaria. 
d? Antenna two-thirds as long as rostral spine. 

Eriphia spinifrons. 

PIGMENTATION 

Although the pigmentation of the zoeas of each species is a con- 
stant feature and is often of diagnostic value, the older papers do 
not describe it except in the most general terms. The following 
table is based upon the material collected at Beaufort. The pig- 
ment color varies from black to brown. 

Table shotting position of chromatophores of zoeas 



Neopa- 
nope 



Eurypa- 
nopeus 



Panopeus 



Hexapa- 
nopeus 



Menippe 



Anterior rostral 

Interorbit.nl.. -- 

Supracardiae 

Dorsal carapace spine 

Lateral to first abdominal segment 

Postero-ventral lobe. 

La brum - 

Mandible. 

Antennule - 

Sternal 

Base of antenna 

Basipodite first maxilliped 

Basipodite second maxilliped 

Dorso-lateral first abdominal segment 

Ventral firs labdominal segment 

Ventro-lateral second abdominal segment. 
Ventrolateral third abdominal segment... 
Ventro-lateral fourth abdominal segment. 
Ventro-lateral fifth abdominal segment... 
Telson - 



+ 



++ 



++ 

++ 

+ 



++ 
++ 



+ 

++ 
+ 



METAMORPHOSIS 



The complete larval history of Neopanope has been described 
while a nearly complete description has been given for Xantho, 
Pilumnus, and Eriphia. Only the prezoeal and first zoeal forms 
are known for the other genera. 



art. 3 STUDIES ON LARVAE OF CRABS HYMAN 3 

In Neopanope the prezoea is followed by four zoeal stages and 
at least two megalops stages. The juvenile history of the crab 
stages has not been reported. 

NEOPANOPE TEXANA SAYI (Smith) 

Plate 1, figs. 1, 3, 7, 11, 13, 17 ; plate 2, figs. 23, 27, 31 ; plates 3-8 

The larval history of this species has been reported very fully 
by Birge. The writer has checked over the development on mate- 
rial secured at Beaufort, where the species is abundant. The follow- 
ing description varies from that of Birge in a number of details. 

rilBZOEA (fig. 1) 

The larva hatches with the embryonic cuticle still intact. It is 
generally sluggish at first but becomes more active and — under 
laboratory conditions — sheds the cuticle in a few hours. 

Gephalothorax. — The cuticle covering the cephalothorax is smooth 
and without processes, but the processes of the first zoeal stage 
may be seen folded beneath it. The dorsal spine is bent forward. 
It is telescoped upon itself and is quite wrinkled. The lateral spines 
are quite difficult to see but are present, folded against the side of 
the body. The rostral spine is wrinkled and telescoped like the 
dorsal spine. It is folded posteriorly and ventrally, lying between 
the bases of the appendages. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennular process (fig. 3) of the 
embryonic cuticle is greatly prolonged. It is bifurcated distally. 
One ramus is much longer and is sparsely hairy while the other is 
short, blunt, and smooth. The antennule of the first zoea extends 
out into the process, reaching to the point of bifurcation. At its 
tip it bears several sensory hairs that are partially invaginated. 

The prezoeal antennal process (fig. 7) is also entirely different 
in shape from the zoeal antenna that it incloses. The prozoeal 
antenna is biramous. One ramus is a simple, smooth, blunt process 
into which the great spine of the zoeal antenna extends. The 
other ramus carries three sparsely hairy spines that are digitately 
arranged. A fourth spine is present as a minute, smooth process. 
The antenna of the zoea is seen within the cuticle. It is wrinkled 
and its distal two-thirds is telescoped on itself. 

The mandibles (fig. 11), the maxillules (fig. 13), and the maxillae 
(fig. 17) are inclosed in simple sac-like prolongations of the cuticle. 
Each is typically brachyuran except that the hairs are invaginated. 

Thoracic appendages. — Four pairs of thoracic appendages are 
recognizable, three pairs of maxillipeds and the chelipeds. Each 
is inclosed in a closely fitting, unsegmented sac of the embryonic 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

cuticle. The first and second maxillipeds (figs. 23 and 27) are well 
developed. The endopodite of the first shows five segments and 
that of the second three. All of the hairs are invaginated. The 
third maxillipeds and the chelipeds appear as buds. 

Abdomen, — The five segments and telson are clearly defined. The 
segments are closely invested by the embryonic cuticle, which is, 
however, not segmented. The cuticle covering the telson (fig. 31) 
is bifurcated. Each ramus bears seven large spines. Of these, the 
median three are sparsely hairy, elongated, and tapering. The 
middle spine is short, blunt, and smooth. Two of the lateral group 
are sparsely hairy and tapering, while the most lateral spine again 
is short and smooth. The zoeal telson nearly fills the cuticle. The 
tips of its cornua are invaginated. They extend out into the middle 
blunt spine. The hairs of the telson are only slightly invaginated. 
They extend out into the remaining spines. 

first zoea (figs.. 35 and 36) 

After a few hours the embryonic cuticle is shed and the striking 
first zoea emerges. The elongated spines and antennae give the 
larva an awkward appearance, but it is quite active and swims well. 

Cephalothorax. — Among the most striking features of the zoea 
are the dorsal and rostral spines. The dorsal spine rises from a 
slightly swollen base and sweeps upward and backward as a long, 
tapering process. It is almost straight. The rostral spine is longer 
and more slender than the dorsal. It extends ventrally and slightly 
anteriorly. The lateral spines are short and slender. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennae (fig. 59) are noteworthy. 
The spine is tremendously elongated, extending even beyond the 
rostral spine of the carapace. It is smooth to its tip. The minute 
exopodite is scarcely discernible where it is attached to the spine 
near its base. The other cephalic appendages are typical. 

Thoracic appendages. — The first and second maxillipeds (figs. 63 
and 67) show the usual four swimming hairs on the exopodites. 
The proximal segments of the endopodites are developed as masti- 
cating organs while the distal segments bear sensory hairs. The 
remaining thoracic appendages are discernible as minute buds. 

Abdomen. — It is characteristic that the posterior lateral border of 
each segment is produced posteriorly as a spinous process. These 
are not very pronounced in this early stage. The corniua of the 
telson (fig. 72) are slender and greatly elongated. In addition to 
the usual three hairs on the median margin of each cornu, there are 
three minute spines placed laterally and dorsally. 



art. 3 STUDIES ON LARVAE OF CRABS HYMAN 5 

second zoea (figs. 45 and 46) 

According to Birge, the zoea molts a large number of times before 
it reaches the condition designated as the second zoeal stage. While 
my observations are not numerous enough to justify a dogmatic 
statement, I have not found this to be the case. Each of the first 
zoeas under my observation became transformed into a second-stage 
zoea at the first molt. 

Cephalothorax. — The dorsal and rostral spines are longer and 
more slender. The eyes are movable. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennae (fig. 60) are longer and 
more slender. The maxillae (fig. 56) show changes in the scaphog- 
nathite, which is now a flattened plate with hairs along its border. 

Thoracic appendages. — The number of swimming hairs on the 
first and second maxillipeds (figs. 64 and 68) is now six or seven. 
The third maxillipeds are larger and, at their distal ends, cleft 
into exopodite and endopodite. The chelipeds also show cleft ex- 
tremities. The buds of the remaining pereiopods are easily iden- 
tified. 

Abdomen. — The lateral spinous processes on the segments are 
somewhat more pronounced. The anlagen of the abdominal ap- 
pendages are visible beneath the cuticle but do not yet form protru- 
sions. The cornua of the telson (fig. 73) are further elongated. 

third zoea (figs. 47 and 49) 

Again Birge states that several molts occur before the third 
zoeal stage is reached but my observations indicate that the second 
zoea becomes a third-stage zoea at the first molt. 

While the earlier zoeas are taken in large numbers at the surface 
of the water, the third-stage form is rather rare. It is taken in 
small numbers both from the surface and from near the bottom. 
It doubtless has difficulty in maintaining itself at the surface on 
account of its increased weight. 

Cephalothorax. — The dorsal and rostral spines are again longer 
and relatively more slender. The eyes are more freely movable and 
are relatively larger. 

Cephalic appendages. —The antennules (fig. 39) are appreciably 
larger and are superficially constricted near the base. The antennae 
(fig. 61) are longer and more slender. Each shows now the anlage 
of the flagellum of the permanent antenna. This appears as a bud 
between the exopodite and the spine. The maxillule (fig. 53) shows 
a minute but significant change — a single epipodal hair appears on 
' the basipodite. 

Thoracic appendages. — The swimming hairs are now eight or nine. 
The exopodites of the first and second maxillipeds (figs. 65 and 69) 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

show a sharp constriction indicating a division into two segments. 
The endopodite of the second maxilliped is significantly enlarged. 
The third maxillipeds and the remaining thoracic appendages are 
more prominent. 

Abdomen. — The telson is now divided from the sixth abdominal 
segment. Each segment except the first shows a pair of buds — the 
abdominal appendages. The lateral spines on the third, fourth, and 
fifth segments are further prolonged. A fourth median spine ap- 
pears on each cornu of the telson (fig. 74). 

fourth zoea (figs. 49 and SO) 

The fourth and last zoea is larger and heavier and correspondingly 
clumsier. It is found most commonly on the bottom, where it swims 
spasmodically upward toward the light at intervals, but in the main 
is rolled along by the sweep of the tides. 

Cephalothorax. — The body is now appreciably increased in weight 
while the spines are scarcely longer than in the previous stage. 

Cephalic appendages. — The basal portion of the antennule (fig. 40) 
is now swollen and partially separated from the distal region by a 
deep constriction. The beginning of the statocyst appears in the 
swollen part. The tip of the antennule is divided into two rami. 
The inner ramus bears five or six sensory hairs; the outer is a short 
blunt bud. The flagellar bud of the antenna (fig. 63) is elongated. 
Its cuticle is not segmented but the internal fleshy part shows four or 
five segments distally. The mandible (fig. 44) now shows the anlage 
of its palp as a simple bud. 

Thoracic appendages. — There are now twelve swimming hairs. 
The third maxilliped is well-developed although slender and weak 
in comparison with the first and second. Its exopodite carries a 
few hairs distally. Its endopodite shows indications of five seg- 
ments. The pereiopods are large and, although they are short, all of 
their segments are clearly marked. A number of gill buds are dis- 
tinguishable at this stage as follows: One on the third maxilliped, 
two on the cheliped, and one on each of the second and third pereio- 
pods. 

Abdomen. — The lateral spines and the cornua of the telson (fig. 
75) now reach their maximum development. The buds of the ab- 
dominal appendages are elongated and cleft into exopodite and mi- 
nute endopodite. 

megalops (figs. 76 and 77) 

According to Birge, there are at least four molts during the 
megalops stage. The changes at each molt are slight, however. The 
megalops is an active and powerful swimmer. It occurs most com- 
monty at the surface, but may be taken near the bottom. As its 



aet. 3 STUDIES ON LARVAE OF CRABS HYMAN 7 

final molt approaches it seeks a crevice in some shell or stone near 
the tide line. 

C ephalotherax. — An astonishing change in the form of the cara- 
pace occurs when the zoea changes to the megalops. The dorsal and 
lateral spines disappear completely. The frontal spine remains as 
a short, notched projection anteriorly. It is quite inconspicuous. 
The whole cephalothorax is now depressed rather than compressed. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennule (fig. 81) now acquires very 
nearly its permanent form. The basal part is composed of four 
large segments. The most proximal of these is swollen and con- 
tains the statocyst. The bud of the outer flagellum is elongated and 
separated from the basal segments by a joint. It carries a few hairs 
at its tip. The inner flagellum arises from the tip of the distal 
segment of the basal portion. It is composed of two or three seg- 
ments, each bearing several hairs. 

The antenna (fig. 83) now assumes practically the adult condi- 
tion. It is composed of a basal portion of three large segments and 
a distal flagellum of about nine segments. 

The mandible (fig. 85) is completely formed. Its palp shows 
three segments. 

The maxillule (fig. 88) changes considerably. The two lobes of 
the basal portion become greatly elongated. The distal part loses 
its joint, becomes flattened, and is bent sharply outward. 

The changes in the maxilla (fig. 91) are similar to those of the 
maxillule, although not so pronounced. The basal lobes are elon- 
gated and the distal part becomes a flattened plate bent slightly 
outward. 

Thoracic appendages. — The maxillipeds all undergo profound 
changes. On the first maxilliped (fig. 94) there appears a large 
epipodite for the first time. The basipodite is produced into three 
or four lobes along its median margin and is much enlarged. The 
exopodite loses its joint, but is permanently flexed medially at that 
point. Its hairs are reduced to four or five and these are small. The 
endopodite loses its joints and becomes a flattened plate with few 
hairs. The appendage has lost its locomotor function and becomes 
an organ of mastication with, possibly, some sensory function. 

The second maxilliped (fig. 97) is changed much like the first. Its 
epipodite appears. Its basipodite forms obscure median lobes, but 
is only slightly enlarged. The changes in the exopodite are like 
those in the first maxilliped but the retrogression is not so great. 
The endopodite becomes four-segmented and flattened. 

The third maxilliped (fig. 100) is greatly enlarged, becoming the 
most robust of the three. It has a large epipodite. Its basipodite 
is scarcely larger. The exopodite is similar to that of the other 



8 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol. 67 

two. The endopodite is composed of five segments and is greatly 
enlarged. 

At the change to the megalops, the pereiopods acquire what is 
practically the adult condtion. Each appendage, however, is rela- 
tive longer and more slender than in the adult. There is "no differ- 
ence between the right and left chelae. 

Abdomen. — The whole abdomen becomes depressed. The telson 
is greatly changed. Its long cornua are lost and it becomes a simple 
plate with a rounded posterior border. The abdominal appendages 
(figs. 103 and 104) now become the chief organs of locomotion. In 
each the exopodite becomes flattened and carries long swimming 
hairs along its distal border. There are 18 such hairs on the append- 
age of the second segment and 6 on that of the sixth. The endopo- 
dite in each case is a small simple bud. 

first crab (flgs. 7S and 70) 

After at least four molts, the megalops assumes the form of the 
first crab stage. The structural changes are not great. The animal 
now loses the power of swimming and crawls about near the tide 
line. 

Cephalathorax. — The carapace is somewhat broadened. The last 
trace of the rostral spine is lost and the frontal margin of the cara- 
pace very closely resembles that of the adult. The eye is still a 
single segment and can not be erected. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennule assumes the adult condi- 
tion. The external flagellum disappears and the internal becomes 
divided into six segments. The other cephalic appendages undergo 
very slight modifications. 

Thar-acic appendages. — The maxillipeds are very slightly changed. 
The most noticeable change is in the endopodite of the third. Its 
proximal two segments become enlarged to form an operculum for 
the mouthparts and the distal three segments appear as a palp. 

Abdomen. — With the assumption of the crab form the abdomen 
undergoes a considerable change. It is further flattened and is 
permanently flexed under the sternum. Birge does not describe the 
abdominal appendages of the juvenile crab stages. Possibly the 
larval appendages of the megalops atrophy and are replaced by the 
permanent organs as in Una (G 'elaslmus) . 2 

EURYPANOPEUS DEPRESSUS (Smith) 

Plate 1, figs. 2, 4, 8, 14, 18 ; plate 2, figs. 24, 28, 32 ; plate 9 

This species is not uncommon at Beaufort, but it is not so abund- 
ant as Neopanope. Its zoeas are frequently found in the tow and 



-' Hyman. 1920, p. 409; 1922, pp. 457,. 458. 



art. 3 STUDIES ON LARVAE OF CRABS HYMAN 9 

they may be distinguished from those of Neopanope at all stages, 
including the megalops, by the simple fact that all stages of the 
zoea and megalops of Eurypanopeus have a pigment spot on the 
antennule. 

Birge mentions the first zoea of this species and gives certain 
characters by which it may be distinguished from sayi. I have 
studied only the prezoea and first zoea in detail, but have identifed 
the remaining zoea and megalops stages in specimens from the tow. 
Superficially, the development seems to be the same as in sayi. The 
characteristic differences between the first zoeal forms hold 
throughout. 

TREZOEA (fig. 2) 

The prezoea is appreciably larger and more robust than that of 
sayi, but it agrees in structure except in certain details. 

The prezoeal antennal cuticle (fig. 4) shows four large digita- 
tions on the lobe instead of three large ones and one minute one. 
The remaining appendages approximate those of sayi very closely, 
differing only relatively. In the telson (fig. 32) of depresses the 
spines of the prezoeal cuticle are longer than in sayi. 

first zoea (figs. 106 and 107) 

In general the zoea shows the features that characterize sayi. 
There are differences in detail, however, that make the zoeas more 
easily distinguishable than the adults. 

Cephalothorax. — The dorsal and rostral spines are very long and 
slender. The dorsal spine is strongly hooked at its extremity. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennules are of the usual type, but 
each bears a large pigment spot distally (fig. 108). The antennae 
(fig. 109) are long and slender and gently curved. They bear bristles 
for nearly a third of their length distally. 

There is nothing about the remaining appendages or the abdomen 
that would distinguish this species from sayi. 

PANOPEUS HERBSTII (Milne Edwards) 

Plate 1, figs. 5, 9, 15, 19; plate 2, figs. 21, 25, 29, 33; plate 10 

Panopeus herbstii is the most abundant Xanthid at Beaufort. It 
swarms under shells and debris all along the shores. I have studied 
the development up to the megalops stage, but only the prezoeal and 
first zoeal stages in detail. These resemble similar stages in depressus 
quite closely. The remaining zoeal stages develop as in sayi. The 
characteristics that distinguish the first zoea distinguish all subse- 
quent zoeal stages. 

PREZOEA (fig. 21) 

The prezoea is large, as in depressus, and is quite robust. The 
carapace is in an unusually immature condition, extending poste- 
riorly hardly beyond the heart. The resemblances to the prezoea of 

22246—25 2 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. C7 

depressus are so close that one would have great difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing the two, except that in herbstii the antennule does not 
have a pigment spot. 

first zoea (fig*. 110 and 117) 

The resemblance of the first zoea to that of depressus is very clost. 
They may be distinguished by the absence of pigment on the anten- 
nule of herbstii and by several relative though pronounced differ- 
ences. 

The dorsal and rostral spines are slender as in depressus and the 
dorsal shows a terminal hook. However, both are distinctly shorter 
than in depressus. The antennae are shorter than in depressus and 
the exopodite is much larger. 

The remaining appendages and the abdomen are like those of 
depressus except in minute details. 

HEXAPANOPEUS ANGUSTIFRONS (Benedict and Rathbun) 

Plate 1, figs. 6, 10, 12, 16, 20; plate 2, figs. 22, 26, 30, 34 

This species is rare at Beaufort. A single female was identified 
by Dr. W. P. Hay and presented to me in 1916. The eggs hatched 
but none of the prezoeas molted. None of the zoeal stages have 
been found in the tow. 

PKEZOEA (fig. 22) 

The prezoea resembles that of sayi quite closely in size and gen- 
eral appearance. It may be distinguished by details of structure. 
The lobe of the prezoeal cuticle of the antenna (fig. 6) has four 
large digitations instead of three. The telson (fig. 34) is bicornu- 
ate, but prezoeal^cuticle of either ramus carries six hairs or processes 
instead of seven. 

Genus XANTHO 

Plate 11; plate 12, figs. 141-151 

The development of Xantho has been studied by Couch, Gourret, 
and Cano. Cano has given the most nearly complete description of 
its metamorphosis. He studied X. rividosus, X. floridus, and X. 
tubereulatus but did not distinguish between the larval stages of the 
different species. 

The zoeas of Xantho resemble those of Neopanope quite closely. 
They have the same type of carapace spines and of antennae. 

FIRST ZOEA (fig. 125) 

Cephalotliorax. — The rostral and dorsal spines are long and 
slender. The lateral spines are short and slender. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennules (fig. 138) have the typical 
conical form. The antennae (fig. 133) are as long as the rostral 



akt. 3 STUDIES ON LARVAE OF CKABS HYMAX 11 

spine and are hairy along their distal two-thirds. The exopodite 
is minute. The remaining appendages are typical. 

Thoracic appendages. — These are typical, except that the third 
maxilliped is unusually far advanced. Its bud already shows a 
distal bifurcation. 

Abdomen. — The telson (fig. 150) is bicornuate. Each cornu bears 
three large spines medially, one minute hair dorsally, and two small 
hairs laterally. 

SECOXD ZOEA 

This stage has not been described. It seems to have been over- 
looked by Cano. 

third zoea (figs. 126 and 127) 

This stage is characterized by the increase in the number of swim- 
ming hairs to 9 or 10. and the presence of abdominal appendages 
as finger-shaped buds. 

CephaZothorax. — The dorsal and rostral spines are still further 
elongated. The eye stalks are differentiated and the eyes are mov- 
able although the stalks can not be lifted from the orbits. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennule (fig. 126) shows a super- 
ficial differentiation into proximal and distal portions. The proxi- 
mal portion is slightly enlarged. On the antenna (fig. 126) the 
anlage of the future flagellum appears as a finger-shaped bud be- 
tween the exopodite and the spine. 

Thoracic appendages. — The swimming hairs are now 9 or 10. 
The third maxilliped and the remaining thoracic appendages are 
long, finger-shaped buds and their points are indicated by super- 
ficial annulations. 

Abdomen. — The telson is separated from the sixth abdominal seg- 
ment by a joint. Each segment except the first bears a pair of 
finger-shaped buds — the abdominal appendages. The lateral spines 
on the third, fourth, and fifth segments are longer. 

FOURTH ZOEA (fig. 128) 

In the last zoeal stage the body is increased in size and weight 
without *a corresponding increase in the size of the carapace spine 
or the appendages. 

Cephalic appendages.— -The proximal portion of the antennule 
(fig. 134) is composed of two enlarged segments. The distal of 
these bears two rami, an inner of a single segment bearing sensory 
hairs and an outer that is a simple bud. 

The flagellum of the antenna (fig. 134) is considerably elongated. 
The mandible (fig. 137) shows the bud of the future palp. The 
maxillule and the maxilla (fig. 142) reach their maximum differ- 
entiation. 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vou 67 

Thoracic appendages. — There are now 11 or 12 swimming hairs. 
All of the thoracic appendages are developed and the segments of 
each are evident. Gill buds appear on the third maxilliped and the 
first and second pereiopods. 

Abdomen. — The lateral spines of the third, fourth, and fifth seg- 
ments are greatly elongated. The abdominal appendages are elon- 
gated and biramous. 

FIRST MEGALOFS (fig. 129) 

After the molt from the last zoeal stage, the form of the car- 
apace is almost completely changed. The dorsal and lateral spines 
are lost. The rostral spine has disappeared and two small frontal 
spines protrude from the anterior border of the carapace. The perei- 
opods are fully developed and the abdominal appendages are power- 
ful swimming organs. The sense organs are all well developed in 
consonance with the more independent habits of the megalops. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennule (fig. 135) is now well 
formed. Its basal segment is greatly enlarged and contains the 
statocyst. Distally its two rami appear as short flagella that carry 
numerous sensory hairs. 

The antenna (fig. 135) assumes what is practically the adult con- 
dition. The tremendous spine of the zoea disappears completely as 
does also the minute exopodite. The endopodite remains as a slender, 
many jointed flagellum that is sparsely hairy at the joints. 

The mandible (fig. 138) also assumes the adult condition. The 
palp is divided into three segments, each of which bears a few hairs. 

The maxillule (fig. 140 and the maxilla (fig. 143) begin to de- 
generate at this stage. Their endopodites begin to lose their joints 
and hairs. 

Thoracic appendages. — The maxillipeds undergo a very striking 
transformation. They are no longer swimming organs, but are 
changed into masticatory appendages with sensory palps. 

The first maxilliped (fig. 145) shows these typical changes. The 
exopodite becomes relatively smaller and permanently flexed near its 
middle. Its distal portion becomes a short flagellum and i£ carries 
several small hairs at its tip. The endopodite loses its joints and 
becomes adapted for mastication. The lobes of the basipodite are 
enlarged and adapted for mastication. A large epipodite is present. 

The second maxilliped (fig. 146) has an exopodite like the first. 
The endopodite shows five segments. The basipodite carries a small 
epipodite and a gill bud. 

The third maxilliped now becomes the largest of the three. Its 
exopodite is like that of the first and second. The endopodite is 
greatly enlarged and consists of six segments. The proximal three 
are large and flattened and form an operculum, while the distal three 



just. 3 STUDIES ON LARVAE OF CRABS HYMAN 13 

form a sensory palp. The basipodite carries an epipodite and two 
gills. 

The pereiopods assume practically the adult condition (fig. 149). 
The cheliped shows the characteristic spine on the third segment. 

Abdomen. — The abdomen is broadened and depressed. Each seg- 
ment, beginning with the second, bears a well-developed appendage. 
Each typically consists of a proximal segment bearing a flattened 
exopodite and a minute endopodite. The exopodite carries long, 
plumose swimming hairs along its border. The hairs of the en- 
dopodite are small and curled inward as hooks. The appendages of 
the hist segment do not have endopodites. 

SECOND MEGALOPS (fig. 130) 

The second megalops stage differs only slightly from the first. The 
front of the carapace is altered and the whole carapace somewhat 
broadened in outline. 

FIRST CKAB (fig. 131) 

The carapace is further depressed and its front is gently rounded. 
The outline of the carapace dorsally is almost circular. The appen- 
dages have undergone minor changes only. 

ERIPHIA SPINIFRONS (Herbst) 
Plate 12, figs. 152-161 

Cano has described the development of Eriphia and compared it 
with Xantho. The two show close agreement in many particulars, 
but Eriphia belongs with Menippe, Trapezia, and Pilumnus in hav- 
ing smaller antennae with well-developed exopodites. 

FIRST ZOEA (fig.. 152) 

The first zoea is sharply distinguished from those of Panopeus 
and Xantho by the relatively inconspicuous antenna. The dorsal 
spine is long and robust, as is also the rostral, although neither is as 
long as in the above-mentioned forms. The lateral spines are 
slender. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennule (fig. 155) is typical. 
The antenna (fig. 155) has a short spine that is hairy along its 
distal three-fourths. The spine is approximately half as long as 
the frontal spine of the carapace. The exopodite is composed of a 
single fingerlike segment that bears two or three hairs distally. It 
is two-thirds as long as the spine. The other cephalic appendages 
are typical. 

Thoracic appendages. — These all have the typical brachvuran 
form. 

Abdomen. — The telson (fig. 159) has three median spines and two 
minute lateral spines on each cornu. 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

THIRD (SECOND?) ZOEA (fig. 153) 

It is difficult to decide from Cano's description and figures whether 
his second zoeal stage should arise directly from his 1 first or whether 
he has overlooked a stage between the two. Figure 153 seems to 
be that of a second zoea. There are only five abdominal segments. 
The pleopods are not protruding as is typically the case in the third 
zoea. The swimming hairs number six. On the other hand the an- 
tenna (fig. 156) shows the bud of the endopodite, a characteristic 
of the third zoeal stage, and the telson (fig. 160) shows four pairs 
of medial spines that also characterize the third zoea. 

It may be that Eriphia has only three zoeal stages or it may be 
that Cano has failed to distinguish the second stage from the third 
and thus has described the appendages of the third stage as belonging 
to the second. 

FOURTH ZOEA (fig. 154) 

The last zoeal stage described by Cano agrees very closely with 
the fourth zoeal stage of Panopeus and Xantho. The swimming 
hairs number 12 to 14. The endopodite of the antenna is elongated 
and the pleopods are elongated and biramous. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennule (fig. 157) shows a proximal 
portion composed of three enlarged segments. The first of these 
contains the developing statocyst. Distally the inner ramus of the 
antennule shows evidence of two or three joints, while the outer 
is a simple bud. 

The endopodite of the antenna (fig. 157) is almost as long as the 
spine and shows the outlines of its future joints. 

Thoracic appendages. — The pereiopods are all well formed and 
their gill buds are prominent, The first and second maxillipeds are 
the only thoracic appendages that are functional as yet however. 

Abdomen. — The telson is now separated from the sixth abdominal 
segment by a joint. The pleopods are elongated and biramous, 
although none of them bear hairs as yet. The telson (fig. 161) has 
four pairs of median spines. 

MENIPPE MERCENARIA (Say) 

Plate 13 

Menippe mercenaria is quite abundant at Beaufort and its zoeas 
are frequently taken in towing. However, only the prezoeal and first 
zoeal stages are known. Menippe differs from many other 
Brachyura in that its eggs do not always hatch at dusk or at night. 
They seem to hatch at any hour of day or night. 

riiEzoEA (fig. 163) 

The prezoea sheds its cuticle in a few minutes after leaving the 
egg. It differs from that of Panopeus in details only. The cuticle 



abt. 3 STUDIES ON LARVAE OF CRABS HYMAN 15 

of the prezoeal antennule (fig. 164) shows two broad spines of un- 
equal lengths. The antenna (fig. 165) terminates in a blunt point. 
It bears a lateral ramus near its tip that is prolonged into four sub- 
equal hairy digitations. The telson (fig. 166) carries seven spines on 
each cornu. The middle spine is short and smooth, the others long 
and hairy. 

first zoea (figs. 167 and 168) 

The zoea of Menippe differs strikingly from that of Panopeus and 
Xantho, but resembles that of Eriphia closely. The carapace spines 
are all robust. The antenna is scarcely as long as the rostral spine 
and its exopodite is as long as the antennal spine. The pigmentation 
along the anterior surface of the dorsal carapace spine is helpful in 
identifying this zoea. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennule (fig. 169) is simple and 
conical but it is longer than usual. The antenna (fig. 170) is com- 
paratively small for a Xanthid. Its spine is slender and hairy along 
its distal portion. The exopodite is quite long and, with its terminal 
hairs, equals or exceeds the spine in length. The remaining cephalic 
appendages (figs. 171 and 172 and 173) have the typical brachyuran 
form. 

Thorax and abdomen. — The thoracic appendages are typical 
(figs. 171 and 175). The fourth and fifth abdominal segments are 
characterized by short lateral spines that spring from their posterior 
borders. The telson (fig. 176) has the three pairs of median spines. 
In addition each cornu has a minute lateral spine and a minute 
dorsal spine. 

Genus TRAPEZIA 

Plate 12, fig. 162 

Spence Bate has described the first zoea of Trapezia very briefly 
and given one figure. The description is confined to the enumeration 
of the appendages present but other details may be learned from the 
figure. 

The dorsal spine of the carapace is slender and is curved posteri- 
orly. The rostral spine is short and covered with spines near its tip. 
The antenna is nearly as long as the rostral spine. The antennal 
spine is hairy near its tip. Its exopodite is nearly as long as its 
spine. The posterior borders of the third, fourth, and fifth abdomi- 
nal segments are produced laterally into long, spinous processes. 

Genus PILUMNUS 

Plate 14 

Cano studied Pilumnus hirtellus, P. villosus, and P. spinifer but 
he did not distinguish between the species in his descriptions. Gour- 
ret states that the larvae of P. spinifer hatch at night but he does not 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 6T 

describe them. Couch simply states that P. hirtellus hatches as 
a zoea. The following descriptions are based on Cano. 

FIRST ZOEA (fig. 177) 

The zoea of Pilumnus is distinguished by its slender rostral spine 
and relatively large antenna. The buds of all the thoracic append- 
ages are present and that of the third maxilliped is obviously bira- 
mous. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennule (fig. 183) has the usual 
conical form. The antenna (fig. 183) is nearly twice as long as the 
small rostral spine. The exopodite is as long as the antennal spine 
and bears a lateral hair near its tip. The remaining cephalic ap- 
pendages are typical. 

Thoracic appendages and abdomen. — The first and second maxilli- 
peds are typical. The third maxilliped and the pereiopods are pre- 
cociously developed. The buds are all large and that of the third 
maxilliped is biramous. The telson (fig. 192) has three median 
spines, two lateral spines — one very minute — and one dorsal spine 
on each cornu. 

SECOND ZOEA (fig. 178) 

The second zoea shows the usual changes. There are six swim- 
ming hairs on each maxilliped. The gill buds have appeared on the 
thoracic appendages. Cano does not give a detailed description of 
the stage. 



THIRD ZOEA 



Cano seems to have overlooked the third zoeal stage. His third 
stage apparently is the fourth zoea. 

FOURTH ZOEA (fig. 179) 

The fourth zoea has ten to twelve swimming hairs, six abdominal 
segments, and biramous pleopods. 

Cephalic appendages. — The antennule (fig. 184) now has a swollen 
basal segment for the statocyst. The inner of the two distal rami 
shows several constrictions and bears several sensory hairs; the outer 
is a simple bud. The antenna (fig. 184) shows an endopodite that 
nearly equals its spine in length. 

Thoracic appendages and abdomen. — The third maxilliped and 
pereiopods are greatly enlarged and all their segments are differen- 
tiated. The pleopods, except that of the sixth segment, are bifur- 
cated. The telson (fig. 193) is somewhat larger than in earlier 
stages but otherwise is not changed. 

FIRST MEGALOPS (fig. 180) 

The rostral spine leaves a slight remnant. The thoracic appen- 
dages reach what is practically the adult condition. The abdominal 



abt. 3 STUDIES ON LARVAE OF CRABS HYMAN 17 

appendages become the organs of locomotion, each appendage being 
equipped with numerous long swimming hairs. 

Cephalic appendages. — These are typical for the megalops. 

Thoracic appendages. — The first maxilliped is relatively smaller 
and its endopodite and exopodite are degenerated (fig. 186). It car- 
ries a large epipodite. The second maxilliped (fig. 188) is small. Its 
exopodite is degenerated and its exopodite has become a palp of five 
segments. It carries a small epipodite and a small gill bud. The 
third maxilliped (fig. 189) is quite large. Its endopodite is com- 
posed of six segments. It carries an epipodite and two gills. The 
cheliped (fig. 191) shows the typical spine on its third segment and 
has two gills on the coxopodite. 

SECOND MHGAL0PS (fig. 182) 

The carapace is further broadened and depressed. The frontal 
margin is broadened and somewhat bulbous. The abdomen is per- 
manently flexed under the sternum. 

The first maxilliped (fig. 187) is somewhat enlarged and has ac- 
quired its adult form. The third maxilliped (fig. 190) has reached 
its adult form. Both exopodite and endopodite terminate in palps. 
The proximal segments of the endopodite form an operculum for the 
other mouth parts. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1879. Bate, C. Spence. Report on the present state of our knowledge of the 

Crustacea. Part 4. On development. Report Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 
48th Meeting. 1878, pp. 193-209, pis. 5-7. 

1882. Birge, E. A. Notes on the development of Panopseus sayi (Smith). 

Johns Hopkins University Studies, Biol. Lab., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 411-426, 

pis. 30-33. 
1891. Cano, G. Sviluppo postembrionale dei Caneridi. Bull. Soc. Entomol. 

Ital., 1891, vol. 23, pp. 146-158, pis. 3, 4. 
1843. Couch, R. Q. On the metamorphosis of the Decapod Crustaceans. 11th 

Ann. Rept. Roy. Cornwall Polytechnic Soc, pp. 28-43, pi. 1. 

1880. Faxon, W. On some points in the structure of the embryonic zoea. 

Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard College, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1-8, pis. 1-2. 

1883. Gourret, P. Considerations sur la faune pelaglque du Golfe de Mar- 

seille. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Marseille, Zool., vol. 2, mem. 2, pt. 1, 

pp. 14-24, pis. 1, 2, Marseille, 1882. 
1920. Hyman, O. W. On the development of Gelasimus after hatching. Journ. 

Morphology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 485-524, pis. 1-12. 
1922. Adventures in the life of a Fiddler Crab. Smithsonian Rept. for 

1920 (1922), pp. 443^00, pis. 1-6. 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.67 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 
Plate 1 

Fig. 1. Prezoea, Neopanope tcxana sayi. 

2. Prezoea, Eurypanopeus depressus. 

3. Antennule, Neopanope texana sayi. 

4. Antennule, Eurypanopeus depressus. 

5. Antennule, Panopeus herbstii. 

6. Antennule, Hexapanopeus angustifrons. 

7. Antenna, Neopanope texana sayi. 

8. Antenna, Eurypanopeus depressus. 

9. Antenna, Panopeus herbstii. 

10. Antenna, Hexapanopeus angustifrons. 

11. Mandible, Neopanope texana sayi. 

12. Mandible, Hexapanopeus angustifrons. 

13. Maxillule, Neopanope tcxana sayi. 

14. Maxillule, Eurypanopeus depressus. 

15. Maxillule, Panopeus herbstii. 

18. Maxillule, Hexapanopeus angustifrons. 

17. Maxilla, Neopanope texana sayi. 

18. Maxilla, Eurypanopeus depressus. 

19. Maxilla, Panopeus herbstii. 

20. Maxilla, Hexapanopeus angustifrons. 

Plate 2 

Fig. 21. Prezoea, Panopeus "herbstii. 

22. Prezoea, Hexapanopeus angustifrons. 

23. First maxilliped, Neopanope texana sayi. 

24. First maxilliped, Eurypanopeus depressus. 

25. First maxilliped, Panopeus herbstii. 

26. First maxilliped, Hexapanopeus angustifrons. 

27. Second maxilliped, Neopanope texana sayi. 

28. Second maxilliped, Eurypanopeus depressus. 

29. Second maxilliped, Panopeus herbstii. 

30. Second maxilliped, Hexapanopeus angustifrons. 

31. Telson, Neopanope texana sayi. 

32. Telson, Eurypanopeus depressus. 

33. Telson, Panopeus herbstii. 

34. Telson, Hexapanopeus angustifrons. 

Plate 3 
Neopa)iope texana sayi 

Fig. 35. First zoea, frontal view. 

36. First zoea, lateral view. 

37. Antennule, first zoea. 

38. Antennule, second zoea. 

39. Antennule, third zoea. 

40. Antennule, fourth zoea. 

41. Mandible, first zoea. 

42. Mandible, second zoea. 

43. Mandible, third zoea. 

44. Mandible, fourth zoea. 



art. 3 STUDIES ON LARVAE OF CRABS HYMAN ]9 

Plate 4 
Neopanope texana sayi 

Fig. 45. Second zoea, frontal view. 

46. Second zoea, lateral view. 

47. Third zoea, lateral view. 

48. Third zoea, frontal view. 

Plate 5 

Neopanope texana sayi 

Fig. 49. Fourth zoea, frontal view. 

50. Fourth zoea, lateral view. 

51. Maxillule, first zoea. 

52. Maxillule, second zoea. 

53. Maxillule, third zoea. 

54. Maxillule, fourth zoea. 

55. Maxilla, first zoea. 

56. Maxilla, second zoea. 

57. Maxilla, third zoea. 

58. Maxilla, fourth zoea. 

Plate 6 

Neopanope texana sayi 

Fig. 59. Antenna, first zoea. 

60. Antenna, second zoea. 

61. Antenna, third zoea. 

62. Antenna, fourth zoea. 

63. First maxilliped, first zoea. 

64. First maxilliped, second zoea. 

65. First maxilliped, third zoea. 

66. First maxilliped, fourth zoea. 

Plate 7 
Neopanope texana sayi 

Fig. 67. Second maxilliped, first zoea. 

68. Second maxilliped, second zoea. 

69. Second maxilliped, third zoea. 

70. Second maxilliped, fourth zoea. 

71. Pleopod, fourth zoea. 

72. Telson, first zoea. 

73. Telson, second zoea. 

74. Telson, third zoea. 

75. Telson, fourth zoea. 

Plate 8 

Neopanope texana sayi (after Birge) 

Fig. 76. First megalops. lateral view. 
77. First megalops, dorsal view. 
7S. Carapace of first crab stage, dorsal view, 
79. Carapace of first crab stage, ventral view. 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.67 

Fig. SO. Carapace of adult crab, dorsal view. 

81. Antennule, first megalops. 

82. Antennule, adult. 

83. Antenna, first megalops. 

84. Antenna, adult megalops. 

85. Mandible, first megalops. 

86. Mandible, late megalops. 

87. Mandible, adult. 

88. Maxillule, first megalops. 

89. Maxillule, first crab. 

90. Maxillule, adult. 

91. Maxilla, first megalops. 

92. Maxilla, young crab. 

93. Maxilla, adult. 

94. First maxilliped, first megalops. 

95. First maxilliped, first crab. 

96. First maxilliped, adult 

97. Second maxilliped, first megalops. 

98. Second maxilliped, first crab. 

99. Second maxilliped, adult. 

100. Third maxilliped, first megalops. 

101 . Third maxilliped, first crab. 

102. Third maxilliped, adult. 

103. Last pleopod, first megalops. 

104. Third pleopod, first megalops. 

105. Third pleopod, adult. 

Plate 9 

Eurypanopeus depressus, first zoea 

Fig. 106. First zoea, lateral view. 

107. First zoea, frontal view. 

108. Antennule. 

109. Antenna. 

110. Mandibles. 

111. Maxillule. 

112. Maxilla. 

113. First maxilliped. 

114. Second maxilliped. 

115. Telson. 

Plate 10 

Panopeus herbstii, first zoea 

Fig. 116. First zoea, lateral view. 

117. First zoea, frontal view. 

118. Antennule. 

119. Antenna. 

120. Maxillule. 

121. Maxilla. 

122. First maxilliped. 

123. Second maxilliped. 

124. Telson. 



ART. 3 STUDIES ON" LARVAE OF CRABS HYMAN 21 

Plate 11 

Xantho (after Cano) 

Fig. 125. First zoea, lateral view. 

126. Third zoea, frontal view. 

127. Third zoea, lateral view. 

128. Fourth zoea, lateral view. 

129. First megalops. 

130. Second megalops. 

131. First crab. 

132. Older crab. 

133. Antennule and antenna, first zoea. 

134. Antennule and antenna, fourth zoea. 

135. Antennule and antenna, first megalops. 

136. Mandible, first zoea. 

137. Mandible, fourth zoea. 

138. Mandible, first megalops. 

139. Maxillule, first zoea. 

140. Maxillule, first megalops. 

Plate 12 

Xantho (after Cano) 
Fig. 141. Maxilla, first zoea. 

142. Maxilla, fourth zoea. 

143. Maxilla, first megalops. 

144. Thoracic appendages, fourth zoea. 

145. First maxilliped, first megalops. 

146. Second maxilliped, first megalops. 

147. Third maxilliped, first megalops. 

148. Third maxilliped, first crab. 

149. Cheliped, first megalops. 

150. Telson, first zoea. 

151. Telson, fourth zoea. 

Eriphia spinifrons (after Cano) 
Fig. 152. First zoea. 

153. Second zoea. 

154. Fourth zoea. 

155. Antennule and antenna, first zoea. 

156. Antennule and antenna, second zoea. 

157. Antennule and antenna, fourth zoea. 

158. Mandible, fourth zoea. 

159. Telson, first zoea. 

160. Telson, second zoea. 

161. Telson, fourth zoea. 

Trapezia (after Spence Bate) 
Fig. 162. First zoea. 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM VOL. 6< 

Plate 13 
Menippe mercenaria 

Prezoea 
Fig. 163. Prezoea. 

164. Antennule. 

165. Antenna. 

166. Telson. 

First zoea 

Fig. 167. First zoea, frontal view. 

168. First zoea, lateral view. 

169. Antennule. 

170. Antenna. 

171. Mandible. 

172. Maxillule. 

173. Maxilla. 

174. First maxilliped. 

175. Second maxilliped. 

176. Telson. 

Plate 14 

Pilumnus (after (.'a no) 
Fig. 177. First zoea. 

178. Second zoea. 

179. Fourth zoea. 

180. First megalops. 

181. Second megalops. 

182. First crab. 

183. Antennule and antenna, first zoea. 

184. Antennule and antenna, fourth zoea. 

185. Mandible, first zoea. 

186. First maxilliped, first megalops. 

187. First maxilliped, first crab. 

188. Second maxilliped, first megalops. 

189. Third maxilliped, first megalops. 

190. Third maxilliped, first crab. 

191. Cheliped, first megalops. 

192. Telson, first zoea. 

193. Telson, fourth zoea. 

o 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 3 PL. I 




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For explanation of plate see page 18 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 3 PL. 4 




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For explanation of plate see page 19 



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PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 3 PL. 7 




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PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 3 PL. 




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MICROSCOPIC SCULPTURE OF PEARLY FRESH-WATER 

MUSSEL SHELLS 



By William B. Marshall 

Assistant Curator, Division of Mollusks, United States National Museum 



In a note under the description of Diplodontites cookei 1 special 
attention was called to its minute sculpture in the following words : 
" The sculpture of the exterior is remarkable and of great beauty. 
The radiating striae between the impressed radiating lines are of a 
fineness rarely if ever equaled in shells with the rude structure of 
the naiads." In the same paper the new species M onoco ndylaea 
felipponei was described, but nothing was said of its possessing 
minute radiating striae. In fact, the fine sculpture of this shell was 
not detected as it was not shown by the fairly strong hand lens used 
in making an examination. Later the use of a two-thirds inch 
objective on a compound microscope showed that this species has 
microscopic sculpture of the same general character as that of Diplo- 
dontites cookei. Even with a two-thirds inch objective careful 
focusing is needed to reveal the fine striae. The new species Ano- 
dontites colombiensis described in the same paper was then sub- 
jected to microscopic examination and was found to possess minute 
striae of the same nature as in the two species mentioned above. 

The presence of microscopic striae in the three species mentioned 
above led to an examination of many other species of South Ameri- 
can shells, and it was found that in, those belonging to the family 
Mutelidae the striae were generally present, while in Diplodon and 
other genera of the Unionidae they were lacking. The investigation 
was then broadened to include an examination of many species repre- 
senting practically all genera of naiads from all parts of the world. 
The results have been thought sufficiently interesting and important 
to warrant publishing them. The results are of value in themselves 
and the discovery of the minute striae will call attention to the fact 
that many details may lie close at hand and yet remain unnoticed 
for years. The genera Anodontites and M onocondylaea have been 
known for many years, but. so far as I have been able to determine,, 

1 I'roc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 61. 1922. 

No. 2576— Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 67, Art. 4. 

22247—25 1 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

no mention has ever been made of the microscopic features of the 
periostracum which are shown so clearly in many of the species. 
Anodontites crispatus Bruguiere, described in 1792, the type of the 
genus, has sculpture nearly as fine and beautiful as that of Diplo- 
dontites cookei and yet that fact has remained unrevealed for a 
period of 132 years. In the genus Monocondylaca the two species M. 
paraguayana Orbigny and M . franciscana Moricand were described 
in 1835 and 1837, respectively. Both species show the microscopic, 
radiating striae, the latter especially having them in unusual per- 
fection. Apparently no mention of them has ever been made until 
the present time. 

A somewhat parallel case, though relating to a different style of 
sculpture, is presented by the Chinese genus Schistodesmus, which 
possesses a concentric sculpture of microscopic striae wonderfully 
fine and beautiful. Baird and Adams (1867) in their description 
of the species lampreyanus failed to mention them, and they seem 
to have escaped any notice until 1900, when Simpson, in his descrip- 
tion of the genus Schistodesmus, called attention to them thus: 
" Marvelously delicate, concentric, microscopic lirae." The genus 
^uneopsis, also of China, has a similar sculpture, though on a cloth- 
like periostracum, and it seems that these two genera should stand 
next to each other instead of being separated by the genus Gibbosula, 
which Simpson has placed between them. 

As has already been said, an examination has been made of the 
microscopic sculpture of shells of practically all the genera of naiads 
from all parts of the world. So far as those of the Unionidae are 
concerned, not much may be said at present. For our immediate 
purpose it is sufficient to say that in this family regularly arranged 
microscopic details are usually lacking, and none of them has a 
periostracum made up of fine radiating threads. With the naiads 
of the family Mutelidae the case is different. Here many species 
have an almost infinite number of radiating threads, and while the 
threads seem to be absent in a few species it is believed that with 
good material every species belonging to this family would reveal 
this type of periostracum and that it is a family characteristic. 

This peculiar periostracum is so striking in many of the genera 
and species of the family that if it be shown that any species ab- 
solutely lacks it then the right of that species to a place in the 
Mutelidae becomes subject to some doubt. 

The family Mutelidae as at present understood contains 14 genera, 
of which 6 are restricted to Africa, namely, Spatha, Mutela, Cheli- 
donopsis, Brazzea, Arthropteron, and Pleiodon, while 6 are re- 
stricted to South America, namely, Monocondylaea, Iheringella, 
Fos&ida, Leila, Mycetopoda, and Diplodontites. Anodontites, the 
largest genus of Mutelidae, is restricted to America, some species 



art. 4 SCULPTURE OF MUSSEL SHELLS MARSHALL 3 

being: found as far north as Mexico and others in Central America, 
while yet others are found in South America only, many of them 
as far south as Rio de la Plata, and one species as far as Patagonia. 

Of the two genera Brazzea and Arthropteron no material was at 
hand for examination. Of the other 12 genera many species were 
given careful scrutiny. In the genus Chelidonopsis, of which only 
three specimens were available, there seems to be no sign of ra- 
diating threads. In the genus Mycetopoda threads were found 
on only a couple of specimens and then they were not of the usual 
type. The other 10 genera all showed the threads clearly in most 
of the species. The threads in the African genera Spatha and 
Mutela are much finer and more numerous than in the American 
genera, but the African genus Pleiodon has threads which are al- 
most exactly like those of the South American genus M onocondylaea. 

In general it may be said that the radiating striae resemble the 
threads in finely woven serge cloth when it is viewed with the naked 
eye, or perhaps it would be better to say that they resemble the 
fine ridges which occur on our finger tips. When viewed under the 
microscope the shells whose periostracum retains the threads look 
as if they had been marked with fingerprints. 

In some cases the radiating threads are very clear and can be 
found on all parts of the shell. Diplodontites cookei and Mono- 
condylaea franclscana are notable in this respect. In other cases the 
threads have disappeared from most of the shell, and sometimes 
there are but very small patches of threads left here and there. Fre- 
quently it is necessary to make a very careful search over the whole 
surface of a number of specimens in order to find a spot in which 
the striae have been preserved. In some of the groups of large Ano- 
dontites typified b}^ trapesialis (containing jeivettianus, forbesianus, 
gJaucus, and others) no striae have thus far been observed. It is not 
possible to say at this time whether threads are lacking in these shells 
or have been worn away or lost in the shedding of a fugacious 
periostracum. In Mycetopoda the threads are not of the usual type. 
This genus will be discussed later in this paper in dealing with the 
species of shell which is called Solenaia falcata Higgins. 

In the preceding paragraph reference has been made to a fuga- 
cious periostracum. Some explanation of this kind of periostracum 
is advisable, as its presence is not generally known. Very often 
there is a sort of bloom found in spots, or sometimes covering a 
large portion of the shell. Perhaps it has generally been mistaken 
tor a deposit of some extraneous material. It seems to be a part 
of the periostracum. When present the bloom is likely to show the 
microscopic threads more clearly than do the parts of the shell 
from which the bloom has disappeared. It appears to be usually 
only temporary. On a specimen of Anodontites tcnebricosus Lea 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. G7 

from Arroyo Miguelete, Montevideo, Uruguay (Cat. No. 270908, 
U.S.N.M.), the fugacious periostracum persists over a large portion 
of the shell, making this portion appear as if covered with very 
thin dead skin. On the portion where the fugacious periostracum 
has disappeared the surface has the appearance most usually seen 
in this species. In Spatha toahlbergi of South Africa the bloom 
persists in only a few spots and is so thin that it forms but the thin- 
nest of films. In Anodontites tenebricosm Lea it is much thicker, 
more easily visible, and sometimes remains over a large area. In 
M onocondylaea it becomes somewhat like pale yellowish or whitish 
paper, and in many places where it has partly torn away from the 
shell it stands up on the surface in little concentric plates. This 
is what gives M onocondylaea the generally roughened appearance 
so often noted and sometimes mentioned in descriptions as being 
lamellate. In this genus there are numerous cracks arranged con- 
centrically, with many cross cracks uniting them. In many of these 
cracks the fugacious periostracum persists throughout the life of 
the shell. This makes M onocondylaea one of the best genera for 
examination in a study of radiating threads, as they are almost 
always to be found on the paper-like fugacious periostracum re- 
maining in the cracks.- In some spots on the type of M onocondylaea 
felipponei Marshall little sheets of this kind of periostracum still 
lie flat and apparently loose except along one edge. In the genus 
Diplodontites there are but the faintest traces of a fugacious peri- 
ostracum of any kind. Each genus seems to have its own peculi- 
arities in this kind of periostracum. 

In giving details of the radiating striae of each genus frequent 
mention is made of the sinulus of the various species, and a few 
general remarks concerning this feature of the shell may well be 
made here. In most of the shells of the family Mutelidae the sinulus 
is distinctly triangular, but in a few cases where the shells have a 
very elongated form the sinulus, too, is elongated, and its triangular 
shape is not so apparent. In Mycetopoda, although the shell is 
elongated, the sinulus is distinctly triangular. The Mutelidae and 
the Aetheriidae are the only families in which the sinulus is typically 
triangular. The latter family contains the three genera, Mulleria, 
Aetheria, and Bartlettia. None of these has radiating striae so far 
as can be determined at this time. There seems to be no doubt as 
to some relationship between Bartlettia and Mulleria and the family 
Mutelidae. The form of the young of Bartlettia and Mulleria, the 
locality (South America) in which the two genera are found, the 
type of sinulus, and the texture of the shell seem to indicate a nearer 
relationship between these two genera and the Mutelidae than be- 
tween Aetheria and the Mutelidae. The genus Pseudodon of eastern 
Asia sometimes has a triangular sinulus. It will be discussed in 
connection with the genus M onocondylaea. 



akt. 4 SCULPTURE OF MUSSEL. SHELLS MARSHALL 5 

Genus SPATHA 

Plate 4, fig. 3 

• Microscopic radiating threads in this genus are finer than those of 
the South American genera. They are quite clear, though showing 
some tendency to become reticulate. The threads of Spatha wahl- 
bergi, which are supposed to be represented on plate 4, figure 3, 
are the finest that have been observed in any shell. The striae are 
so fine that a satisfactory photograph could not be obtained. The 
figure shown here is magnified 50 diameters. Even with a magnifi- 
cation of 100 diameters a photograph did not show the striae. The 
specimen shows a bloom here and there, and on these spots the striae 
become very striking. It is estimated that there are in the neighbor- 
hood of 300 striae to the millimeter in this species. In this genus 
the species differ greatly in form, size, degree of polish, and in 
sculpture. It is interesting to note that the striae appear in wahl- 
bergi, which is a very large, quite smooth shell ; in vignoniana, which 
is rather small and extremely roughened with stout ribs; and in 
chaziana, which is a small, highly polished shell. In this genus, 
no matter what the form of the shell may be, whether long or short 
or rounded, the smulus is always triangular, as it should be in Mutelid 
shells. 

Genus MUTELA 

In this genus the striae are fine like in the genus Spatka, but are 
not so clearly defined. They are more given to reticulating and 
do not have the appearance of threads laid alongside each other. 
They appear like a lot of fibers more or less felted rather than 
spun. It is quite difficult to find spots in which the threads show 
at all. All the species of Mutela have an elongated form — this 
length in proportion to height being especially marked in Mutela 
rostrata. The sinulus in this genus is not equilaterally triangular 
in any of the species, but the triangle is drawn out posteriorly into 
a long point, yet this does not necessarily mean that the sinulus falls 
outside of allowable variation of the Mutelid type, but simply that 
length of shell has affected form of sinulus. No satisfactory figure 
could be obtained in this genus. 

Genus CHELIDONOPSIS 

But three specimens of this genus, Chelidonopsis hirundo, were 
available for examination. It is a very peculiar shell, highly 
polished and very elongated, and has a sinulus which, like that of 
Mutela, does not exactly conform to the usual type in the Mutelidae. 
Further study with young specimens is necessary to determine the 
facts in this group. 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

Genera BRAZZEA and ARTHROPTERON 
No material available for examination and data in general lacking. 

Genus PLEIODON 

Plate 4, fig. 2 

In this genus but two species were available for study, Pleiodon 
ovatus Swainson from Senegal, and P. speckii from Lake Tanganyi- 
ka. The latter is a very large old specimen and periostracal 
characters have disappeared. Of P. ovatus there are two rather 
young having a length of 50 and 60 millimeters, respectively. These 
two specimens have the radiating threads present over a large part 
of the surface and they are perfectly preserved and number about. 
105 to the millimeter. There are also seven adult specimens of this 
species in the collection, the largest having a length of 110 milli- 
meters. In these specimens it is difficult to find a spot in which 
threads can be seen. The sinulus in this genus is aberrent from the 
Mutelid type, though in P. speckii it approaches it. The figure (pi. 
4, fig. 2), is from a young P. ovatus from Senegal, Africa (Cat. No. 
86774, U.S.N.M.). The broad light-colored band near the bottom 
of the figure represents the remains of fugacious periostracum at- 
tached along a growth line. Other remains are seen at the left of 
the figure. 

Genus MONOCONDYLAEA 

Plate 1, fig. 2; plate 2, fig. 1 

In nearly every specimen of this genus the radiating threads 
persist on some part of the surface, regardless of the age of the speci- 
men. Often they are to be found only on the paper-like remains of 
the fugacious periostracum which has been sheltered in the peculiar 
concentric and cross cracks nearly always found in these shells. In 
M onocondylaea franciscana Moricand the threads occur in fine condi- 
tion, number about 85 to the millimeter, and are found over nearly the 
whole extent of the shell. On the single specimen of M. felipponei 
Marshall available for examination the threads number about 110 to 
the millimeter, cover nearly the whole shell, and are clearly defined 
and easy to find. M. franciscana is figured on plate 1. figure 2. 
The specimen came from Rio Francisco, Brazil (Cat. No. 86334, 
U.S.N.M.). M. felipponei is represented on plate 2, figure 1. It 
came from Barra del Arroyo Sacra, Paysandu. Uruguay (Cat. No. 
340663, U.S.N.M.). 

Some comparisons between the Unionid genus Pseudodon and the 
Mutelid genus M onocondylaea may not be amiss. The shells of 
Pseudodon present some peculiar and interesting features. The 
genus is restricted to Eastern Asia and some of the near-by islands. 



art. 4 SCULPTURE OF MUSSEL SHELLS MARSHALL 7 

The shells have an apparently near relationship to some of the 
South American naiads, especially to those of the genus Monocondy- 
laea, because of the single cardinal tooth and the general character 
of the sinulus in some of the Ps< udodon species. Because of these 
features, several species of Pseudodon were described as Monocon- 
dylaea, and many years passed before it became generally recognized 
that the apparent close relationship of the two genera comes from 
a superficial resemblance rather than from structural affinities. As 
time passed the shells were not only placed in different genera, but 
as they became more fully understood they were classified into 
different families, Pseudodon in the Unionidae and Monocondylaea 
in the Mutelidae. The collection of the United States National Mu- 
seum contains many specimens representing eleven species of Pseudo- 
don. All of these have been subjected to searching microscopical 
examination to determine the presence or absence of the radiating 
threads characteristic of Monocondylaea and other Mutelidae. No 
trace of such threads was found in any species. Their absence 
affords additional evidence of the lack of any very close relationship 
between Pseudodon and Monocondylaea. 

As has been said above, the sinulus of Pseudodon often resembles 
that of the Mutelidae. In some species of Pseudodon the resem- 
blance is quite sharp, but in others it is not clear or is lacking. 
Even in the cases in which it is most striking (as in Pseudodon 
cambojensis Petit, P. polita Mousson, and P. cumingii Lea) it lacks 
the sharply equilaterally triangular form of the sinulus of the Mute- 
lidae, being more or less rounded at the lower point. Some of the 
other species of Pseudodon, such as P. loomisi Simpson and P. 
crebristriatus Anthony, have the sinulus as in the other Unionidae. 

Genus IHERINGELLA 

Of this genus, which shows an intimate relationship to Mono- 
condylaea, but one specimen was available. It is Iheringella iso- 
cardioides Lea (Cat. No. 86326, U.S.N.M.), and comes from the 
Rio de la Plata, South America. While it is in rather poor con- 
dition, fortunately a few small spots are well enough preserved to 
show that the radiating threads occur in this genus. The striae do 
not show sufficiently well to photograph. 

Genus FOSSICULA 

Plate 2, fig. 2 

But one of the two species was available; namely, Fossicida 
fossiculifera Lea, represented by four specimens, three of which 
came from the Parana River and one from Piricicaba, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil. This is a peculiar genus whose relationships point in two 
directions — to Monocondylaea, because of the cardinal tooth, and to 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.67 

Anodontites, because of its form, colors, and wide prismatic border, 
which are exactly like those of Anodontites patagonicus. Were the 
portion of the hinge line bearing the tooth broken away one would 
be absolutely unable to separate F. fossiculifera from A. pata- 
gonicus. If Fossicida and Leila be valid genera it seems there 
should be some shifting in classification in order to bring the former 
near A. patagonicus and the latter near A. trapesialis, instead of 
arranging Leila between Fossicula and Anodontites. The radiating 
threads do not show well in any of the four specimens at hand, but 
enough remains to tell that the threads occur in this genus and that 
they are like those to be found in some specimens of Anodontites 
patagonicus. Plate 2, figure 2, represents a small spot in a specimen 
from Parana River (Cat. No. 86346, U.S.N.M.). It has about 105 
threads to the millimeter. 

Genus LEILA 

The shells of this genus are uniformly large. In the whole family 
Mutelidae they are exceeded in size by only one species, Anodontites 
trapesialis Lamarck, with which perhaps they should be placed in 
a section of the genus Anodontites, or perhaps trapesialis should be 
taken from that genus and placed in the genus Leila. Surely the 
shells show a very near relationship to each other. The radiating 
threads in Leila are extremely fine and resemble those of the African 
genus Spatha, rather than those usual to the South American species 
of Mutelidae. They are of about the same nature as those of 
Spatha wahlbergi. In these large shells the striae are difficult 
to find because they are so very fine, and they seem to be easily lost 
as growth progresses. A specimen of Leila blainvilleana from the 
Amazon River (Cat. No. 25815, U.S.N.M.) shows the fine lines, but 
not clearly enough to be photographed. 

Genus ANODONTITES 

Plate 1, fig. 1 ; plate 2, fig. 3 ; plate 3, figs. 1 and 3 

To this genus belong the larger portion of all the species referred 
to the family Mutelidae. There are recognized some 50 species of 
Anodontites. They have been divided into several sections and 
groups, but there is ground for believing that further study will 
result in dividing this genus into several genera. The shells now 
included in Anodontites show a wide range of characteristics, vary- 
ing in form, size, colors, weight, sculpture, etc. For instance, com- 
pare A. rotundus Spix with A. trapesialis Lamarck; A. patagonicus 
Lamarck with A. strebeli Lea, and any of these with A. tenebricosus 
Lea; or compare A. ensiformis Spix and A. falsus Simpson with 
any of the other Anodontites. The genus has a great geographic 
range, extending from Mexico to Patagonia. In nearly all of the 



art. 4 SCULPTURE OF MUSSEL SHELLS MARSHALL 9 

species of this genus the radiating threads have been observed, 
though they have not yet been found in some. No doubt they will 
be found in all in the course of time. As might be expected in a 
genus containing so many species and ranging over so large a ter- 
ritory, there is some variation in the character of the microscopic 
striae, but it may be said that in all cases these striae conform to some 
one of the few variations found in the Mutelidae. Four specimens 
have been selected for illustration. Plate 2, figure 3, represents the 
striae on a typical A. patagonleus from Arroyo Miguelete, Monte- 
video, Uruguay (Cat. No. 335746, U.S.N.M.). Plate 3, figure 3, rep- 
resents the striae on a specimen of the rotund form of the same 
species from the Uruguay River (Cat. No. 347885, U.S.N.M.) . In this, 
the striae are unusually clear and cover a large part of the surface. 
Plate 3, figure 2, represents the threads on a specimen of A. inaequi- 
valvis Lea from Lake Nicaragua, Central America (Cat. No. 59873, 
U.S.N.M.). Although the species is a very small one and comes 
from so far north, the striae, of which there are about 100 to the 
millimeter, are strictly according to type. The cracks and crevices 
of this shell, especially on the posterior dorsal area, are apt to re- 
tain remains of fugacious periostracum, which resembles little pieces 
of onion skin, and in which the striae show very plainly. In the two 
species composing the section Virgula, Anodontites (Virgula) ensi- 
f ononis Spix and A. (F.) falsus Simpson, so far no radiating striae 
have been observed. As but five specimens were available for ex- 
amination, it will be well to wait until additional material is studied 
before coming to any definite conclusions as to this group. Because 
of their great length they look unlike other Anodontites. 

In the series which Simpson arranges as the " Group of Anodon- 
tites crispatus " twelve of the thirteen species have been examined 
and all of them show the radiating strise. In all, the threads were 
easy to find, were well developed, and were distinctly of the Mutelid 
type. In this group all the species have the peculiarly puckered, 
radiating impressed lines, and drooping concentric folds which I 
have likened to festooned drapery and which Ortmann describes by 
the adjective " scalariform." Some of the species are rather rough, 
such as A. crispatus; others are highly polished, such as A. strebi li 
Lea and A. holtonis Lea. In this group, as in most other Anodon- 
tites, the striae are most easily found on some part of the posterior 
dorsal area, but it is not unusual to find them on the disk of the shell 
in spots covered with the puckered radiating impressed lines. Plate 
1, figure 1, represents the radiating striae of a specimen of Anodon- 
tites crispatus Bruguiere from Venezuela (Cat. No. 24020, U.S.N.M.), 
in which there are about 90 striae to the millimeter. 

This was the first species of Anodontites described and is the type 
of the genus. In many details the periostracum of this species re- 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

sembles that of Diplodontites cookei Marshall, and especially in the 
radiating striae and in the festooning of the coarser sculpture. 

Genus MYCETOPODA 

All the species of this genus are long and narrow, and have the 
general appearance of being out of place in the family Mutelidae, 
but notwithstanding their great length the sinulus is of the Mutelid 
type, though somewhat drawn out. Radiating striae of the usual 
type fail in this genus. In twenty-seven of the twenty-nine speci- 
mens examined no trace of radiating threads could be discovered. 
In two other specimens there were radiating marks resembling 
thumb prints. A specimen of Mycetopoda pygmaea Spix from 
Carthagena, United States of Colombia (Cat. No. 86795, U.S.N.M.), 
shows the striae best, but it is not sufficiently clear to be worth 
figuring. 

The relationships of this genus have never been satisfactorily 
traced, and the peculiar nature of the striae in the periostracum adds 
another feature which should have further study. 

Genus ? 



Plate 4, fig. 1 

Under the head " genus unknown " attention is called to the shell 
known as Solenaia falcata Higgins. When Simpson, in 1900, pub- 
lished his Synopsis of the Naiades, or Pearly Fresh-water Mussels,' 
this shell was a puzzle to him. Higgins, in his description of the 
species, 3 gave its locality as " forest streams, near Chyavetas, Upper 
Amazons." As pointed out by Simpson, the shell is almost a minia- 
ture of Solenaia emarginata Lea, which inhabits Siam, and on this 
account he thought the habitat cited by Higgins was erroneous. He 
doubtfully substituted the locality Southeastern Asia and removed 
the species from the genus Mycetopns (=Mycetopoda) of the family 
Mutelidae in which Higgins placed it and shifted it to the genus 
Solenaia in the Unionidae. In 1914, when Simpson's Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Naiades or Pearly Fresh-water Mussels appeared, 
the species was still a puzzle to him and he again preferred to substi- 
tute the habitat " Southeastern Asia ? " and remained firmly con- 
vinced that it could not have come from South America. Disregard- 
ing the close resemblance of falcata to emargin-ata, which may be only 
a resemblance without any backing of close relationship, the weight 
of the evidence at hand is in favor of a South American habitat for 
falcata. The main points of evidence in favor of this are, first, the 
type locality given in Higgins's description; second, a specimen in 
the Isaac Lea collection (Cat. No. 86788, U.S.N.M.), which Lea 

Troc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 22, pp. 501-1044. 

3 Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 179, pi. 14, fig. 6, 1868. 



art. 4 SCULPTURE OF MUSSEL SHELLS MARSHALL 11 

received from Wheatly. It is figured on plate 4, figure 1. The 
locality given for this specimen is Amazon. Third, no specimen has 
ever been reported-from Southeastern Asia. Fourth, the character of 
the periostracum. Were all other evidence lacking, this would be 
sufficient to establish the fact of a South American origin for the 
shell. The radiating microscopic threads are exactly like those found 
in Diplodontitis cookei Marshall, Anodontites tenebricosus Lea, 
M ono condyloma franciscana Moricand, and many other species of 
South American naiad. The striae number about 90 to the milli- 
meter. 

In what genus " Solenaia " falcata should be placed remains an 
open question. The data at hand is not sufficient to answer that 
question, and we must wait for further details as to anatomy, breed- 
ing habits, and beak sculpture. The U. S. National Museum con- 
tains six speciment representing four species of undoubted Solenaia. 
The periostracum of these is altogether different from that of falcata 
and shows no sign of radiating threads. To place it in the genus 
Solenaia would involve a faunistic mixing that would be unusual, 
namely. South America and Eastern Asia, and the difference between 
the periostracum of falcata and that of species whose right to a 
place in the genus Solenaia is undoubted would involve a mixing of 
not only generic characters but of features which are believed to be 
family characteristics. 

Granting that " Solenaia " falcata is a South American shell and 
that it does not belong in the genus Solenaia, the next step is to de- 
fine its position among the South American Naiades. It was described 
as a Mycetopus (—Mycetopoda) . In a cursory consideration of it 
one would naturally place it in or very near the genus Mycetopoda, 
this allocation being made chiefly because of its elongated form. 
Possibty it does belong to that genus, but it is to be doubted. It may 
belong in the genus Anodontites, as it shows some relationship to 
arcuate specimens of the tenebricosus group. Its position here like- 
wise is doubtful. In radiating threads its periostracum differs 
widely from that of Mycetopoda, in which genus what radiating 
threads have been observed being far from the kind usual in 
Mutelidae. Of falcata it may be said that its sinulus is not dis- 
tinctly of the Mutelid type, not being clearly triangular nor sub- 
equilateral. This may be due to the great length of the shell in 
proportion to its height. The species ma}^ require a new genus to 
accommodate it. 

Since the above was written our library has received a copy of a 
paper entitled " Nayades del Viaje al Pacifico," by F. Hass, pub- 
lished in Trabajos del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Zoo- 
logical series, Number 25 (Madrid, Spain, Aug. 1916). In this paper 
the supposed new species Mycetopoda bolivari Hass is described on 
page 36 and figured on plate 2, figure 2. It comes from Rio 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.67 

Unuyacu, affluent of the Napo River, Ecuador. The Napo is a 
tributary to the Maranon, which in turn is tributary to the Amazon. 
The description, the figures, and the locality all show that this shell 
is the same species as the one described by Higgins as Mycetopus 
falcatus and called Solenaia falcatus Higgins by Simpson. 

Genus DIPLODONTITES 

Plate 1, fig. 3 

It was in this genus that the microscopic radiating striae were first 
observed, and they were described and figured in the original descrip- 
tion of the only species, Diplodontites cookei Marshall. 4 In this 
genus the striae are of unusual importance, as the allocation of the 
genus to its proper family depends upon shell characters and the 
striae afford additional evidence that it belongs in the Mutelidae. In 
this genus they are especially clear and cover nearly the whole sur- 
face of the shell, about 90 striae to the millimeter. Fugacious perio- 
stracum appears to be lacking, as at best there are only a few traces 
here and there of what may be this kind of material. The genus 
differs from all other Mutelidae in having three cardinal teeth. It 
agrees with them in having no lateral teeth, in the nature of the 
sinlus, and, like most of them, it comes from South America. The 
figure is from a paratype (Cat. No. 341473, U.S.N.M.), from a 
tributary of the Rio Colorado in the Province of Santander, Co- 
lombia. 

SUMMARY 

1. The radiating microscopic threads may be considered a family 
characteristic of the Mutelidae as they appear in all the genera, 
with the possible exception of the genus Mycetopoda. 

2. This characteristic, being found in Mutelidae only, is confined 
to naiads inhabiting Africa, South America, Central America, and 
Mexico. 

3. Data as to breeding, anatomy, and beak sculpture of the genus 
Diplodontites being lacking, its place in Mutelidae depends upon 
conchological features. The radiating striae add to the number of 
characters which indicate that it belongs in that family. 

4. The nature of the periostracum of " Solenaia " falcata Hig- 
gins shows it to be South American, as stated by Higgins, and not 
from southeastern Asia, as supposed by Simpson. It also shows 
that falcata belongs in the family Mutelidae, although to what genus 
remains undecided. 

5. The genus Mycetopoda does not strictly conform to the usual 
rule so far as microscopic threads and form of shell are concerned, 
though its sinulus is triangular, like that of other Mutelidae. 

4 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 61, 1922. 



akt. 4 SCULPTURE OF MUSSEL SHELLS MARSHALL 13 

6. The. sinulus • and tooth of some of the shells of the genus 
Pseudodon of eastern Asia and near-by islands present a problem. 
It is believed that they do not indicate any close relationship of 
this genus to the Mutelidae. 

7. The triangular sinulus, the absence of teeth, and the South 
American habitat of the genera Mulleria and Bartlettia of the 
family Aetheriidae seem to indicate some close relation of this 
family with the Mutelidae, The periostracum of Mulleria and 
Bartlettia shows no sign of radiating threads. Further study of 
this family with young specimens is desirable. 

8. The number of striae on the shells in which a count has been 
made was: Pet . millimeter 

Spatha wahlbergi Krauss 300 

Pleiodon ovatus Swainson 105 

Monocondylaea franciscana Moricand 85 

Monocondylaca felipponei Marshall 110 

Fossula fossiculifera Lea 105 

Anondontites crispatus Bruguiere 80 

Anondontites tenebricosus Lea 130 

Anodontitcs patagonicus Lamarck 90 

Anodontitcs inaequivalvis 100 

" Solenma " falcata Higgins 90 

Diplodontites cooked Marshall 90 

In conclusion it may be well to advise those who wish to make 
a microscopic examination of the radiating striae in the Mutelidae 
to begin, if possible, with Diplodontites cooJcei Marshall, then take 
Monocondylaea franciscana Moricand, and then Anodontites cris- 
patus Bruguiere, passing from this to any of the other members of 
the family. The species mentioned will give the idea of what to 
look for. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

Plate 1 

Fig. 1. Anodontites crispatus Bruguiere. At posterior portion of the disk X 
30 diameters. 

2. Monocondylaca franciscana Moricand. At the upper portion of the 

disk X 50 diameters. 

3. Diplodontites cookei Marshall. At the center of the disk X 50 diam- 

eters. 

Plate 2 

All figures X 50 diameters 

Fig. 1. Monocondylaca felipponei Marshall. Anterior to the center of the disk. 

2. Fossula fossiculifera Lea. Anterior to the center of the disk. 

3. Anodontites patagonicus Lamarck. Posterior to the center of the disk. 

Plate 3 
All figures X 50 diameters 

Fig. 1. Anodontitcs tenebricosus Lea. At the upper portion of the disk. 

2. Anodontites inaequivalvis Lea. On the dorsal ridge. 

3. Anodontites patagonicus Lamarck. High up on the disk. 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

Plate 4 

All figures X 50 diameters 

Fig. 1. " Solenaia " falcata Higgins. At the posterior dorsal angle. 

It would have been better if this figure could have been arranged 
to have the striae running horizontally and the growth lines on a 
slant. Being near the posterior dorsal margin, the striae, which 
radiate from the beak, are, at this point, nearly parallel to the dorsal 
edge, and nearly horizontal. 

2. Pleiodon ovatus Swainson. Below the middle of the posterior dorsal 

ridge. 

3. S2)dtha icahlbergi Krauss. Posterior to the center of the disk. 

o 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 4 PL. I 



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Microscopic Sculpture of Fresh-water Mussels 

For explanation of plate see page |3 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 4 PL. 2 




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Microscopic Sculpture of Fresh-water Mussels 

For explanation of plate see page 13 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 4 PL. 




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Microscopic Sculpture of Fresh-water Mussel 

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U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 4 PL. 4 




Microscopic Sculpture of Fresh-water Mussels 

For explanation of plate see page 14 



THE GENUS PENTACRINUS IN ALASKA 



Ity Frank Springes 

Associate in Paleontology, United States National Museum 



In April. 1913, Dr. T. W. Stanton, of the United States Geological 
Survey, submitted to me for examination some crinoid remains col- 
lected by field parties of the survey in the extreme northern part of 
Alaska, near the Arctic Ocean. These proved to belong to the true 
Pentacrinus {Extracrinus of Austin, de Loriol, and P. H. Carpen- 
ter) of the lower Jurassic of England and continental Europe, and 
of the type of P. subangularis Miller, from the Lias of Boll. Met- 
zingen, Holzmaden, and other localities in Wurtemburg, Germany. 
I advised Doctor Stanton of this identification in a preliminary re- 
port, which was published. 1 The occurrence was of much interest 
as the first discover}'- of Pentacrinus, with the exception of isolated 
stem segments, yet made in American rocks, and because these speci- 
mens gave evidence of an unexpectedly wide distribution of one of 
the typical species. A detailed account of the material was deferred 
in the hope of obtaining more complete specimens from one of the 
localities, as it was then expected that Mr. Leffingwell might visit 
the region again. Nothing further has been accomplished, however, 
and it has been thought advisable to proceed with what we have. 

The material in hand comes from two localities. The first is on a 
small island called Black Island, in Canning River, opposite Mount 
Copleston, longitude 146° 20' W., latitude 69° 30' N.; it is about 100 
miles above the mouth of the river where it debouches into the Arctic 
Ocean near Flaxman Point. Here a single specimen was secured, 
consisting of a small slab containing crinoid remains brought from 
the island by a native. It was derived from a formation composed 
of about 4,000 feet of shale called the Kingak shale, correlated by 
Mr. Leffingwell as of lower Jurassic age. 2 The specimen consists of 
part of a set of arms of a large individual, probably associated with 
numerous others, in a preservation so exquisite as to induce a strong 
desire to secure further treasures from the locality. Although won- 

1 Professional Taper 109, U. S. Geol. Surv., 1919, The Canning River Region, Northern 
Alaska, by Ernest de K. Leffingwell, p. 119. 

2 Idem, p. 119. 

No. 2577. — Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 67, art. 5. 

22248—25 1 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 07 

derful specimens of the species to which this probably belongs have 
been obtained in various European localities — one of the finest being 
on exhibition in the hall of Invertebrate Paleontology in the United 
States National Museum, having complete arms 15 inches long, and 
5 feet of stem attached — none of them exhibit such perfection in fine 
structural details as this, especially in the sharp definition of the 
pinnules, as shown b}^ the figure herewith. The condition of this 
specimen indicates that it was part of a considerable colony, in which 
a lar^e number of these crinoids were imbedded together, as is the 
case at some of the European localities. 

The second locality is about 125 miles east of the first, near the 
international boundary line, on a tributary to Overthrust Creek, 1% 
miles above its mouth, and about 8 miles west of the one hundred and 
* forty-first meridian. A. G. Madclren, while engaged in geological 
investigations along the Canada-Alaska boundary during 1911 and 
1912, found at this locality a crinoid bed composed of fragments of 
the same Pentacrinus as the Black Island specimen, in a formation 
largely made up of black shales which are probably the equivalent 
of the Kingak shale. 3 These remains consist of numerous column 
and arm fragments of large size, rather closely packed together, in- 
dicating a bed of considerable extent, in which, however, the speci- 
mens lack the fine preservation of that of locality 1. The matrix 
is highly ferruginous, with much oxidation at the surface by which 
the structural details are destroyed, except in some of the column 
fragments, which have the joint-faces well preserved, showing the 
petaloid sectors characteristic of the genus. 

There is a general similarity in size and appearance of the parts 
recovered from the two localities, which indicates the probability of 
their being of the same species. They are larger than the corre- 
sponding parts of specimens as usually found at Lyme-Regis in 
Dorsetshire, England, but not of greater size than that of many 
specimens from the Wurtemburg localities. 

Among Mesozoic crinoids no genus has attracted more attention, 
both in the literature and in the rocks, than Pentacrinus of the lower 
Jurassic. From what has been learned in recent years, it probably 
had a wider distribution than any other. In view of this fact, and 
of the evidence as disclosed by the material now before us of its great 
abundance in a region where it was least expected, I have thought 
it well, for the benefit of those who may not have convenient access 
!■> the publications, to give a brief summary of the leading facts rela- 
tive to the genus. The chief descriptive matter may be found in 
the works of J. S. Miller, Quenstedt, de Loriol, and P. H. Carpenter; 
but for a comprehensive and lucid exposition of the genus and the 

[,/effingwell, same reference, p. 120. 



art. 5 THE GEXUS PENTACRINUS — SPRINGER 3 

complications relative to it, the reader should consult Bather's paper 
on " Pentacrinus, a Name and a History.'" 4 

The name is involved in considerable confusion, and students are 
apt to be misled by the manner of its use in the literature at certain 
periods. The two principal species were described by J. S. Miller 
in his Natural History of the Crinoidea. 1821, as Pentacrinus briar- 
em (p. 56, pis. 1 and 2) from the lower Lias, and P. subangularis 
(p. 59. pis. 1 and 2) from the middle or upper Lias. It is evident 
from Miller's descriptions that he had as types specimens from the 
t} T pical localities : P. briareus from Lyme-Regis, Dorsetshire, Eng- 
land, and P. subangularis from the black slate in Wurtemburg, 
German}^. He credits subangularis also to Lyme-llegis, and de 
Loriol refers a specimen from France to that species; while Quen- 
stedt describes several varieties of P. briareus from Wurtemburg 
localities; but it is open to question whether the two forms are not 
chiefly confined in Europe to their respective localities and horizons. 
There is some confusion in the descriptions as to horizon; subangu- 
laris is credited to both the middle and upper Lias, and briareus to 
upper and lower. 

These two most common species in the Lias of England and Ger- 
many are extremely abundant, often composing entire strata, in 
which their remains are beautifully preserved, furnishing most 
striking specimens, which are to be seen in nearly all museums. 

The name Pentacrinus as employed by Miller included two types : 
1, in which the radials project downward over the proximal eol- 
umnals, and the arms are heterotomous ; and 2, in which the radials 
do not so project, and the arms are dichotomous. The name was 
also applied to the earlier described stalked crinoids of the present 
seas, such as P. caput-medusae, P. mulleri, P. wyville-thomsoni, P. 
decorus, etc. Then the Austins in 1848 proposed to separate the 
species of type No. 1 under a new genus, Extracrinus, leaving only 
those of No. 2 under the original name. This course was followed 
by de Loriol 5 and by P. H. Carpenter in the Challenger Report on 
the Stalked Crinoids, and the names were applied by them accord- 
ingly. 

Later on it was discovered that the Pentacrinus briareus of Miller, 
which had been illustrated under the name of the Briarean Penta- 
crinite by Parkinson in 1808 6 and of which Miller's name had been 
copied into treatises and textbooks generally, 7 was the identical 
species which had been described by Blumenbach in 1802 from a 
specimen from Dorsetshire as Encrinites fossilis, and as Pentacrin- 

i Natural Science, vol. 12, 1898, p. 254. 

: Crinoides de la France, vol. 2, 1868, p. 385. 

e Org. Rems., vol. 2, p. 248. 

' Dana's Manual of Geology, ed. 4, p. 778. 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. G7 

ites fossilis in 1804. 8 Under the rules of nomenclature this name 
had priority, and Miller's name would have to be discarded in its 
favor. Not only so, but as the name Pentacrinus had been attached 
to the (briareus) fossilis type, No. 1, long before the time of the 
Austins, it followed that their genus Extracrinus must also go into 
the discard, and all the species which had been ranked under it 
would now have to be listed as the true Pentacrinus. 

Furthermore, it was found that the Pentacrinus type No. 2 was 
covered by the genus Isocrinus Agassiz, 1836 (von Meyer, 1837) : 
so that the species of that type, which included all the Recent 
"Pentacrinus", would have to be written Isocrinus, leaving the 
species of type No. 1 as the true Pentacrinus, typified by Blumen- 
bach's original species, P. fossilis. 

All this history, of which I am giving but a brief abstract, will 
be found fully set forth with ample reference to the original sources, 
in Doctor Bather's paper already mentioned. Thus when in the 
literature the name Pentacrinus is encountered for an existing 
crinoid, or for a fossil species in the works of de Loriol, it means 
Isocrinus ; and where the name " Extracrinus " occurs it should be 
read Pentacrinus. And for the classic name " Pentacrinus briareus " 
there should now be substituted P. fossilis. Quenstedt did not adopt 
the name " Extracrinus," but continued to use the original term for 
both forms. 

"With this explanation to obviate confusion over the names, we 
are in position to consider the questions relating to the particular 
forms of the genus suggested by the new material. 

According to Quenstedt and de Loriol 9 the true Pentacrinus 
(type No. 1, above) is divisible into two groups, characterized by 
stem characters only, which with our present knowledge would be 
described as follows: 

1. P. (briareus) fossils (Blumenbach), 1S02. Lower Lias, Dorsetshire, Eng- 
land. 

Stem short, sharply pentagonal. Coluniuals alternating, but not strongly 
unequal. Internodals few, from 1 near the calyx, to 3 or 4 distally. Cirri 
large, very long, prismatic or flattened, in whorls of 5 to every nodal. 

2. P. subangulrrtis Miller, 1821. Upper and middle Lias, Wurtemburg, 
Germany. 

Stem very long, subpentangular or round. Columnals alternating, very 
unequal ; internodals numerous, increasing from the calyx distalwards by 
doubling. Cirri few, small, short and round. 

In a good specimen from Holzmaden in my collection the cirrus 
intervals increase from 3 ossicles (1 long and 2 short) beginning 
with the second large colunmal near the calyx, to 7, 15, and 31 
internodals at about the fifteenth internode, a distance of about 30 

- Abh. Naturh. No. 70, pi. 70. 

Crin. de la France, vol. 2, p. 385. 



art. 5 THE GENUS PENTACPJNUS — SPRINGER 5 

cm. ; the increase is by interpolation of new internodals, which con- 
tinues progressively further down along the stem, the interpolated 
columnals appearing at the surface in the form of short and thin 
lacunae, which gradually widen and coalesce until they become full 
columnals, and these increase in length until they approach the size 
of those adjoining them. So the next increase would be to add 32 
young thin ossicles to the internode, making 63 in all at about the 
twenty-fourth internode. 

Thus the progression would be about like this: 

Internode 1 lias 1 long, 2 short 3 

Internodes 2-5 have 1 long. 2 short, 4 lacunae 7 

Internodes 6-10 have 3 long, 4 short, 8 lacunae 15 

Internodes 11-17 have 7 long, 8 short, 16 lacunae 31 

Internodes 18-25 have 15 long, 16 s-hort, 32 lacunae 63 

Both groups are cited from Wurtemburg, but apparently only P. 
fossills from England. De Loriol gives a list of the species in the 
two groups, and declares that as to those occurring outside of France 
they have not been described with sufficient exactness to enable him to 
recognize them. And the same may be said of most of those from 
France. In fact the literature is encumbered with the names of 
more than a hundred species of Pentacrinus^ most of them without 
definition by which they can be recognized. They have been pro- 
posed chiefly upon isolated stem-ossicles, which differ much in con- 
tour and markings according to their position in the stem. Outside 
of the common species the characters are not well known, and nothing 
short of a thorough revision of all species based upon the type and 
associated material will afford the knowledge necessary for com- 
parison. 

The sj)ecimens from Alaska without doubt belong to the second, 
or subangularis, group. The round column, and strong alternation 
of columnals as they appear in figure 2 of our plate, establish this 
conclusively. Enough is visible in the lateral views of the few short 
stem fragments exposed to show that the internodal columnals merge 
in the form of lacunae, as shown by figure 4, and as further ex- 
plained in my paper on Pentacrinus rotiensis from the East Indies. 10 

No cirri are obseivable on the parts preserved. The sculpture 
of the numerous joint-faces exposed on figure 2 is precisely of the 
type of the Wurtemburg specimens, as figured in the above-men- 
tioned paper (pi. 1, figs. 3, 4, and herein, fig. 3). But there is to be 
seen a slight difference in the outline of the columnals, that of the 
latter being distinctly subpentagonal, while those of our specimens 
are almost' uniformly round, a difference which may be due to dif- 
ferent positions in the stem. 

10 Nederlandische Tirnor-Expeditie II. Jaarboek van het Mijnwesen, 4oe Jaargang, 
191G, Leiden, Holland. Published in 1918. 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

The set of arms shown in the Black Island specimen (fig. 1) 
are also clearly of the sub angular is type. The brachials are slightly 
wedge-shaped, giving off a pinnule from the longer side of each, 
both on the main arms and the ramules, so that as seen from either 
margin the pinnules are borne alternately on every second brachial. 
Their form and proportions, as well as the exquisite delineation of 
details, are clearly brought out in the photograph. One notable 
item is the very large size of the first pinnular. which articulates 
with two brachials. Some of the pinnulars show notches or crenu- 
lations on the ventral edges. 

In size there is not much difference between our specimens and 
the average of those from Wurtemburg. Compared with good- 
sized specimens from Holzmaden, as figured in Quenstedt, 11 we 
have the following details : 





Alaska 


Wurtemburg 


Diameter of column . 

Width of arm in lower division _ __ 


Mm . 
6-12 
7 
13-14 


Mm. 
12, 13, 15 

7 


Number of brachials in interval between ramules. 


13 



With the foregoing facts to go on, there would seem to be no good 
reason for separating the Alaskan form specifically from subangu- 
laris. Yet in order to allow for probable migrational changes not 
disclosed by our incomplete material, and for more convenient des- 
ignation in the literature, I think best to give it a varietal name, 
Pentacrinus subangularis, var. alaska, which will have at least as 
good ground to stand on as any of the five varieties based on Wur- 
temburg specimens into which Quenstedt undertook to subdivide 
the species P. briareus, to say nothing of the doubt, before mentioned, 
whether the type of the (briareus) fossills group occurs in that area. 

Wishing to have the benefit of the fullest information before 
finally recording my own impression. I sent copies of my figures to 
Dr. F. A. Bather, requesting him to compare them with the speci- 
mens in the British Museum, and to favor me Avith his opinion. 
This he has very kindly done, and given me a report from which I 
quote the following extract: 

London, 25 May, 1923. 

Dear Mr. Springer: I have examined your photographs of Pentacrinus from 
Alaska with great care, comparing them with the published descriptions, and 
with the material in this museum from Dorset and Wurtemberg. The only- 
difference I can see is that the few stem fragments visible from the side do 
not show such- marked or regular alternation in the sizes of the columnals as 
do all the specimens in this museum. This may depend possibly on the region 
of the column from which they came, and in any case the evidence of the 
photograph is not very extensive.. The photograph of the arms shows the 

"Petref. Deutschl., vol. 4, pi. 101. 



art. 5 THE GENUS PENTACRINUS SPRINGER 7 

pinnules much better preserved than any specimens we have here. The ventral 
edges of some of the pinnulars show about four notches or crenulation?. I am 
unable to detect those in any of our specimens, but the material is insufficient. 
I should certainly refer these specimens to P. subangularis in the broad sense. 
Quenstedt, you will remember, confessed that his attempts to divide up that 
species were not very satisfactory to him. 

Perhaps the most interesting feature of the Alaskan discovery is 
its bearing upon the • geographical distribution of this vigorous 
Jurassic crinoidal type, which now appears to have spread into al- 
most all waters, and to have flourished in great profusion in regions 
remote from each other. Isolated stem-ossicles from Dakota and 
from Utah described as Pentacrinus asteriscus by Meek and Hay- 
den, 12 and as P. whitei by W. B. Clark, show a still wider spread 
upon the American continent. And when we consider the further 
evidence now in hand of the existence of a closely related form in 
the East Indian archipelago, as given in my paper before cited, we 
are impressed with the cosmopolitan range of the genus, far exceed- 
ing that of any crinoid of the present ocean. It is a good illustration 
of the result of conditions prevailing in the Jurassic and Cretaceous 
periods of deep and clear seas, which were favorable to the develop- 
ment and spread of marine faunas over large areas with a minimum 
of checks and interference, in contrast to those of subsequent periods 
down to the present, in which owing to the great changes in land 
form affecting the conditions of marine life, and to increasing com- 
petition arising from the multiplication of forms, the tendency has 
been toward progressively greater restriction of faunal areas. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE 

Pentacrinus subangularis var. alaska, new variety 

Fig. 1. Part of a set of arms, with ra mules and pinnules finely preserved. 
Natural size. U. S. National Museum. Black Island, Canning River. 

2. A small slab filled with stem-fragments, many showing the joint-faces 

in detail, and some in side view showing the very unequal columnals 
with interpolated lacunae. Natural size. U. S. National Museum. 
Overthrust Creek, near international boundary- 
Lower Jurassic, Kingak shale; northern Alaska. 

Pentacrinus subangularis Miller 

3. A typical joint-face, enlarged, for comparison of structures. X2. 

Author's collection. 

Lower Jurassic. Upper Lias ; Boll, Wurtemburg. 

Pentacrinus rotiensis Springer 

4. A stem-fragment containing a complete internode of ?>even pairs" of 

internodals, to show the mode of growth of younger ossicles by inter- 
polation in the form of small lacunae not yet meeting at the exterior 
to form a complete columnal. Collection Dr. G. A. F. Molengraaff, 
Delft, Holland. 

Jurassic. Island of Roti, Dutch East Indies. 
12 Pal. Upper Missouri, 1865, p. G7, pi. 3, figs. 2, a-b. 

o 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 5 PL. I 





•4-* 



rdjM* 




• -f 



m P 



The Crinoid genus Pentacrinus in Alaska 

For explanation of plate see page 7 



A NEW METEOEIC STONE FROM BALDWYN, MISSIS- 
SIPPI 



By George P. Merrill 
Head Curator of Gpology, United States National Museum 



At the time of the meeting of the Geological Society of America 
in Washington, December, 1923, the present writer was shown by 
Prof. L. C. Glenn, of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn., a 
beautifully encrusted meteoric stone weighing about 345 grams, 
which fell on the farm of Allen Cox, of Baldwyn, Miss., February 
2, 1922. Concerning it Mr. Cox furnished the writer the following 
information : 

This meteoric stone fell * * * on my farm about one and a half miles 
northwest of Baldwyn, Miss. Ed. Bush, a negro tenant on my place, who 
is an unusually reliable and intelligent darky saw it fall and in fact it 
did not miss hitting him by more than 10 feet. He came to the house and 
reported it to me and I went with him and picked up the stone which had 
buried itself about three or four inches in soft clay. It was still hot, not 
hot enough to burn, but very decidedly warm and gave off a smell very 
much like brimstone or a flint when it has been struck with steel and sparks 
have been made to fly. The darky had been so badly scared tb«»t he had Deen 
afraid to touch it. He said his attention was first attracted ijy a humming 
noise which he took to be an airplane and he turned to look ttito the sky for 
the airplane but saw nothing. The noise increased and in a short space of 
time described by him as about a minute, but which I am stwc was only a 
few seconds, a rush of air came by his head and the stone buried itself near 
his feet. He did not at any time see the actual stone until it hit the ground. 
It first was heard in a northwesterly direction from him and in falling de- 
scribed an arch of about 30 to 35 degrees as nearly as I could tell from the 
location he gave me for the position of the first sound. 

As no record of this stone has thus far appeared in print, the pres- 
ent writer, with Professor Glenn's permission, cut from it a thin sec- 
tion from which the following description was prepared : 

The stone is chondritic though the structure is quite indistinct. 
The single thin section examined shows the usual fine gunular 
ground with irregularly outlined areas of larger granules, the evi- 
dent residue of chondrules partially obliterated through metamor- 



No. 2578— Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 67, Art. 6. 

22259 — 25 1 



2 PRECEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

phism. The determined silicate minerals are olivine and an ortho- 
rhombic pyroxene with small, interstitial areas of a clear, colorless, 
doubly refracting mineral which in a few instances shows plainly 
the twinning striae characteristic of a plagioclase feldspar. The cut 
surface shows numerous black veins, some of which are mere lines, 
but in one instance 4 — 5 millimeters in diameter enclosing fragments 
of the silicates, the whole imparting a somewhat breccia structure to 
the stone (see pi. 1). 

Under the prevailing system it would be classified as a veined 
white chondrite. 

This stone, the doubtfully meteoric iron of Oktibbeha and a small 
stone that fell near Palahatchie in Rankin County on October 17, 
1910, represent the sole contributions of the State of Mississippi to 
our knowledge of the distribution of these very interesting bodies. 

o 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 6 PL. I 




The Baldwyn, Mississippi, Meteoric Stone 



For reference to plate see page 2 



THE ORIGIN, OCCURRENCE, COMPOSITION, AND PHYSI- 
CAL PROPERTIES OF THE MINERAL IDDINGSITE 



Ity Clarence S. Ross 
Geologist, United States Geological Survey 

and 

Earl V. Shannon 
Assistant Curator of Geology, United States National Museum 



INTRODUCTION 

Dr. A. C. Lawson, 1 while studying the volcanic rocks in the vicinity 
of Carmelo Bay, Calif., in 1893, found an undescribed mineral in the 
rocks called carmeloites, to which he gave the name iddingsite ; that, 
however, the mineral was a distinct species was not generally recog- 
nized and it is still described in the textbooks as a variety of serpen- 
tine. 2 Subsequent study has shown this to be a widespread and, 
at times, an abundant mineral in basaltic rocks, but its chemical com- 
position and real nature have long remained matters of speculation. 
It is a secondary mineral, rarely entirely free from the olivine from 
which it is derived; it is rather finely disseminated among other 
minerals of nearly the same specific gravity, and so investigators 
have been deterred from making the tedious efforts required for its 
separation and analysis. 

The chemical portion of the following paper is based upon eight 
analyses of iddingsite from six localities, and while the results of 
these analyses do not give a complete understanding of the chemical 
composition of iddingsite, they show that it is not serpentine and 
establish it as a distinct mineral species. All the analyzed iddingsites, 
and additional materials from widely separated localities from the 
western United States, have been examined; the physical properties 
have been determined; its relations to the associated minerals have 

1 Lawson, Andrew C, Univ. of Calif. Bull, of Dept. of Geol., No. 1, p. 31. 1893. 

2 Johannsen, Albert, Determination of rock-forming' minerals, p. 361, New York, 1908. 
Iddings, Joseph P., Rock minerals, p. 381, New York, 1911. Winchell, N. H., and A. N., 
Elements of optical mineralogy, p. 300, New York, 1909. 

No. 2579— Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 67, Art. 7. 

23555—25 1 1 



9. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

been studied: and conclusions as to the genesis of iddingsite have 
been reached. This paper is presented in the belief that the available 
data on the composition, and a detailed study of the origin of this 
long discussed mineral will prove to be of interest, as the results 
are distinctly at -variance with previous views about iddingsite. 

REVIEW OF PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS OF IDDINGSITE 

In a discussion of the rocks of the Eureka district, Nevada, Id- 
dings 3 says of the mineral later named iddingsite: "There com- 
mences from the surface and from fractures (in olivine) as in the 
ordinary process a fibration, not in directions always normal to the 
surface, but in lines parallel throughout the crystal, and parallel also 
to some direction in the plane of the more perfect cleavage- The 
fibers have a light yellow color at first, which deepens into a red- 
dish brown or blood red as the decomposition proceeds; they polarize 
light brilliantly and show parallel extinction and sometimes faint 
pleochroism. The resultant mineral is evidently not a compound 
aggregate, but a crystallographic individual, with parallel orienta- 
tion in all its parts, for the extinction of light is the same through- 
out, and the interference figure is that of a doubly refracting crys- 
tal." Iddings observed occasional well crystallized hexagonal plates 
in the less altered olivine and found that on treatment with hot 
concentrated hydrochloric acid the mineral lost color without chang- 
ing its optical properties. This induced him to think that : " The 
substance is in this case a nearly colorless micaceous mineral, colored 
red by iron oxide." He concludes: 

That the mineral is a foliated, crystallized form of serpentine seems prob- 
able from the fact that most of the basalts are so fresh, with the decomposi- 
tion of tbe olivine frequently confined to the weathered surface, that a very 
radical change is not likely to have taken place, and that simple hydration 
and oxidation of a very ferruginous olivine would supply all the chemical 
elements necessary to transform it into anhydrous unsilicate of magnesia and 
ferric iron; besides which is the fact that the optical properties of the min- 
eral in question correspond to those given by Miller for thermophyllite. 

Describing the " Potlach pseudomorphs after olivin • " in the Car- 
boniferous tuffs and dolorite of Derbyshire, Arnold-Bemrose * says: 

The plane of the optic axes is at right angles to the length of the original 
crystal, the angle between the optic axes is very small, and the double refrac- 
tion negative. As a rule the pseudomorphs behave as a crystallographic in- 
dividual, and not as an aggregate. The traces of the cleavage are generally 
parallel to the length of the crystal. * * * When mounted, the thin Hakes 
appeal- brown or brownish-yellow by transmitted light. In convergent light 
they show a biaxial figure, with a small angle between the axes and negative 
double refraction. They are sometimes almost uniaxial. When a fragment does 

:1 [ddings, Joseph P., Appendix H, Mono. 20, 1". s. Geol. Survey, pp. 388-300, 1892. 
' Arnold-Bemrose, II. H., Quart. Joui-n. Geol. Soc, p. 603, London, 1804. 



akt.7 THE MINERAL IDDINGSITE — ROSS AND SHANNON 3 

not lie on the cleavage plane ii shows dichroism, the greatesi absorption taking 
place when the shorl axis of the polarizer is parallel to the trace of the 
cleavage. 

In his investigation of iddingsite, Lawson 5 made qualitative 

chemical tests and says: 

Chemically therefore iddingsite is a hydrous nonaluminous silicate of iron, 
magnesia, and soda. * * * The extraction of iron by acids without decom- 
position of the mineral indicates that a considerable proportion of that ele- 
ment is present, not as a part of the silicate molecule, but as a pigment in the 
form of hematite or limonite. probably the latter. 

Of the optical properties Lawson says: 

Under the microscope the cleavage plates prove to be biaxial, and yield with 
great definitenoss a figure which shows that the plane of the optic axis is at 
right angles to the cleavage and parallel to the c axis, and that the acute 
bisectrix is perpendicular to the cleavage, being coincident with the a axis. 
In these plates and in all sections transverse to the cleavage in the slides the 
extinction is strictly parallel to the cleavage, to the fibrous structure, and to 
the trace of the pinacoids. This shows that the three axes of elasticity are 
parallel to the three crystallographic axes, respectively, and that the mineral 
is therefore orthorhombic. * * * In thin section iddingsite becomes trans- 
parent in colors which range from a deep chestnut brown to citron yellow, or 
occasionally a clear greenish yellow. The pleochroism is strongly marked in 
sections transverse to the cleavage, particularly so in those parallel to the 
axial plane, but usually very feeble in sections parallel to the cleavage. The 
absorption formula is c>fa>a. 

The double refraction (not given) low. The other properties 
determined by Lawson may be summarized as follows : Hardness 
2.4; Specific gravity variable, maximum 2.893; Infusible before the 
blowpipe, and not perceptibly altered. Yields Avater in the closed 
tube. He concludes : 

It is evidently not the form of crystallized serpentine thermophyllite, since 
it differs from the latter in physical appearance, in behavior before the blow- 
pipe, in density, in luster, and in color : neither does it correspond optically 
with serpentine. Moreover, the development of serpentine from olivine by 
hydration is accompanied by a swelling of the mass. In the case of iddingsite, 
on the contrary, there is very frequently excellent evidence of shrinkage. 
* * * There appears to be no good reason for regarding the mineral as a 
crystallized variety of serpentine. 

Ivansome 6 studied iddingsite in the eruptive rocks oj Point Bonita 
and has the following to say of the mineral : 

Iddingsite is present in many of the slides of the diabase, in rounded ideo- 
morphic crystals of various sizes up to about 2 millimeters in length, whose 
outlines are strongly suggestive of olivine. The color varies from light green- 
ish yellow to dark dingy green. * * * These sections are pleochroic, being 
dark yellowish green parallel to the cleavage, and light greenish yellow at 
right angles to that position. Under crossed nicols the undecomposed portions 
show brilliant mottled polarization colors, crimson and green predominating. 



5 Lawson, Andrew C, Univ. of Calif. Bull.. Dept. of Geol., No. 1. pp. 31-36, L893. 
•Ransoine, F. L„ Bull. Kept. Geol., t'niv. Calif., No. 1, pp. 90-!>l:, 1894. 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. G7 

ancl the double refraction is therefore strong. The mean index of refraction 
(not given) is rather low. The distinctly terminated prismatic sections are 
but slightly pleochroic and show no cleavage. The interference colors are 
moreover low. In general they give a distinct biaxial figure, with a small 
angle. * * * The plane of the optic axes lies parallel to the longer axis 
of the prism, and is, therefore, perpendicular to the cleavage planes. * * * 
The mineral was ascertained to be optically negative. 

OCCURRENCE 

Iddingsite is widely distributed in the basaltic rocks of the San 
Juan region of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, and, 
indeed, throughout the western United States. Petrographic studies 7 
of these rocks show conclusively that the red or red-brown altera- 
tion product of olivine is not serpentine and indicate that it is a 
definite mineral as suggested by Lawson. 

Iddingsite nearly always gives clear evidence of its derivation 
from olivine, since the outlines of the original olivine crystals are 
often beautifully preserved. All degrees of alteration have been ob- 
served from perfect, homogeneous crystals of iddingsite to olivine 
crystals with the merest film of iddingsite between cleavage cracks. 
Usually the outer zone is changed to iddingsite where the alteration 
isj incomplete, but in one large group of rocks the central area is 
usually iddingsite with an outer zone of fresh olivine. The manner 
of alteration appears to depend upon some property inherent in the 
original olivine itself, which allows some parts to be more easily 
altered than others. Much of the iddingsite seems at first glance to 
be fibrous, and it has been so described. Close study, however, shows 
that this effect in ihe material investigated is the result of minute 
inclusions of spinels, magnetite, or hematite. High magnifications 
of small grains of iddingsite reveal a clean fracture with no indica- 
tion of fibers. The photomicrographs in Plates 1 and 2 show the 
relationships between olivine and iddingsite in a number of different 
rocks. In many specimens (pi. 1, fig. 1, and pi. 2, fig. 4), there is an 
outer zone of iddingsite surrounding a core of olivine with a ragged 
area between the two, with shredlike masses of iddingsite extending 
into the olivine. In other specimens (pi. 1, figs. 3, 4) there is altera- 
tion along cracks in the olivine with the same shredlike masses of 
iddingsite extending into olivine. In some specimens (pi. 1, fig. 3) 
there is an outer zone of iddingsite around olivine with a sharp con- 
tact between the two. In many specimens the large phenocrysts are 
completely changed to iddingsite, while small groundmass grains of 
olivine of a later generation show little alteration. In one large 
group of rocks (pi. 1, fig. 3; pi. 2, figs. 5, 6) there is an inner core of 
iddingsite surrounded by fresh olivine. In some specimens (pi. 1, 

7 I.ai:.i, Esper S., Bull. G70, U. S. Gool. Survey, p. 90, 1921. 



akt.7 THE MINERAL IDDINGSITE — ROSS AND SHANNON 5 

fig. 4) alteration has occurred along cracks with very sharp contacts 
between iddingsite and olivine. Much of the iddingsite investigated 
contains very small grains of magnetite and other spinels arranged 
in minute lines parallel to the crystallographic axes of the mineral. 

A pale brown or yellow material is associated with iddingsite in 
some rocks and this material is represented by analyses 3 and 5. 
This is usualty cryptocrystaliine and has a lower index of refraction 
than normal iddingsite and a small axial angle where it is possible 
to determine it. It forms a rim around iddingsite in some specimens 
and a core in others. The contact between the two types of material 
is sharp in some specimens and transitional in others. The evidence 
does not clearly indicate whether this pale material is impure, im- 
perfectly crystallized iddingsite or a different but closely related 
mineral. 

Usually there is evidence that there was a very marked loss of 
volume during alteration of olivine to iddingsite, as the cleavage 
planes (pi. 2, fig. 1) are marked by widely gaping cracks that, oc- 
cupy 10 to 20 per cent of the volume of the original olivine. 

ORIGIN 

Iddingsite has usually been described as a weathering product of 
olivine. Its origin through the processes of weathering can not be 
summarily rejected for all occurrences, but in the material studied in 
the preparation of this paper an origin through weathering seems to 
be extremely improbable. In the basaltic rocks of southern Colorado 
and northern New Mexico there is no observable relation between 
the occurrence of olivine or iddingsite in a rock and the amount of 
weathering that rock has undergone. In general, there is little 
weathering in these rocks and iddingsite occurs in the freshest of 
them, in association with unaltered aiigite, feldspars that are not 
even clouded, and basaltic glass (a very unstable material) that is 
unchanged. It has been observed evenly distributed from top to bot- 
tom of a basaltic sill 50 feet in thickness where no trace of weather- 
ing could be found. Its occurrence bears no relation to exposure of 
surface, proximity to joint cracks or relative age of the various beds. 
It may be abundant in one flow and be absent in any one or all of 
either higher or lower flows of a series. Several flows have been 
identified where iddingsite of similar characteristics is present over 
very wide areas, showing that the characteristics of the iddingsite 
are inherent in the rock. 

In rocks that do show extensive alteration, serpentine and not 
iddingsite has developed from olivine. Some basalts show a narrow 
leached zone at the surface, and here impure amorphous aggregates 
of hydrous iron oxides have formed from the olivine crystals and 
not iddingsite. 



6 PROCEEDINGS OE THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.. 67 

In many of the rocks studied the relation of fresh olivine and 
iddingsite present pecularities that appear to give a clew as to the 
mode of origin. The presence of small grains of ground-mass 
olivine remaining nearly fresh in the presence of large phenoerysts 
that have been completely changed to iddingsite suggests that the 
processes involved in the change are partly dependent on the original 
composition of olivine. The basalt of the Hinsdale volcanic series 
of the Rio Grande Valley of northern New Mexico has been traced 
for 80 miles, and wherever observed it shows cores of iddingsite 
surrounded by fresh olivine (see pi. 1, fig. 2, and pi. 2, figs. 5, 6). 
Similarly, rocks from many other sources show a very distinct zonal 
relationship in the development of the iddingsite. It seems very 
difficult to explain such relationships on the basis of weathering, 
especially as these phenomena are characteristic of single flows or 
single groups of flows over wide areas. On the other hand, these 
facts suggest very strongly that the alteration was partly dependent 
upon zonal variations in the original olivine from which the idding- 
site was derived. This led to an investigation of the olivines of 
iddingsite-bearing rocks. The basalt of Cerro Mohera, New Mexico, 
is of the same age and type as that giving rise to the sharp zones of 
olivine around iddingsite shown (pi. 1, fig. 2, and pi. 2, figs. 5, 6), 
but is itself little altered. A careful study of the optical properties 
of this olivine showed that the index of refraction for [3 varied from 
n=1.711 to n=1.722, and the optical character varied from -\- to — , 
indicating an appreciable variation in the proportion of iron silicate 
(Fe 2 Si0 4 ) in the olivine molecule. These facts, supported as they 
are by the mineral relationships, seem to show that the formation 
of iddingsite from olivine is partly dependent upon the chemical 
composition of the olivine. 

Iddingsite is confined almost exclusively to extrusive or hypa- 
byssal rocks and is practically absent from deep-seated rocks, but 
if iddingsite were derived from olivine by ordinary weathering 
there is no reason why it should not occur in abyssal rocks. The 
restriction in occurrence shows that specialized conditions are re- 
quired for the formation of the mineral and that these conditions 
are most often realized in a cooling extrusive. This restriction in 
occurrence and the relationships described indicate that the develop- 
ment of iddingsite is definitely associated with magmas that cooled 
near the surface. 

In discussing iddingsite, Iddings 8 says: 

There remained in the portion (iddingsite) subjected to acid, well developed, 
nearly opaque octahedrons, most likely picotite. 

Biddings, Joseph P., U. S. Geol. Survey, Mono. 20, p. 390. 



art. 7 THE MINERAL IDDINGSITE— ROSS \ X i I SHANNON 7 

Ransome ° says: 

It (iddingsite) includes abundant grains of iron ores, and frequently dark 
In-own microscopic crystals of chromite or picotite. * * In the Point 

Bonita iddingsite the limonitic p'gment is entirely absent. 

The writers have found very large amounts of magnetite in the 
iddingsite from Race Creek. Colo., and spinels in that from Brazos 
River, N. Mex. Small amounts of magnetite or -related minerals 
seem to be almost always associated with iddingsite. These asso- 
ciated minerals that have clearly developed by the same processes as 
iddingsite contribute a very convincing line of evidence that id- 
dingsite is not the result of ordinary rock weathering. Weathering 
would produce hydrous iron oxides probably in the form of limonite 
and would be very unlikely to yield magnetite and other minerals of 
the spinel group. On the other hand these would be the very minerals 
to form if the alteration of olivine to iddingsite were the result of 
magmatic or deuteric 10 processes. 

Sederholm says: 

I think that it would be advisable to discriminate between such metasomatic 
changes which belong to a later period of metamorphism, i. e. are secondary in 
the strictest sense of the word, and those which have taken place in the direct 
continuation of the consolidation of the magma of the rock itself. I propose 
to call the later deuteric, as distinct from secondary changes. 

This strongly confirms the evidence presented by the restriction in 
occurrence and suggests that iddingsite is a deuteric mineral] that is, 
it has been produced by processes largely inherent in the magma 
itself, probably brought about by gases during final cooling. 

The conclusion that iddingsite is a deuteric mineral first based 
purely on petrographic evidence is strongly supported by the chem- 
ical analyses. The ordinary agents of weathering would be ex- 
tremely unlikely to produce an homogeneous crystal with definite 
optical properties and the chemical composition of iddingsite. On 
page 8 is given a typical analysis of iddingsite and the analysis of 
an olivine from rocks of the same region. 

A comparison of these analyses shows that the proportion of 
silica has remained nearly constant, a little aluminum and calcium 
appear to have been added, the iron has all been changed from the 
ferrous to the ferric state and its proportion has greatly increased, 
water has been added in large amount, and magnesium has been 
largely abstracted. It is clear that in the change of olivine to 
iddingsite there has been a metasomatic replacement, and the only 
stages through which these rocks have passed where forces seem- 
ingly capable of performing such work have been a ti\e are those 

8 Ransome, Frank L., Univ. of Calif. Bull, of Dept. Geol., Xo. 1, p. 92, 1893. 
111 Sederholm, J. J., Com. Geol. de Flnlande, Bull. No. 48, pp. 141-142, 1916. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



vol. 67 



associated with magmatic cooling. It is, therefore, concluded that 
iddingsite is most probably a deuteric mineral formed in the pres- 
ence of heat, water, and gases after the magma has reached a horizon 
near enough the surface to give oxidizing conditions. The magma 
must have come to rest before iddingsite formed for though it is a 
very brittle mineral it is never fractured, or distorted by flow. 

A similar result may have been produced in other ways. Thus it 
is quite probable that the heat and gases given off by one lava flow 
would have a metasomatic action on a previous flow, and iddingsite 
might be the result of this action. It is doubted, however, if this 
effect could be widespread, and it could not produce a uniform dis- 
tribution of iddingsite from top to bottom of a thick flow. 

A comparison of the chemical composition of iddingsite and ser- 
pentine shows how different are the processes involved in the devel- 
opment of the two minerals. 

Comparative analyses of iddmg&ite, serpentine, and olivine 





(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


Si0 2 


38. 63 

1. 78 

32. 49 


42. 17 

. 30 

1. 57 

. 64 


44. 1 


38. 76 


A1 2 3 




Fe 2 3 






FeO 




22. 55 


CaO 


2. 79 

6. 64 

17. 70 


trace. 


MgO 

H,0 


41. 33 

13. 72 


43. 
12.9 


38. 52 
. 09 








100. 03 


99. 73 


100. 


99. 92 



(1) Iddingsite from La Jara Creek, Conejos quadrangle. Colo. 

(2) Serpentine from Fort Henry, New York, 11 analysis No. 19. 

(3) Serpentine ideal composition. 

(4) Olivine from Cerro Mohera near Tres Predias, N. M. 

In analyzed serpentine aluminum peroxide (ALQ.) and iron 
peroxide (Fe 2 O a ) reach a maximum of G per cent, and a variable 
amount of iron monoxide (FeO) replaces magnesium oxide (MgO), 
but- no serpentine even remotely resembling iddingsite has ever been 
described. Serpentine is generally believed to have been the result 
of metasomatic changes at some depth and seldom, if ever, the result 
of surface weathering, and yet its chemical composition is not very 
different from that of the olivine from which it is derived. The 
changes in the ratios of the chemical components involved in the 
derivation of serpentine from olivine are very much less than the 
changes in ratio when iddin£site is derived from olivine. It is also 



11 Dana, James D., Descriptive mineralogy, p. 672, 1909. 



art, 7 THE MINERAL IDDINGSITE ROSS AND SHANNON 9 

evident that 'serpentine forms under conditions where reducing condi- 
tions prevail, and most of the iron remains in the ferrous condition, 
while iddingsite forms where oxidizing conditions produce ferric 
iron. 

PETROLOGY OF IDDINGSITE-BEARING ROCKS 

RACE CREEK, COLO., OCCURRENCE 

The rock containing the material represented by analysis (1) is 
and andesite of basaltic habit of late Tertiary age collected from a 
peak at the headwaters of Race Creek near the south edge of the 
Creede quadrangle, Colorado, and about 11 miles south of South 
Fork on the Creede branch of the Denver & Rio Grande Western 
Railroad. The rock is gray and somewhat vesicular and in the hand 
specimen shows phenocrysts of oligoclase, quartz, and iddingsite. 
The modal composition of the rock is as follows : 

Mineral composition of andesite from Race Creek, Colo. 

Quartz 0.5 

Plagioclase (oligoclase) 60. 

Augite IS. 7 

Iddingsite 8. 5 

Olivine 3.8 

Magnetite S. 

Apatite 0. 5 

Total 100. 

This rock contains augite and magnetite in notable proportions, but 
the feldspars are sodic and like the Brazos River Rock it would be 
classed as an andesite. The iddingsite occurs in euhedral pseudo- 
morphs after olivine reaching 3 millimeters in length and in sub- 
hedral aggregates. The alteration from olivine to iddingsite is not 
complete in all grains, but the large difference in specific gravity 
of olivine and iddingsite allowed its elimination. Part of the ma- 
terial was rich in particles of magnetite, but this was separated 
magnetically and eliminated before analysis. The particles of 
magnetite are arranged in lines parallel to the crystal axes of the 
original olivines. In thin section the iddingsite shows very distinct 
open shrinkage cracks, and the iddingsite occupies from 15 to 20 
per cent less volume than the olivine from which it was derived. 

LA JARA CREEK, COLO., OCCURRENCE 

The iddingsite of analysis (2) was concentrated from a nearly nor- 
mal olivine basalt of late Tertiary age collected near the base of a 
cliff on La Jara Creek, 19 miles northwest of Antonnito, Conejos 
quadrangle, Colorado. 
23555—25 2 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

The rock is medium-grained, dark gray, and very coarsely vesic- 
ular. The modal composition is as follows : 

Mineral composition of basalt from La Jura Creek Colo. 

Plagioclase (oligoclase) 60. 

Augite 28. 6 

Olivine 1. 3 

Iddingsite 3. 8 

Magnetite 0. 6 

Total 100. 

The iddingsite occurs in masses of a maximum diameter of 4 
millimeters, whose outlines are those of olivine. The olivine is only 
partly altered to iddingsite, but the greater specific gravity of olivine 
allows an almost complete separation of the two minerals. Part of 
the alteration product of olivine was a lemon yellow material, which 
under the microscope appeared to be cryptocrystalline. This ma- 
terial has a lower specific gravity than crystalline iddingsite and is 
represented by analysis No. 3. It contains many minute, highly 
magnetic black inclusions arranged in lines running parallel to the 
crystallographic axes, which are undoubtedly magnetite. 

BERNARDS FERRY, IDAHO, OCCURRENCE 

A specimen of basalt from Bernards Ferry, Silver City quad- 
rangle, Owyhee County, Idaho, contained in Lindgren's 12 studied 
series of rocks yielded the iddingsite used in analysis No. 4. The 
rock contains abundant reddish brown iddingsite, although Lindgren 
does not mention olivine or iddingsite in his brief description of the 
basalts of the region. The rock is coarse-grained, slightly vesicular, 
and dark gray. The modal composition is as follows : 

Mineral composition of the basalt from Bernards Ferry, Idaho 

Plagioclase AbssAnsa 46. 

Augite 43. 3 

Olivine 2. 6 

Iddingsite 5. 9 - 

Magnetite 2. 2 

Total 100. 

The iddingsite is dark reddish brown and occurs as pseudomorphs 
after olivine. The larger grains are completely altered to iddingsite, 
but some of the smaller ones show outer borders of olivine around 
cores of iddingsite. 

As in the occurrence previously described, the Bernards Ferry 
rock contains a cryptociystalline substance derived from the olivine 
in the same manner as the deeper red crystalline material which is 

12 Lindgren, Waldemar, U. S. Geol. Surv. Ann. Rept. 20, pt. 3. 



art, 7 THE MINERAL IDDINGSITE ROSS AND SHANNON 11 

represented by analysis No. 5. In some specimens this forms at the 
core and in others as a border around the crystalline part. It seems 
clear that the two types of material were not the result of different 
conditions during formation but are dependent upon variations in the 
composition of the olivine from which they were derived. 

SOUTH ELK CREEK, COLO., OCCURRENCE 

The rock containing the iddingsite represented by analysis 6 was 
collected at the cliffs surrounding a cirque at the head of South Elk 
Creek in the southwest part of the Conejos quadrangle, Colorado. 
The rock is of the same age as the La Jara Creek and Gato Creek oc- 
currences. It is a nearly black basalt with conspicuous red areas of 
iddingsite reaching a maximum diameter of 2 millimeters. The min- 
eral composition of the rocks is as follows : 

Mode of basalt from South Elk Creek, Colo. 

Labradorite 52 

Augite 20 

Iddingsite 19 

Magnetite 9 

Total 100 

GATO CREEK, COLO., OCCURRENCE 

The iddingsite represented by analysis 7 was secured from a dike 
occurring on Gato Creek, 2 miles above Tipton's ranch in the north 
central part of the Conejos quadrangle, Colorado. The rock is a 
fine-grained, porous gray andesite with about the following mineral 
composition : 

Mode of andesite from Gato Creek, Colo. 

Andesine 71 

Augite 15 

Iddingsite 10 

Magnetite 1 4 

Total 100 

The iddingsite occurs in rounded grains about 0.5 millimeter in 
diameter and is clearly derived from olivine. 

BRAZOS RIVER, N. MEX., OCCURRENCE 

Analysis No. 8 is an iddingsite in an andesite occurring one-half 
mile east of the Brazos River in the Rio Ariba County, N. Mex., 
and about 15 miles south of Osier on the Durango branch of the 
Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. The rock appears to be an instru- 
sive sill of Miocene age that forms a sheer 50-foot ledge at this place. 
A microscopic study showed that it contained a red material de- 
rived from olivine, but with no residual olivine. It is rather coarse- 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

grained andesite, is light gray in color, and is very fresh, showing 
no indications of weathering. Its modal composition is as follows : 

Mineral composition of andesite from Brazos River, N. Mex. 

Plagioclase (AbeoAn^) 82. 9 

Augite 8. 7 

Iddingsite 4.6 

Magnetite 3. 8 

Total 100. 

This rock contains rather sodic feldspars and is unusually low in 
femic minerals to be olivine bearing, but the form of the red altera- 
tion product shows that it was derived from that mineral, and other 
specimens from the same horizon in the region show olivine in all 
degrees of alteration to iddingsite. The alteration mineral occurs in 
irregularly rounded grains, in aggregates of several grains, and as 
perfectly bounded, pseudomorphs after olivine, varying in size from 
0.05 to 2 millimeters. Many of the grains contain minute particles 
distributed in lines that run parallel to one of the crystallographic 
axes of the original olivine. In partty altered olivine, between id- 
dingsite and colorless olivine, may be seen a brown zone which is 
filled with lines of inclusions that continue into homogeneous id- 
dingsite. These inclusions are dark brown in color and very small. 
They are isotropic and have an index of refraction a little lower than 
1.74. Their specific gravity is greater than that of iddingsite, since 
it was possible to separate and reject that part of the iddingsite con- 
taining them in greatest amount. These things make it seem proba- 
ble that they are iron-magnesium spinel. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 

Iddingsite from many localities has been studied, but the material 
from Brazos River, N. Mex., is the most homogeneous and shows the 
physical properties in greatest perfection. For that reason the 
Brazos iddingsite will be described in detail and that from other 
localities more briefly. 

The iddingsite of the Brazos River rock is very brittle. The 
hardness is about 3.5 and the specific gravity 2.80. In small grains 
the cleavage is somewhat imperfect, but four cleavages can be 
recognized. If the orientation X=a, Y=b, Z=c (a = a, b = &, c = c), 
proposed by Lawson, is retained, there is one cleavage (100) perpen- 
dicular to the acute bisectrix; a second (001) is perpendicular to the 
obtuse bisectrix; a third (010) is parallel to the plane of the optic 
axes; and the fourth (101) is nearly perpendicular to an optic axis. 
That is, a cleavage parallel to the macropinacoid, one parallel to the 
basal pinacoid, one parallel to the brachy-pinacoid, and one parallel 
to the macrodome. In thin sections three cleavages (100) (001) and 



akt. 7 THE MINERAL IDDINGSITE ROSS AND SHANNON 13 

(010) can easily be recognized, and (101) is seen less frequently. 
The indices of refraction are : 

a=1.792±0.003 (3 is variable, 1.827 to 1.840+0.003 
Y=1.861±0.003 a- T =0.072 
The axial angle is variable, the extreme values of 2V ranging from 
60 to 90°, but most of the grains have 2V=80 to 90°. The optical 
character is usually negative, but in some of the grains the optical 
angle passes through 90° and the mineral becomes positive. The 
dispersion is strong: p<u "when the character is negative and p>u 
when it is positive. The color is deep reddish brown to brownish- 
ruby red, and the pleochroism is distinct in all but basal sections. 
The indices of refraction of the iddingsite from the Brazos River 
rock are rather high but the other optical properties are similar to 
those of other occurrences. 

The iddingsite from Race Creek, Colo., is brittle. The hardness 
is about 3.2, and the specific gravity about 2.54. In small grains the 
color is dull dark brown. Three mutually perpendicular cleavages 
(100), (001), and (010) are very good and a less perfect one (101) 
gives plates that are nearly perpendicular to an optic axis. X=a 
is the acute bisectrix. The indices of refraction are somewhat 
variable a=1.608±.005 £=1.646 ±.005, y=1.655±.005 a~Y=.047 
2Y=20°— 50°, but a large proportion of the grains have 2V= 
35°— 42°, and only a few reach the maximum values given. The 
optical character is negative. The dispersion is strong p<u. In 
thin section the color is golden yellow to golden brown, pleochroism 
slight. 

The iddingsite from Bernards Ferry, Silver City quadrangle, 
Idaho, is deep reddish brown in color. It has very perfect cleavage, 
but the great brittleness prevents a good development of the cleav- 
age. Cleavages parallel to the planes of the three crystal axes are 
well developed, and the large number of plates approximately per- 
pendicular to an optic axis indicate a fourth. Cleavages (100), 
(001), (010), and (101). Optical orientation X=«, Y=b, Z=c. 

The indices of refraction are: a=1.710±.005, £=1.722±.005, 
7=1.754±:.005, a— yr=.044. The optical angle is variable 2V=20° 
to 65°, most of the grains about 50°. The optical character is nega- 
tive, dispersion strong. The color is deep brownish red, pleochro- 
ism slight 

For purposes of comparison the optical properties of iddingsite 
from other localities are given below : 

1. Type material from carmeloite, Carmelo Bay, Calif.; reddish 
brown; extinction parallel to cleavage; X is normal to cleavage 
plates. Optically negative. Dispersion p<v (strong). Pleochroic. 
a=1.723±.003. p=1.745±.003. y=1.765±.003. a— T =0.42. 2V large. 



14 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



vol. 67 



2. Head of Mill Gulch, south central part of Uncompahgre quad- 
rangle. Gabbro inclusion in basalt. Deep reddish brown grains. 
X is normal to cleavage plates. Extinction parallel to cleavage. 
2V=40° estimated. Optically negative. Dispersion p<u (strong). 
Pleochroic. Indices a=1.724±.003. 0=1.745 ±.003. y= 1.768 ±.003. 
of— Y =.044. 

3. 13 Pyroxene latite, Wicher Mountain knoll, Pikes Peak quad- 
rangle. Reddish brown grains. Optically—. 2V large. p<v 
(strong). X normal to the plates. Indices vary somewhat a?=1.71± 
0.01. 0=1.74+0.01. T =1.76±0.01. a— Y =.05. 

4. Uncompahgre quadrangle, Colorado. In thin section clear pale 
reddish brown. Optical properties vary a little. Optically-)-. 2V 
large. p>v (strong). Faintly pleochroic. a = 1.70±0.01. (i=1.72± 
0.01. y=1.74±0.01. a— y=.04. 

5. La Jara Creek, Conejos quadrangle, Colorado. Bright reddish 
brown. Optical properties vary a little. Optically—. 2V=25° to 
45°. p<u (strong). Pleochroic. X perpendicular to plates. a= 
1.674±0.0004. p=1.710±0.004. T =1.718±0.004. 

Table of optical properties of iddingsite 



Locality 


Optical 

angle 

2V 


Indices of refraction 


7 — a 


Opti- 
cal 


a 


7 


char- 
acter 


Race Creek, Colo __ - 
La Jara Creek, Colo 
Bernard's Ferrv, Idaho 

South Elk Creek, Colo 

Gato Creek, Conejos quad- 
rangle, Colorado 


35°-42° 

25°-45° 

50° 

a 60° 

20°-25° 
60°-90° 

40° 

Large. 
Large. 
Large. 

35°-42° 

42° 


1. 608 
1. 674 
1. 710 
1. 710 

1. 70 
1. 792 

1. 724 

1. 70 
1. 71 
1. 723 

1. 720 
1. 730 


1. 650 
1. 715 
1. 746 
1. 735 

1. 73 

1. 827- 
1. 846 
1. 763 

1. 72 
1. 74 
1. 715 

1. 725 
1. 725 


1. 655 

1. 718 
1. 751 
1. 745 

1. 74 
1. 864 

1. 768 

1. 74 
1. 76 
1. 765 

1. 760 

1. 765 


0. 047 
0. 044 
0. 044 
0. 35 

0. 040 

0. 072 

0. 044 

0. 04 
0. 05 
0. 042 

0. 040 
0. 035 


+ 


Brazos River, N. Mex 

Mill Gulch, Colo 

Uncompahgre quadrangle 
Colorado . __ 


+ 


Wicher Mountain, Colo 

Carmelo Bay, Calif 
Daton Peak, Routt County, 
Colo_. 




Death Valley, Calif 


— 



" About. 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 



Iddingsite has not heretofore been analyzed because of its mode 
of occurrence, always as small grains, as a rock constituent which 
made the obtaining of pure material, in amount sufficient for quan- 
titative chemical examination, exceedingly difficult. In the course of 



13 4, 5. Larsen, Esper S., U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 670, p. 91, 1921. 



abt,7 THE MINERAL EDDINGSITE ROSS AND SHANNON 15 

the present work there were purified and analyzed, more or less 
completely, six. samples of clean crystalline iddingsite from as many 
localities together with cryptocrystalline materials associated with 
two of the crystalline materials analyzed. 

In most cases the samples of purified material available amounted 
to only 0.25 gram. These samples were separated by the use of a 
powerful electromagnet and heavy solutions from igneous rocks in 
which the iddingsites formed grains seldom exceeding 2 millimeters 
in diameter. In general the practice was to crack the iddingsite- 
bearing rock into small pieces with a hammer and gouge out the 
visible iddingsite with a sharp steel point yielding a product of high 
iddingsite content for subsequent treatment. This was crushed and 
screened to uniform size, the dust removed, and the material sepa- 
rated magnetically and with methylene iodide gravity solutions. 

The mineral, as established by previous investigators, is insoluble 
in acids, but upon digestion in hot hydrochloric acid yields up its 
iron and probably its other bases, leaving decolorized scales. This 
phenomenon has been interpreted as evidence indicating that the 
iron is not essential to the composition but is present as staining films 
of limonite or hematite. The fallacy of this reasoning is patent when 
it is recalled that many minerals behave thus, even so common a 
substance as biotite leaving decolorized scales of silica retaining 
the original form and optical properties of the mineral, when 
digested in hot concentrated sulphuric acid. Few would venture to 
suggest, from this observation, that the iron of biotite is nonessential 
or extraneous. 

The analytical results on the iddingsites are given in the following 
tables : 

1. Crystalline iddingsite from Race Creek, Colo. 

2. Crystalline iddingsite from La Jara Creek, Colo. 

3. Cryptocrystalline material associated with the iddingsite from 
La Jara Creek of the preceding analysis. 

4. Crystalline iddingsite from Bernards Ferry, Owyhee County, 
Idaho. Specimen collected by Lindgren. 

5. Ciw^ptocrystalline material associated with the preceding id- 
dingsite from Bernards Ferry, Idaho. 

6. Crystalline iddingsite from South Elk Creek, Colo. 

7. Crystalline iddingsite from Gato Creek, Conejos quadrangle, 
Colo. 

8. Crystalline iddingsite of high index from Rio Brazos, N. Mex. 
Original analysis. 

9. Iddingsite from Rio Brazos. Preceding analysis corrected for 
impurities and recalculated to 100 per cent. 



16 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



vol. 67 





(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


Si0 2 


42. 12 


38. 63 
.24 

1. 78 
32. 49 

Trace. 

2. 79 
Trace. 

6. 64 
9. 24 
8. 46 


44. 38 

. 11 

2. 65 

26. 87 


40.28 

. 12 

3. 16 

29. 76 


44. 40 


TiOo 


. 16 


A1 2 3 - _- 




2. 28 


Feo0 3 -- 


34. 16 

None. 

1. 72 


29. 00 


FeO 




CaO -- 


2. 54 

Trace. 

5. 13 

10. 09 

8. 64 


3.00 


2.20 


BaO 




MgO. . 


6. 40 
8. 84 
7.20 


10. 36 

5. 2S 
8. 12 


7. 12 


H 2 O+110° C. 


6. 96 


H 2 O-110° C 


8.40 


Total 


100. 44 


100. 27 


100. 41 


100. 08 


100. 52 









(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


Si0 2 


35. 60 

3. 60 

31. 24 


38.94 
4. 62 

29. 78 
.96 
2.26 
4.96 
9.30 
8. 40 


23. 22 

3. 18 

53. 88 

. 72 

2. 36 

3. 01 
9. 36 
4.48 


21. 02 


AI2O3 


2. 18 


Fe 2 3 


57.27 


FeO 


.67 


CaO._ 


1. 64 

11. 92 

9.80 

6. 72 


1. 64 


MgO . 


2. 50 


H 2 O + 110° C. 


9. 96 


H 2 0— 110° C. _ 


4. 76 






Total. . __ _ 


100. 52 


99. 22 


100. 21 


100. 00 







Excluding from consideration, for the moment the cryptocrystal- 
line materials, columns 3 and 5, and the Brazos River sample, col- 
umns 8 and 9, the remaining analyses are decidedly similar as shown 
by the following comparison and average : 





(1) 


(2) 


(4) 


(6) 


(7) 


Average 


Si0 2 _. 


42. 12 


38.63 

.24 

1.78 

32. 49 

Trace. 

2. 79 

6. 64 

9.24 

8.46 


40. 28 

. 12 

3. 16 

29. 76 


35.60 


38. 94 


39. 11 


TiOo 


a. 18 


A1 2 3 _ 




3. 60 
31. 24 


4. 62 
29. 78 
.96 
2. 26 
4. 96 
9. 30 
8. 40 


3.29 


Fe 2 3 

FeO 


34. 16 

None. 
1.72 
6.40 
8. 84 
7.20 


31. 49 

". 96 


CaO.. 


3.00 
10. 36 

5.28 
8. 12 


1. 64 

11. 92 

9. 80 

6.72 


2. 28 


MgO 


8.05 


H 2 O4-110° C 

H 2 O-110° C 


8.49 

7. 78 


Total 


100. 44 


100. 27 


100. 08 


100. 52 


99. 22 


101. 63 



• The amounts here indicated are probably about what the averages would be were these constituents 
accurately determined on each sample. In most of the analyses, owing to scarcity of material Ti02 is in- 
cluded with Si02and the FeO-, always very small in amount, is included with Fe203. This explains the 
high summation of the average column. 



art. 7 THE MINERAL IDDINGSITE ROSS AND SHANNON 

The average column gives the following ratios: 



17 



Si0 2 

TiO, 

A1 2 3 


39. 11 

. 18 
3. 29 
31.49 
. 96 
2. 28 
8. 05 
8.49 
7. 78 


0. 649 
. 002 
. 032 
. 197 
. 013 
. 041 
. 200 
.471 
. 428 


} 0. 651 
} . 229 

.254 

} . 899 


0. 217 X 3 
. 229 X 1 
. 254 X 1 

. 225 X 4 


0. 96 X 3 


Fe 2 3 


1. 01 X 1 


FeO. 




CaO. 


1. 11 X 1 


MgO 

H 2 + 




H 2 0-_ 


. 99 X 4 






Total 


101. 63 





















The formula derived from the ratios is : 

MgO . Fe 2 3 . 3Si0 2 . 4H 2 . 

with the magnesia replaced in part by CaO which is in the ratio, 
approximately, of CaO : MgO = 1:4. The calculated composition 
for this formula is as follows : 

Si0 2 39. 66 

Fe,0 3 35. 01 

CaO 2.46 

MgO 7. 07 

H2O+ 7.90 

H2O— 7. 90 

Total 100. 00 

In view of the agreement of the above analyses with each other 
and with the theoretical composition, this formula may be confi- 
dently quoted as that of the normal iddingsite. This is especially 
true since a comparison of optical properties indicates that the above 
are typical of 95 per cent of all iddingsites studied by the writers 
or reported by others. Nearly all of the red-brown material sec- 
ondary to olivine is shown by its refractive indices and other prop- 
erties to be of this type and presumably of this composition. 

The cryptocrystalline materials represented by analyses 3 and 5 
give the same formula as the crystalline iddingsites. They are dis- 
tinguished by pale yellow color, low refractive indices, and very small 
extinction angle. Often there is a sharp contact between the idding- 
site and the cryptocrystalline material while the latter grades almost 
imperceptibly into the residual olivine. This cryptocrystalline ma- 
terial may represent a transition stage in the alteration of olivine 
to iddingsite. While of the same composition, it is sufficiently dis- 
tinct optically to suggest that it is a distinct mineral — possibly a 
variety of chloropal. It is certainly not the material commonly 
called iddingsite. 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

One disturbing factor is introduced into otherwise consistent data 
by the Brazos River material represented by the anlaysis given in 
columns 8 and 9 of the above tabulation. This analysis, which 
differs strikingly from all the others, gives the formula (Mg.Ca) 
0. 5Fe 2 3 . 4Si0 2 . 10H 2 O. This sample was the first one studied 
and about 1 gram of material which was separated for analysis was 
estimated to contain 2 per cent of augite and 4 per cent of plagio- 
clase of the composition Ab eo An 40 . The figures given in column 9 
have been recalculated after correcting for these impurities. The 
loss of water below 110° C. was determined on two portions yielding 
4.40 and 4.48 per cent, respectively, with one hours heating while 
several hours continued exposure to this temperature occasioned no 
further loss. The dehydrated powder showed no change in any of 
its optical properties. A gain of 2.28 per cent of the original 
weight was acquired by a dried sample upon standing overnight in a 
dessicator over sulphuric acid. 

While this material is chemically very unlike the others the optical 
properties, other than refractive index, are those typical of idding- 
site. The refractive indices are very high as would be expected 
from the high content of ferric iron, and no other occurrences of 
such high refractive index have been recorded. Optically it seems 
to be a true iddingsite but until similar materials from other locali- 
ties have been analyzed no conclusions can be drawn with regard 
to its relationship to the ordinary iddingsites of the above group. 

SUMMARY 

Iddingsite is a red-brown mineral that is widespread, and often 
an abundant mineral in basaltic rocks. 

It occurs as cores in fresh olivine, as rims around olivine, or where 
cleavage cracks in olivine have formed a locus for its development. 
Therefore it is clearly a secondary mineral derived from olivine. 

Iddingsite is not confined to weathered surfaces; its development 
shows no proximity to joint cracks and evidences of weathering in 
associated minerals arc entirely absent. Normal products of weather- 
ing such- as limonitic pigment are absent, but spinels (minerals not 
produced by weathering) are abundant and almost invariable as- 
sociates. Thus it is concluded that iddingsite is not a product of 
ordinary weathering but is a deuteric mineral; that is, it is the 
result of metasomatic processes associated with the later stages of a 
cooling magma. 

Iddingsite does not commonly occur in abyssal rocks, but is 
confined to extrusive and hypabyssal rocks. The relations indicate 
that it is formed near or just after the close of crystallization, and 
after the magma came to rest. The factors necessary for the forma- 
tion are an olivine of suitable composition, a concentration of 
mineralizers (principally water), oxidizing conditions and heat. 



akt,7 THE MINERAL [DDINGSITE — ROSS AND SHANNON 19 

The changes involved are principally abstraction of magnesium 
oxide (MgO), oxidization of ferrous oxide (FeO) to ferric oxide 
(Fe 2 3 ) and addition of water (H 2 0). 

Iddingsite has a composition and optical properties distinct from 
any described mineral, and it is not related to serpentine in mode 
of origin, in chemical composition, or in physical properties. Tim.-; 
it appears to be a distinct mineral species. 

The normal type of iddingsite is represented by the formula : 
MgO . Fe 2 3 . 3Si0 2 . 4H 2 where MgO is replaced by CaO in the 
ratio 4:1, and varying proportions of Fe 2 3 are replaced by A1 2 3 . 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

Plate 1 

Fig. 1. Iddingsite from andesite collected at the headwaters of Race Creek 
near the south border of Creede quadrangle, Colorado. Open cracks 
show the loss of volume on alteration of olivine to iddingsite. Altera- 
tion is complete. 

2. Iddingsite in andesite from 1 mile west of Osier, N. Mex., near 

Colorado-New Mexico State line. Shows characteristic outline of 
olivine crystals. Alteration nearly complete. 

3. Iddingsite in basalt from Santa Clara Creek, 13 miles west of Espanola, 

N. Mex. Iddingsite forming sharp outer borders around unaltered 
olivine. 

4. Andesite from southeast flank of Green Mountain, northern part of 

Conejos quadrangle, Colorado. Euhedral phenocrysts of olivine with 
very narrow outer border of iddingsite. 
5 and G. Basalt from cliff on north side of Los Magotes, southeast part Conejos 
quadrangle, Colorado. Iddingsite core with narrow sharp outer 
border of olivine. 

Plate 2 

Fig. 7. Basalt with iddingsite collected 4 miles south of the crest of San An- 
tonio Peak and 8 milts north of Tres Piedras, N. Mex. Large pheno- 
crysts of olivine with core of iddingsite and outer rim of olivine. 

8. Basalt from cliffs on north side of Los Magotes, Conejos quadrangle. 

Colorado. Many small grains of iddingsite with sharp outer rim of 
olivine. Large crystal on upper border shows core of olivine. 

9. Basalt from mouth of Rito de los Frijoles Canyon, 10 miles south- 

west of San Ildefonso, N. Mex. Phenocryst of olivine showing altera- 
tion to iddingsite along border and cracks. 

10. Basalt dike in Cerro Negro volcanic cone about 10 miles east of Tres 

Piedras, X. Mex. Phenocryst of olivine with very narrow sharp 
films of iddingsite developing along cracks. 

11. Iddingsite in Brazos River andesite from one-half mile east of Brazos 

River, N. Mex., about 15 miles south of Osier, Colo. Iddingsite 
crystal showing characteristic outline of olivine. Near the center 
of crystal are shown 2 cleavages parallel to crystal axes and the 
cleavage parallel to the macrodome (101). 

12. Basalt from west slope of Mesa La Sauses, 10 miles east of La Jara, 

Colo. Phenocryst of olivine entirely altered to iddingsite. 

o 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 7 PL. I 





Photomicrographs of Iddingsite-bearing Rocks 



For explanation of plate see page IS 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 7 PL. 2 









I 

7 






Photomicrographs of Iddingsite-bearing Rocks 

For explanation of plate see page 19 



A REVISION OF THE PARASITIC WASPS OF THE GENUS 
MICROBRACON OCCURRING IN AMERICA NORTH OF 
MEXICO 



By C. F. W. Muesebeck 

Of the Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture 



INTRODUCTION 

Ashmetid * published the name Microbracon with the following 
description : " I propose this new genus for the reception of those 
species in tlie genus Bracon having the recurrent vein joining the 
first submarginal cell between its middle and its apex, restricting the 
genus Bracon to those species having the recurrent vein interstitial 
with the first transverse cubital. The majority of species belonging 
in this new genus known to me are all small and resemble certain 
Rhyssalids." Subsequently Ashmead 2 greatly restricted the genus 
Bracon, separating it from Microbracon by a group of characters 
which are certainly not of generic or even of subgeneric value. Since 
that date Viereck 3 has shown that the name Bracon Fabricius must 
be used for Cremnops Foerster, a genus in the Agathidinae, and 4 that 
Microbracon Ashmead becomes the valid name for Bracon of Authors 
not Fabricius. 

The subfamily formerly known as the Braconinae, for which 
Gahan 5 proposed the name Vipiinae upon the transfer of Bracon 
Fabricius to another subfamily, has been largely neglected from the 
standpoint of generic revision and is at present very unsatisfactorily 
classified. Many of the genera are poorly defined, and doubtless a 
considerable number must eventually be placed in synonymy. It 
is not, however, the purpose of this paper to present a revision of the 
subfamily Vipiinae, and accordingly the merits of the various generic 
names, apart from those which are here regarded as synonyms of 
Microbracon, will not be discussed. Merely to show the relation of 
Microbracon to the remainder of the subfamily an attempt will be 
made to point out the more important characters distinguishing this 
genus from other genera or groups of genera in our fauna. 

1 Bull. No. 1, Colo. Biol. Assoc, 1S90, p. 15. 
2 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, 1900, p. 13S. 

3 Bull. 83, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1914, pp. 23 and 37. 

4 Idem, p. 94. 

5 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. -53, 1917, p. 196. 

No. 2580— Proceedings U. S. National Museum. Vol. 67, Art. 8. 

12053 — 25 1 1 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.67 

A study of the genus Microbracon, with the purpose of revising 
the group, has been induced by the abundant rearing of species of 
this genus in the United States Bureau of Entomology in the course 
of work upon various insect pests, and by the difficulty of satis- 
factorily identifying these species. In the prosecution of this study 
the chief repositories of the types, which are the United States Na- 
tional Museum, the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, the Con- 
necticut Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Museum of Pub- 
lic Instruction in Quebec, have been visited and the types examined. 
Only the types of the following have not been seen : Those of 
Say's four species, which are no longer in existence, so far as known ; 
kansensis Viereck and piceiceps Viereck, which are in the collec- 
tion of the University of Kansas; diversicolor Viereck which is on 
deposit at the California Academy of Sciences ; and rufomarginatus 
Ashmead which could not be located. 

This paper is a contribution from the office of Gipsy Moth and 
Brown-tail Moth Investigations, of the Bureau of Entomology, 
United States Department of Agriculture. Grateful acknowledge- 
ment is accorded A. F. Burgess, in charge of this branch of the 
Bureau of Entomology, for encouragement in the work and for 
permission to visit the various institutions in whose collections the 
types are contained. Expression of thanks are also due, and cor- 
dially given, S. A. Rohwer, A. B. Gahan, and R. A. Cushman, of 
the Bureau of Entomology, for helpful suggestions and for the use 
of notes; and Dr. W. E. Britton, of the Connecticut Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Dr. Henry Skinner of the Philadelphia Acad- 
emy of Sciences, and F. N. Correveau, Assistant Curator of the 
Museum of Public Instruction at Quebec, for many kindnesses and 
for permission to examine the types in their custody. 

CLASSIFICATION 

Superfamily ICHNEUMONOIDEA 

Family BRACONIDAE 

Subfamily Vipiinae 

Braconoidae Foerster, Verh. d. naturh. Ver. pr. Rheinl., vol. 19, 1S62, pp. 

227 and 234. 
Braconides Marshall, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1SS5, p. 1. 
Braconinae Cresson, Syn. Hym. North America, 1887, pp. 54 and 56. 
Braconidae Tribe I Marshall, in Andre, Hymen. Eur. et Alg., vol. 4, 1888, 

p. 6S. 
Braconinae Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, 1900, p. 136. — Szepligeti, 

Genera Insectorum, fasc. 22, 1904, p. 10. 
Vipiinae Gahan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 53, 1917, p. 196. 

Head varying from transverse to cubical; mandibles normal, 
touching or crossing at tips and forming with the emarginate and 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 3 

anteriorly somewhat elevated clypeus, a more or less circular open- 
ing ; occiput entirely immargined ; anterior wing 6 with three cubital 
cells; first discoidal cell always separated from the first cubital; sub- 
discoideus never interstitial with the first abscissa of discoideus; 
second abscissa of discoideus always much longer than third; sub- 
mediellan cell very short, never more than one-fourth the mediellan 
cell; cubitella originating at the end of mediella; postnervellus 
absent. 

Genus MICROBRACON Ashmead 

Bracon Nees (part), Hymen. Icheum. affin. Monogr., vol. 1, 1834, p. 46. — 
Foersteb, Verh. naturh. Ver. pr. Rheinl., vol. 19, 1862, p. 235. — Marshall, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1885, p. 11. — Cresson, Synopsis Hymen. N. 
Am., 18S7, p. 56. 

Microbracon Ashmead, Bull. Colorado Biol. Assoc. 1, 1S90, p. 15. 
Genotype. — Microbracon sulcifrons Ashmead (Monobasic). 

Habrobracon (Ashmead) Johnson, Ent. News, vol. 6, 1895, p. 324. 

Genotype. — Bracon gelechiae Ashmead (By designation of Viereck, Bull. 
83, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1914, p. 65). 

Macrodyctium Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, 1900, p. 138. 
Genotype. — Bracon euurae Ashmead (Monabasic). 

Bracon Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, 1900, p. 139. 

Habrobracon Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, 1900, p. 139. 

Tropidobracon Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, 1900, p. 139. Geno- 
type. — Bracon gastroideae Ashmead (Monobasic). 

Liobracon (Ashmead) Nason, not Szepligeti, Ent. News, vol. 16, 1905, p. 298. 
Genotype. — Bracon nuperus Cresson (Monobasic). 

Bracon Szepligeti, Genera Insectorum, fasc. 22, 1904, p. 27. 

Amyosoma Viereck, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 44, 1918, p. 640. 
Genotype. — Amyosoma chilonis Viereck (Monobasic). 

Habrobracon Cushman, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 16, 1914, p. 99. 

Habrobracon Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 
1917 (1916), pp. 182 and 209. 

Microbracon Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 1917 
(1916), pp. 182 and 204. 

Head transverse to subquadrate, never rostriform, always wider 
than long antero-posteriorly ; malar space variable but always much 
less than half the eye height; eyes oval, rather broad, bare or indis- 
tinctly very sparsely hairy; frons not or scarcely impressed; scape 
short, not or hardly longer than first flagellar segment, broadening 
evenly from base to apex, not excavated, and not prominently 
rimmed at apex ; first segment of flagellum alwaj's much longer than 
pedicel, as long as or longer than the second, and never excavated 
below nor with a prominent rim at apex ; antennal segments varying 
in number from thirteen to forty or more; parapsidal grooves 
usually well indicated, with the mesonotal lobes distinct; sometimes 

6 The wing venation terminology employed in this paper is that proposed by Rohwer 
and Gahan, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 18, 1916, pp. 20-76. 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.67 

the parapsidal grooves defined only by lines of pubescence, the mesos- 
cutmn being rather flat; mesonotum, pleura and propodeum usually 
smooth and polished, although sometimes very finely sculptured; 
suture between mesoscutum and scutellum finely foveolate; propo- 
deum rarely with a median longitudinal carina, but frequently with 
a stub of a median ridge at apex ; wings varying from clear hyaline 
to strongly infumated; usually dusky on the basal two-thirds; ner- 
vulus interstitial with basal vein ; recurrent vein entering first cubital 
cell ; second cubital cell varying greatly in length, the second abscissa 
of radius being sometimes no longer than the first abscissa, some- 
times much more than twice as long; radius usually attaining wing 
margin near the apex of wing, rarely much before ; spurs of posterior 
tibiae rather short, never distinctly half the metatarsus; abdomen 
elliptical or ovate, conspicuously angled at the junction of first and 
second segments; the first abdominal tergite with lateral membra- 
nous margins, the chitinized plate of this tergite with two oblique 
grooves converging anteriorly; second abdominal tergite without 
lateral oblique diverging impressions; suturiform articulation fre- 
quently broad and foveolate; none of the folio wing sutures deep or 
foveolate; third tergite without transverse or oblique impressions 
setting off the anterior lateral corners of the tergite ; abdomen vary- 
ing from entirely smooth and polished to entirely rugulose or gran- 
ular; ovipositor sheaths varying from less than one-fourth the 
length of the abdomen to longer than the entire body. This genus 
includes the smallest of the Vipiinae; very rarely does the body 
attain a length of 5 mm. 

Microbracon is probably more closely related to Iphiaulax Foer- 
ster and its allies than to any other group of the Vipiinae, although 
its species are much smaller than most species of Iphiaulax and differ 
considerably in general appearance. The species of Microbracon, 
however, always lack the deep and often foveolate abdominal sutures 
usually found in Iphiaulax and lack also the oblique lateral furrows 
on the second tergite, and the anterior corners of the third tergite 
are never set off by transverse impressions. Coeloides of Authors, 
which includes Viereck's Ilabrobraconidea, differs from Microbracon 
especially in the more cubical head, the excavated frons, and the 
short first and second flagellar segments of the antennae which are 
scarcely longer than the pedicel, somewhat hollowed out beneath and 
flaring a little at the apex. The group typified by Atanycolus Foer- 
ster is readily distinguished by the cubical head and impressed 
frons, and the scape, which is large, cylindrical, conspicuousl} 7 ex- 
cavated at base and apex, with prominent basal and apical margins, 
and supported by a cylindrical stalk. From C ompsobracon Ash- 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 5 

mead Microbracon is at once distinguished by the propodeal spiracles 
which are small and round while in the former they are large and 
linear; the unusually long scape further distinguishes C omp sob r aeon. 
Zavipio Viereck is readily separated by its rostriform head, with the 
accompanying very long malar space, and by the usually very short 
radial cell. 

Habrobracon (Ashmead) Johnson, Macrodyctium Ashmead, 
Tropidobracon Ashmead, Liobracon (Ashmead) Nason, not Szepli- 
geti, and Amy o soma Viereck can not be held distinct from Micro- 
bracon. These groups intergrade completely, so that it is entirely 
impossible to determine where one ends and another begins. The 
characters upon which they have been separated are by no means 
sufficiently distinct or constant to serve to distinguish genera. The 
genotypes of all must, I believe, be regarded as congeneric even 
by those disposed toward a large increase in the number of genera, 
if a thorough study is made of the group. 

In few groups of the Braconidae is there found so wide a range of 
variation within species as in Microbracon. Practically all charac- 
ters, many of them excellent characters in other groups, vary greatly 
in this genus. Because of this it is always extremely desirable to 
have before one a good series of specimens when attempting identifi- 
cations. The males are particularly difficult, exhibiting still wider 
variations than the females, and single specimens of this sex can 
sometimes be only doubtfully named. Host records are often of 
much value, for although few, if any, of the species are restricted 
to single hosts, and frequently the same species attacks both lepidop- 
terous and coleopterous larvae, still one species usually parasitizes 
hosts of the same general habit or found in the same food plants. In 
a consideration of specific characters in Microbracon one is impressed 
by the lack of constancy in color or even color pattern, although 
sometimes there is a degree of uniformity which is of a little help 
and permits the employment of color characters to a small extent 
in a table to species. The color of^ the face and legs — whether face 
and coxae are yellowish or black — will be found of considerable 
help, although varying to a slight degree. The wings are usually 
somewhat fuscous, rarely clear hyaline, but the degree of infusca- 
tion varies more or less within the species, and alone is not de- 
pendable for the separation of species. In sculpture there is likewise 
so much variation that it becomes difficult to use sculptural char- 
acters in a key without qualification, although the presence or ab- 
sence of punctate or reticulate sculpture on the frons, and on the 
mesonotum, pleura and propodeum is very reliable. The abdominal 
sculpture is variable but can be relied upon to a large degree for 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol. G7 

distinguishing between groups of species, when supported by other 
characters. Usually the mesonotal pubescence is restricted to the 
parapsidal grooves and the space behind the middle lobe, but in a 
few species pubescence arises over the entire surface of the lobes 
as well as from the parapsidal furrows; this character appears to 
be very constant within species. The length of the head antero-pos- 
teriorly is relatively constant, and in the small number of cases 
where the difference between species is sufficient to permit the em- 
ployment of this character, it is good. The length of the malar space, 
the number and the relative length of the antennal segments have 
considerable value, but again, must be used with care and supported 
by other characters. Wing venation, particularly the length of the 
second abscissa of radius as compared with the first and third 
abscissae and with the first intercubitus, the relative length also of 
that part of cubitus which lies between the recurrent and the first 
intercubitus, and the length of the radial cell, which is dependent 
on the point where radius attains the wing margin, will be found 
very helpful, but within limits. It will be seen from this brief 
discussion that variability is so pronounced in species of Micro- 
bracon that determinations should be made only after a very careful 
weighing of all points. It is hoped that the following key together 
with the notes found in the text will aid considerably in making 
such determinations. Unfortunately it was found necessary to clas- 
sify the females and males separately beyond the thirteenth couplet. 
By doing this it has been possible to present a key to the females 
which will probably be found quite satisfactory; while if the 
males had been incorporated the fullest use could not have been 
made of the variations in the length of the ovipositor sheaths between 
different species, one of the most valuable characters. Any key to 
the males of Microbracon must, it seems to me, be rather unsat- 
isfactory, because of the apparently complete intergradation of 
species. The one here given will, however, probably serve to identify 
the normal males. The identity of those which represent the ex- 
tremes in variation must often be left in doubt unless they can be 
connected by biological records with females or more normal males. 
In the following table 66 species are included in the female key and 
73 species in the male key; seven species which are known only in 
the male sex, and in all cases but one based upon a single specimen, 
can not be placed in the female key because of the necessity of mak- 
ing much use of the relative length of the ovipositor sheaths in this 
part of the table. Some other species are known only from female 
specimens, and in these cases the position assigned in the male key 
was determined by characters exhibited by the females, after making 



aht. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 7 

necessary allowance for sexual variations. It has seemed desirable 
to place several of the species in two different positions in the female 
key. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF MICROBRACON 

1. Mesoscutum and scutellum more or less, the lateral face of pronotum, 

the meso- and meta-pleura, propodeum and posterior coxae minutely 

closely punctate or reticulate, opaque 2. 

Mesoscutum, scutellum, lateral face of pronotum mostly, and mesopleura 
smooth and polished 10. 

2. Second abscissa of radius about twice as long as the first, decidedly 

longer than first intercubitus and usually distinctly more than half the 
third abscissa of radius ; pubescence on mesoscutum restricted to the 
region of the parapsidal furrows ; ovipositor sheaths sometimes nearly as 

long as the abdomen 3. 

Second abscissa of radius much less than twice as long as, often scarcely 
longer than, the first, not or scarcely longer than first intercubitus, and 
much less than half the third abscissa of radius ; pubescence on meso- 
scutum usually not restricted to the parapsidal furrows, but arising over 
the surface of the lobes as well; ovipositor sheaths at most but little 
more than half as long as the abdomen 5. 

3. Parapsidal furrows rather thickly hairy, anteriorly as well as posteriorly; 

propodeum without a distinct median longitudinal groove; the portion 
of cubitus between first intercubitus and recurrent about half as long 
as first intercubitus; ovipositor sheaths less than half as long as the 

abdomen 1. quinnipiacorum Viereck. 

Parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy, especially anteriorly ; propodeum with 
a median longitudinal groove; the portion of cubitus between first 
intercubitus and recurrent very short, the recurrent being nearly inter- 
stitial with first intercubitus ; ovipositor sheaths as long as the ab- 
domen beyond first tergite 4. 

4. Mesoscutum uniformly closely punctate and opaque; frons with a dis- 

tinct median longitudinal groove descending from median ocellus ; an- 
tennae slender, the flagellar segments much longer than broad; last 
abscissa of cubitus not distinctly longer than the preceding abscissa ; 
third abscissa of radius not distinctly longer than the first and second 

combined 2. punctatus, new species. 

Mesoscutum shining, smooth and polished anteriorly; frons without a 
distinct groove below median ocellus; flagellar segments of female an- 
tennae rather stout, mostly but very little longer than broad; last 
abscissa of cubitus much longer than the preceding abscissa ; third 
abscissa of radius distinctly longer than the first and second com- 
bined 3. sphenophori, new species. 

5. Second abdominal tergite rugulose or ruguloso-punctate, usually longi- 

tudinally so; if not distinctly rugulose then with a basal median em- 
bossed area set off by short longitudinal grooves; suturiform articula- 
tion usually rather broad and foveolate ; oblique furrows on first tergite 

often broad and distinctly foveolate 8. 

Second abdominal tergite evenly closely punctate, or finely granular, not 
rugulose, and without a basal median area set off by longitudinal im- 
pressions ; suturiform articulation usually very fine; oblique furrows 
on first tergite usually narrow, not foveolate 6. 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.67 

6. Ovipositor sheaths at least half as long as the abdomen ; cubitus between 

recurrent and first intercubitus at least as long as recurrent, usually 
decidedly longer ; propodeum without a median longitudinal carina on 

posterior half 4. gelechiae (Ashmead). 

5. diversicolor (Viereck). 

Ovipositor sheaths less than half as long as the abdomen ; cubitus between 

recurrent and first intercubitus not longer than recurrent, often shorter; 

propodeum with a median longitudinal carina on posterior half 7. 

7. Scutellum broad, at least as broad as long, very faintly sculptured, sub- 

polished ; first abscissa of radius at least as long as second, usually a 
little longer ; radial cell very short, not longer than third cubital cell ; 
metacarpus not longer, usually shorter, than third abscissa of radius ; 
cubitus between recurrent and first intercubitus nearly or quite as long 
as recurrent ; last abscissa of cubitus much more than twice the pre- 
ceding abscissa G. erucarum (Cushman). 

Scutellum a little longer than broad at base, minutely reticulately sculp- 
tured and opaque; first abscissa of radius not as long as the second; 
metacarpus longer than third abscissa of radius ; cubitus between re- 
current and first intercubitus much shorter than recurrent ; last abscissa 
of cubitus not more than twice the preceding abscissa. 

7. americanus (Ashmead). 

8. Antennae rather stout, distinctly tapering somewhat toward the tip, in 

the female 19 to 22-segmented, the flagellar segments but very little 
longer than broad ; head and thorax usually mostly yellowish ; the 
black oeellar spot usually nearly separated from the occipital spot ; face 

mostly or wholly pale 8. cushmani, new name. 

Antennae slender, not distinctly tapering toward the tip ; flagellar seg- 
ments in the female much longer than broad : head and thorax usually 
mostly black ; oeellar and occipital spots broadly confluent ; face largely 
blackish 9. 

9. Ovipositor sheaths fully half as long as the abdomen; second abdominal 

tergite and the third basally not longitudinally rugulose; the oblique 
furrows on first tergite not distinctly foveolate; the portion of cubitus 
between recurrent and first intercubitus longer than recurrent; first 
abscissa of radius very nearly or quite as long as the second. 

9. platynotae (Cushman). 
Ovipositor sheaths less than half as long as the abdomen ; second abdominal 
tergite and the third basally longitudinally rugulose ; the oblique fur- 
rows on first tergite broad and foveolate; the portion of cubitus between 
recurrent and first intercubitus not longer, usually shorter, than recur- 
rent ; first abscissa of radius nearly always shorter than second. 

10. xanthonotus (Ashmead). 
10. Second abscissa of radius not or scarcely longer than the first abscissa, 
not longer than first intercubitus and hardly one-third as long as third 
abscissa of radius ; mesonotal lobes pubescent ; antennae stout, tapering 
to the tip, the female antennae 13 to 19-segmented and not extending 
beyond the apex of the thorax ; ovipositor sheaths hardly half as long 

as the abdomen 11. 

Second abscissa of radius much longer than the first abscissa, longer than 
first intercubitus, and very rarely less than half as long as third abscissa 
of radius ; mesonotal lobes usually bare, the pubescense nearly always 
restricted to the region of the parapsidal furrows ; female antennae not 
as above 12. 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 9 

11. Antennae of female 13 to 15-segmented ; of male, IS to 23-segmented ; first 

flagellar segment of male antennae usually distinctly longer than the 
second, the segments beyond the first but very little longer than broad ; 
abdomen smooth and shining, rarely distinctly punctate. 

11. hebetor (Say). 
Antennae of female 17 to 19-segmented, very rarely 16-segmented ; of male, 
20 to 27-segmented, the first flagellar segment of male antennae usually 
not distinctly longer than the second, the segments beyond the first one 
and one-half times as long as broad ; 3d, 4th, and 5th abdominal tergites 
nearly always distinctly punctate 12. brevicornis (Wesmael). 

12. Stigma long and narrow, the radius arising distinctly behind its middle ; 

radial cell short, ending far before apex of wing ; first abscissa of radius 
very short, much less than half the first intercubitus ; abdomen sculp- 
tured above 13. 

Radius arising at or before middle of stigma 14. 

13. Propodeum mostly smooth and shining, without a complete median longi- 

tudinal carina ; ovipositor sheaths about as long as the abdomen 

13. scanticorum Viereck. 

Propodeum finely rugulose except at extreme base and provided with a 

prominent median longitudinal carina ; ovipositor sheaths about as long 

as the abdomen beyond 2d tergite "__ 14. pyralidiphagus, new species. 

14. Females 15. 

Males 09. 

15. Dorsum of abdomen mostly smooth and polished, the sculpture when pres- 

ent restricted to the three basal tergites, only rarely occurring on the 
third ; the sculpture on second and third tergites when present usually 
in the form of longitudinal striae and usually restricted to the middle 
two-thirds of the tergite ; propodeum mostly or entirely smooth and 
polished ; frons usually smooth and polished, if sculptured, the face and 
coxae are black ; face rarely yellow ; if so, the abdomen, including first 

and second tergites, is entirely smooth and polished 1Q. 

Dorsum of abdomen sculptured, although sometimes very minutely so, over 
most of its surface ; very rarely not distinctly sculptured beyond second 
tergite, but then the latter is entirely finely granular, the frons is finely 
reticulately sculptured and the face and coxae are yellow ; face and 
coxae very rarely black : if so, then abdomen is distinctly sculptured 
over nearly its entire surface 39. 

16. Ovipositor sheaths protruding at least very nearly the length of the abdomen, 

sometimes much longer 28. 

Ovipositor sheaths protruding not more than half the length of the abdomen 
beyond its apex 17. 

17. Opening between clypeus and mandibles unusually large, its transverse di- 

ameter at least as long as the distance from lower margin of anteunal 
foramina to lower margin of clypeus ; posterior tarsi short and stout, 
much shorter than posterior tibiae; propodeum with a nearly complete 
median longitudinal carina ; at least posterior coxae black ; ovipositor 
sheaths protruding less than the length of the first abdominal tergite— IS. 
Opening between clypeus and mandibles not so large ; posterior tarsi usually 
at least as long as their tibiae ; propodeum very rarely with a nearly 
complete median carina, and then not combining all the above char- 
acters 19. 

12053—25 2 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

18. Wings strongly infumated ; last segment of posterior tarsi unusually large, 

broadening strongly from base to apex, much longer than the second seg- 
ment and nearly as long as the metatarsus ; antennae usually 24 to 30- 
segmented ; propodeum mostly smooth except for the median carina 

15. gastroideae (Ashmead). 
Wings hyaline or very nearly ; last segment of posterior tarsi not so large ; 

antennae usually 21 to 24-segmented ; propodeum finely rugulose 

16. brachyurus (Ashmead). 

19. Second abdominal tergite with conspicuous, more or less triangular, areas 

of weaker chitinization laterally joining the broad membranous margins 
of the first tergite ; second tergite much shorter than the third ; dorsum 
of abdomen entirely smooth and polished, without even a suggestion of 
sculpture ; longitudinal groove on lateral face of pronotum incomplete, 

being distinct only anteriorly 20. 

Second abdominal tergite not as above ; at least not agreeing entirely with 
the above characterization 21. 

20. Head and thorax black; abdomen mostly black; legs more or less black- 

ish 17. melanaspis (Ashmead). 

Body mostly yellowish or yellowish-brown, legs, including coxae, yellow- 
ish 18. juncicola (Ashmead.) 

21. Frons entirely, and usually the vertex to some extent, closely minutely 

punctate or reticulate and opaque ; parapsidal grooves entirely thickly 
hairy ;*head black with contrasting yellow orbital lines; thorax short and 
stout, black; wings rather strongly dusky on basal half; second abscissa 

of radius rarely distinctly twice the first 22. 

Frons smooth and polished, at most with faint sculpture just above inser- 
tion of antennae; at least not combining all the above characters 23. 

22. Second abdominal tergite usually smooth and shining, and provided with two 

abbreviated oblique foveolate impressions medially toward base ; scattered 
pubescence arising from surface of middle lobe of mesoscutum anteriorly ; 

antennae normally 21 to 25-segmented 19. politiventris (Cushman). 

Second abdominal tergite finely sculptured over nearly its entire surface and 
without such impressions on the basal middle; surface of middle lobe of 
mesoscutum without pubescence although the long hairs arising from the 
parapsidal furrows lie upon the lobes ; antennae normally 24 to 29-seg- 
mented 20. pygmaeus (Provancher ). 

23. Head thin antero-posteriorly, hardly thicker at insertion of antennae than 

at clypeus, the face not distinctly receding ; propodeum completely pol- 
ished, without a stub of a median ridge at apex; first abdominal tergite 
wholly smooth and polished; head and thorax black; coxae black. 

21. connecticutorum Viereck. 

Head not so thin, rather prominent just below insertion of antennae, the 

face receding; propodeum usually with a distinct stub of a median ridge 

posteriorly 24. 

24. Abdomen wholly smooth and polished, the second tergite with two abbrevi- 

ated oblique furrows medially setting off a basal median area ; parapsidal 
furrows thickly hairy ; head more than usually thick antero-posteriorly, 
being about as thick antero-posteriorly just below insertion of antennae 
as high ; antennae normally 30 to 32-segmented, tapering distinctly toward 
tip ; face yellow ; thorax usually mostly yellow — 22. psilocorsi Viereck. 
Second abdominal tergite without oblique furrows setting off a basal median 
area; parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy; head, including face, and thorax 
black * 25. 



art. 8 EE VISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 11 

25. Second and third abdominal tergites almost entirely minutely granular; 

propodeum usually with a nearly complete median longitudinal carina. 

23. meromyzae (Gahan). 

Third and following abdominal tergites completely smooth and polished; 

second tergite only with faint roughening medially 26. 

26. Hypopygium attaining apex of abdomen; ovipositor sheaths slender; legs, 

including all coxae, and the abdomen laterally and on the venter, bright 
yellow ; propodeum smooth and polished with only a very short stub of a 
median ridge posteriorly ; posterior tarsi slender. 

24. nigridorsum (Aslnuead). 

Hypopygium not distinctly attaining apex of last dorsal abdominal segment ; 

ovipositor sheaths broad; abdomen usually black; posterior tarsi rather 

stout, the last tarsal segment as long as the second and more than half 

the metatarsus 27. 

27. All coxae and more or less of the femora black 25. ashmeadi, new name. 

Legs yellow, the posterior coxae blackish at base 26. uncas Viereck. 

28. Antennae very slender, all the flagellar segments more than twice as long as 

thick ; legs including all coxae bright yellow ; wings perfectly clear hya- 
line, with no suggestion of duskiness 29. 

Antennae not so slender ; at least not combining the above characters 30. 

29. Ovipositor sheaths nearly as long as the body; abdomen entirely smooth and 

polished; face yellow; thorax and abdomen largely yellowish. 

27. angelesius (Provancher). 

Ovipositor sheaths slightly shorter than the abdomen ; second abdominal 

tergite finely striate ; head, including face, black ; thorax and abdomen 

largely black 2S. auripes (Provancher). 

30. Head thin antero-posteriorly, the face rather flat, not prominent at insertion 

of antennae and scarcely receding below; propodeum completely smooth 
and polished, without a stub of a median ridge at apex ; ovipositor 
sheaths at least a little longer than the abdomen, and usually fully as 

long as the body; antennae normally 20 to 30-segmented 31. 

Head rather thick antero-posteriorly at insertion of antennae, the face dis- 
tinctly receding below ; propodeum usually with a stub of a median ridge 
at apex ; ovipositor sheaths at most a little longer than the abdomen__ 34. 

31. Second abdominal tergite with conspicuous membranous or weakly 

chitinized areas laterally opposite the broad membranous margins of the 
first tergite; ovipositor sheaths as long as the body, antennae usually 

20 to 26-segmented 32. 

Second abdominal tergite without such membranous areas laterally; head 
and thorax usually black or blackish ; coxae usually, though not always, 
black or brown . 33. 

32. Head, thorax, abdomen, legs, mostly yellow; second abdominal tergite 

usually as long as the third or nearly 29. rudbeckiae, new species. 

Head and thorax wholly black ; abdomen black except for the membranous 
parts of first and second tergites; second tergite much shorter than 
third 30. tenuiceps, new species. 

33. Ovipositor sheaths as long as the body; second abdominal tergite more or 

less sculptured 31. nuperus (Cresson). 

Ovipositor sheaths slightly longer than the abdomen; abdomen completely 
smooth and polished 32. curtus (Provancher). 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. G7 

34. Transverse diameter of opening between clypeus and mandibles but little 

or no greater than the distance from the opening to the eyes; malar 

space about as long as first segment of antennal flagellum 35 

Transverse diameter of opening between clypeus and mandibles much 
greater than the distance to the eyes; malar space shorter than first 
segment of antennal flagellum 37. 

35. Thorax stout, not nearly twice as long as high ; stigma brown, with its 

costal thickening and more or less of the membrane toward base, bright 
yellow ; antennae normally 30 to 34 segmented ; ovipositor sheaths a 
little longer than the abdomen 33. hyslopi Viereck. 

Thorax not stout, very nearly twice as long as its greatest height ; 
stigma unicolorus, brown ; antennae normally 25 to 30-segmented ; 

ovipositor sheaths scarcely as long as the abdonien 36. 

30. Propodeum with a distinct median longitudinal carina on posterior half 
and with a somewhat rugulose median line on basal half ; second abscissa 
of radius more than twice as long as the first ; flagellar segments of 
antennae but very little longer than broad; legs usually reddish yellow 
or brown with only the coxae blackish 34. nitidus (Provaneher). 

Propodeum smootli and polished without a median carina on posterior half 
and not rugulose along the median line basally; second abscissa of 
radius not twice the first ; flagellar segments of antennae considerably 
longer than broad; usually all coxae, trochanters, and more or less of 
all femora black 35. tychii, new species. 

37. Second abdominal tergite more or less striate, the third entirely smooth 

and polished; antennae not stout, all flagellar segments much longer 
than broad ; radius going practically to extreme apex of wing, the third 
cubital cell scarcely as wide at apex as the second discoidal; abdomen 
black except more or less of the second and third tergites; antennae 

normally 29 to 33-segmented 36. pini, new species. 

Second and third abdominal tergites somewhat striate, the latter weakly 
so and, rarely, entirely smooth; antennae stout, most of the flagellar 
segments but little or no longer than broad ; radius attaining wing mar- 
gin decidedly before apex of wing; third cubital cell broader at apex 
than second discoidal cell ; abdomen usually mostly ferruginous, with 
only the first tergite and a median spot on second black ; antennae nor- 
mally 32 to 37 segmented 38. 

38. Third abscissa of radius as long as last abscissa of cubitus ; all segments 

of antennal flagellum distinctly longer than broad ; posterior tibiae 

wholly black 37. sesiae, new species. 

Third abscissa of radius distinctly shorter than last abscissa of cubitus 
and scarcely as long as first and second abscissae of radius combined ; 
some segments of antennal flagellum not distinctly longer than broad ; 
posterior tibiae fuscous only at apex 38. nevadensis (Ashmead). 

39. Second abdominal tergite almost smooth, strongly shining and provided 

with two distinct abbreviated furrows that set off a basal median area, 
and usually with two longitudinal furrows laterally; third, fourth, and 
fifth tergites granular, subopaque ; antennae shorter than the body, nor- 
mally 20 to 24 segmented ; wings faintly dusky basally ; ovipositor 
sheaths as long as, or a little longer than, the abdomen ; a small yellowish 
species with a few dusky markings on thorax. 

39. thurberiphagae, new species. 

Second abdominal tergite not as above, usually more strongly sculptured 

than the following ; otherwise not combining all the above characters- 40. 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBKACON MUESEBECK 13 

40. Antennae slender, normally 22 to 29-segmented, most of the flagellar seg- 

ments twice as long as thick, the basal segments of flagellum more than 
twice as long as thick and not at all thicker, sometimes more slender, 
than the apical segments ; wings perfectly clear hyaline with not even a 
suggestion of duskiness; radius arising much before middle of stigma; 
propodeum smooth and polished ; ovipositor sheaths as long as the abdo- 
men or slightly shorter; legs bright yellow 41. 

Antennae not as above; if apparently so, then not that combination of 
characters 43. 

41. Abdomen very finely sculptured, smooth laterally; second tergite minutely 

striato-punctate, the following weakly punctate, strongly shining; an- 
tennae normally 22 to 24-segmented ; abdomen usually yellow. 

40. pityophthori, new species. 

Abdomen coarsely sculptured; suturiform articulation very broad, foveo- 

late; antennae normally 26 to 29-segmented; abdomen largely black 

above 42. 

42. Abdomen, especially second tergite, strongly longitudinally rugulose, the 

.second tergite usually with a complete median longitudinal raised line; 
parapsidal grooves thickly hairy anteriorly as well as posteriorly; abdo- 
men black above, more or less yellow medially on third, fourth and 

fifth tergites 41. laemosacci, new species. 

Abdomen, coarsely granular ; parapsidal grooves not thickly hairy anter- 
iorly; abdomen blackish above, yellow laterally. 

42. metacomet Viereck. 

43. Wings long and rather narrow, uniformly somewhat infumated, the wing 

membrane abnormally thickly hairy over its entire surface; cubitus and 
subdiscoideus nearly parallel, the second discoidal cell scarcely broad- 
ening apically ; radial ce^l very long, the radius going to extreme apex 
of wing; propodeum entirely finely rugulose; antennae slender, nor- 
mally more than 40-segmented ; ovipositor sheaths as long as the abdo- 
men or slightly longer 43. atricollis (Ashmead). 

Wings not as above; otherwise not that combination of characters 44. 

44. Propodeum entirely, except at extreme base, rugulose ; most of the flagellar 

segments of antennae scarcely longer than broad ; abdomen beyond third 
tergite very faintly, almost indistinctly, sculptured ; thorax mostly 

yellow 45. 

Propodeum usually smooth and polished, although often with short diverg- 
ing ridges medially behind, and sometimes very delicately punctate or 
faintly minutely reticulate over a large part of its surface 46. 

45. Ovipositer sheaths considerably longer than the abdomen ; antennae nor- 

mally 33 to 36-segmented ; second abdominal tergite rather evenly finely 
sculptured, without a rugose area on basal middle. 

44. analcidis (Ashmead). 

Ovipositor sheaths a little shorter than the abdomen ; antennae normally 

29 to 32-segmented ; second abdominal tergite with an irregularly rugulose 

area on basal middle 45. podunkorum Viereck. 

46. Ovipositor sheaths not half as long as the abdomen 47. 

Ovipositor sheaths more than half as long as the abdomen 50. 

47. Head, including the face, black; either the frons completely smooth and 

polished or the parapsidal grooves thickly hairy 48. 

At least the face yellow ; parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy ; frons finely 
reticulately sculptured 49. 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol. 67 

48. Parapsidal grooves thickly hairy; frons closely punctate and opaque; 

thorax stout; head with pale yellow inner and superior orbital lines; 
propodeuni without a median longitudinal carina ; antennae usually 24 

to 29-segmented 20. pygmaeus (Provancher). 

Parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy ; frons smooth and polished ; thorax 
slender ; head wholly black, without pale orbital lines ; propodeum with 
a complete or nearly complete median longitudinal carina ; antennae 
usually 28 to 32-segmented 23. meromyzae (Gahan). 

49. Second abdominal tergite very finely punctate ; third and following tergites 

very faintly so, almost polished ; antennae usually 29 to 33-seg- 

mented 46. montowesi Viereck. 

Abdomen closely granular above, opaque or subopaque ; antennae normally 
34 to 40-seginented 47. cephi Gahan. 

50. All coxae black ; remainder of legs more or less blackish ; head including 

face, black ; thorax black ; abdomen usually red, short, broad oval, 
rugulose on second tergite, granular on third, fourth and fifth tergites ; 
antennae normally 25 to 29-segmented; ovipositor sheaths about as long 

as the abdomen beyond first segment 48. hemimenae Rohwer. 

Coxae yellow, rarely posterior coxae somewhat infuscated, and then not 
agreeing entirely with the above 51. 

51. Propodeum smooth and polished, usually with a complete or nearly complete 

median longitudinal carina ; abdomen strongly sculptured, the second 
tergite irregularly rugose medially and usually much shorter than the 
third ; wings decidedly infuscated ; stigma dark brown ; second abscissa 
of radius usually much more than twice the first ; antennae normally 34 
to 40-segmented ; malar space about as long as first segment of antennal 
flagellum ; ovipositor sheaths about as long as the abdomen, not distinctly 

longer „ 49. oenotherae, new species. 

Propodeum without a median carina, although usually with a stub of a 
carina at apex ; otherwise not exactly as above 52. 

52. Ovipositor sheaths at most as long as the abdomen beyond first tergite_ 61. 
Ovipositor sheaths as long as the abdomen or longer 53. 

53. Second abdominal tergite finely granular or punctate, never strongly rugose ; 

third and following tergites very delicately, usually very faintly sculp- 
tured, strongly shining; suturiform articulation fine, straight, the second 
tergite hot emarginate medially ; antennae stout, the segments of the 
apical half of flagellum scarcely longer than broad ; malar space about 

as long as first flagellar segment; wings very nearly hyaline 54. 

Second to fifth or sixth abdominal tergites usually granular, the second 
often more or less rugose ; if abdomen is not distinctly granular on third 
and following tergites the antennae are more slender, or the malar space 
is much shorter than the first flagellar segment; at least not combining 
all the above characters 56. 

54. Ovipositor sheaths about as long as the body or nearly; abdomen usually 

black above except for the suturiform articulation and a lateral spot at 
base of second tergite, which are yellow ; antennae normally 26 to 29- 
segmented 50. papaipemae Gahan. 

Ovipositor sheaths about as long as the abdomen ; second and third tergites 
usually yellowish ; remainder of abdomen more or less blackish 55. 

55. Suturiform articulation distinctly minutely foveolate ; face yellow ; an- 

tennae normally 29 to 32-segmented 51. apicatus (Provancher). 

Suturiform articulation very fine, weakly impressed, not foveolate; face 
hrownish black; antennae normally 24 to 27-segmented. 

52. nanus (Provancher). 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 15 

56. Second abscissa of discoideus as long as the recurrent vein ; wings somewhat 

fuscous, the stigma yellow ; abdomen strongly granular above, the second 
tergite more or less rugulose; suturiform articulation rather broad, 
foveolate, and somewhat arcuate, the second tergite somewhat emarginate 
behind; flagellar segments of antennae rather stout, most «jf them only 
a little longer than broad; malar space about as long as first flagellar 

segment 53. mellitor (Say). 

Second abscissa of discoideus not as long as the recurrent vein ; otherwise 
not agreeing completely with the above 57. 

57. Propodeura finely punctate or granular over its posterior half, and with 

a median carina posteriorly ; abdomen granular on the second to sixth 
tergites, the second usually with an irregularly rugose area on basal mid- 
dle; segments of the antennal flagellum mostly but very little longer than 

broad 54. nigropectus (Provancher). 

Propodeum not punctate over posterior half, although usually with a short 
median ridge posteriorly and a few lateral ridges diverging from this_ 58. 

58. Transverse diameter of the opening between clypeus and mandibles scarcely 

greater than the distance between this opening and the eye ; malar space 
as long, or nearly, as first segment of antennal flagellum; ovipositor 
sheaths very slender, but broadening rather conspicuously near tip. 

55. furtivus (Fyles). 

Transverse diameter of the opening between clypeus and mandibles much 

greater than the distance between this opening and the eye ; malar space 

much shorter than first segment of antennal flagellum 59. 

59. Ovipositor sheaths very nearly as long as the entire body; face usually 

blackish; abdomen usually mostly black 56. tachypteri, new species. 

Ovipositor sheaths about as long as the abdomen; face yellow; abdomen 
usually mostly yellow 60. 

60. Second abdominal tergite usually with a shining irregularly rugose area 

on basal middle ; third and following tergites granular ; abdomen 
rather broad-oval ; first and second segments of antennal flagellum usually 
about equal and usually twice as long as thick, the apical segments of 
flagellum slender, usually twice as long as thick ; first abdominal tergite, 
a median spot at base of second and more or less of the apical tergites 

usually blackish 57. variabilis (Provancher). 

Second abdominal tergite not as above ; the tergites beyond third usually 
not granular, very faintly sculptured and shining; first segment of 
antennal flagellum usually decidedly longer than second, the second not 
twice as long as thick ; most of the flagellar segments beyond second 
but very little longer than broad, the apical segments stout; abdomen 
usually entirely yellow 5S. sanninoideae Gahan. 

61. Segments of antennal flagellum very stout, beyond the first scarcely as 

long as broad ; second abdominal tergite very finely punctate, the fol- 
lowing tergites exceedingly faintly sculptured and strongly shining; 

propodeum finely punctate on posterior half 59. hobomok Viereck. 

Segments of antennal flagellum not so stout 62. 

62. Malar space as long as first segment of antennal flagellum ; transverse 

diameter of opening between clypeus and mandibles scarcely greater than 
distance from this opening to the eye ; stigma, including its costal margin 
largely yellow, brown at apex ; second abscissa of radius much more 
than twice the first ; propodeum usually minutely punctate or reticulate 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

over most of its surface ; abdomen granular on the second to sixth 

tergites ; antennae normally 29 to 35-seginented 60. caulicola Gahau. 

Malar space not as long as first segment of antennal flagellum ; rarely 
nearly so, but then not combining all the above characters 63. 

63. Second abdominal tergite very finely sculptured, usually a little striate 

medially, the following almost smooth, exceedingly faintly, almost in- 
distinctly, punctate ; propodeum smooth and polished with a stub of a 

median carina posteriorly 64. 

Second abdominal tergite more coarsely sculptured, usually with an ir- 
regularly rugose area on basal middle, the following tergites granular ; 
rarely the third and those beyond nearly smooth, but then the propodeum 
is minutely punctate or reticulate over most of its surface 65. 

64. Coxae more or less infuscated above ; face blackish ; wings rather strongly 

dusky ; ovipositor sheaths about as long as the abdomen beyond 1st 

tergite 61. niger (Provancher). 

Coxae entirely pale yellow ; face yellow, wings nearly hyaline. 

62. aequalis (Provancher). 

65. Antennae normally 23 to 29-segmented, shorter than the body, the seg- 

ments of apical half of flagellum but little longer than wide ; second ab- 
dominal tergite usually as long as the first and longer than the third; 
malar space very nearly as long as first flagellar segment ; propodeum 

usually faintly punctate over its posterior half 63. argutator (Say). 

Antennae usually as long as the body, the flagellar segments much longer 
than broad; second abdominal tergite usually shorter than the first and 
scarcely as long as the third 66. 

66. Propodeum finely punctate or reticulate or very minutely granular over 

most of its surface, more coarsely roughened medially and with a median 
ridge posteriorly ; abdomen beyond third tergite very delicately sculp- 
tured, irregularly transversely lineolated 64. geraei, new species. 

Propodeum smooth and polished, with only a stub of a median longitudinal 
ridge posteriorly and with some short lateral carinae diverging from this ; 
abdomen usually granular on the second to sixth tergites 67. 

67. Antennae normally 34 to 40-segmented ; malar space usually distinctly more 

than half the transverse diameter of the opening between clypeus and 

mandibles 68. 

Antennae normally 24 to 32-segmented ; malar space scarcely half the trans- 
verse diameter of the opening between clypeus and mandibles. 

57. variabilis (Provancher). 

68. Suturiform articulation slightly arcuate, the second tergite a little eniar- 

ginate medially behind ; first segment of antennal flagellum usually not 
twice as long as wide ; first tergite and a median basal spot on second 

black; thorax usually mostly blackish 65. lutus (Provancher). 

Suturiform articulation straight, the second tergite not at all emarginate 
behind ; first segment of antennal flagellum twice as long as wide ; second 
tergite entirely yellow, without a blackish spot medially at base. 

66. cerambycidiphagus, new species. 

69. Dorsum of abdomen mostly smooth and polished, the sculpture when present 

very rarely extending to the third tergite ; propodeum smooth and 
polished, sometimes with a median carina or a stub of a median ridge at 
apex ; frons usually smooth and polished ; if sculptured, the face and 
coxae black ; face very rarely yellow ; if so, then the abdomen is entirely 
smooth and polished 70. 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 17 

Dorsum of abdomen mostly sculptured ; very rarely not distinctly sculp- 
tured beyond second tergite, but then frons is finely reticulately sculp- 
tured and face and coxae are yellow ; face and coxae very rarely black 
and then abdomen is distinctly sculptured 96. 

70. Opening between clypeus and mandibles unusually large, its transverse 

diameter as long as, or longer than, the distance from lower margin of 
antennal foramina to lower margin of clypeus ; propodeum with a complete 
median longitudinal carina ; posterior tarsi short and stout, shorter than 

their tibiae 71. 

Opening between clypeus and mandibles not so large ; at least not agreeing 
entirely with the above 72. 

71. Wings strongly infuscated ; last segment of hind tarsi very large, broad- 

ening strongly toward apex and much longer than second tarsal segment; 

antennae 25 to 27 segmented 15. gastroideae (Ashmead). 

Wings hyaline or very nearly; last segment of hind tarsi normal, not 
broadening strongly toward apex and not longer than second tarsal seg- 
ment; antennae usually 21 to 23 segmented 16. brachyurus (Ashmead). 

72. Second abdominal tergite with conspicuous, more or less triangular areas 

of weaker chitinization laterally opposite the broad membranous mar- 
gins of first tergite; abdomen, including first tergite, wholly smooth and 
polished, propodeum completely polished without a stub of a median 

ridge at apex 73. 

Second abdominal tergite without such membranous areas laterally; first 
abdominal tergite usually more or less sculptured at apex ; propodeum 
most frequently, though not always, with a stub of a carina at apex__ 76. 

73. Antennae usually 23 to 26 segmented, usually shorter than the body ; third 

abscissa of radius distinctly longer than the first and second abscissae 
combined and about twice as long as the second ; last abscissa of cubitus 
distinctly longer than the preceding abscissa; wings usually rather 

strongly dusky 74. 

Antennae usually 28 to 32 segmented, longer than the body ; third abscissa 
of radius not distinctly longer than the first and second combined and 
not nearly twice as long as the second ; last abscissa of cubitus not dis- 
tinctly longer than the preceding; wings faintly infuscated 75. 

74. Head, thorax, and abdomen yellowish, sometimes with fuscous markings; 

legs yellow ; second abdominal tergite usually as long as third, or 

nearly 29. rudbeckiae, new species. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen, black; legs black; second abdominal tergite 
usually much shorter than third 30. temiiceps, new species. 

75. Head and thorax black; abdomen mostly black; legs more or less black- 

ish 17. melanaspis (Ashmead). 

Head, thorax, and abdomen mostly yellowish; legs yellowish. 

18. juncicola (Ashmead). 

76. Frons entirely, and usually the vertex to some extent, closely minutely 

punctate or reticulate and opaque ; parapsidal grooves completely thickly 
hairy; head black with contrasting yellow orbital lines; thorax short 

and stout, black ; wings rather strongly infuscated 77. 

Frons usually smooth and polished, rarely with faint sculpture just above 
insertion of antennae ; at least not exactly as above 78. 

77. Second abdominal tergite usually smooth and polished, and provided with 

two distinct short oblique foveolate impressions medially toward base; 
antennae usually 21 to 24 segmented; middle lobe of mososcutum with 
scattered pubescence arising from its surface anteriorly. 

19. politiventris (Cushman). 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

Second abdominal tergite usually finely sculptured over nearly its entire 
surface and without such impressions toward the base ; antennae nor- 
mally 24 to 29-segmented ; surface of middle lobe entirely destitute of 
pubescence although the long hairs arising in the parapsidal grooves lie 
upon the lobes 20. pygmaeus (Provancher). 

78. Head thin antero-posteriorly, hardly longer at the intersection of the anten- 

nae than at the clypeus, the face not strongly receding ; thorax rather 
stout ; propodeum completely smooth and polished, without even a stub of 
a median ridge posteriorly ; wings rather strongly infuscated on basal 

half i 79. 

Head not thin, rather prominent just below insertion of antennae, the face 
receding ; propodeum most frequently with a distinct short stub of a 
median ridge at apex 81. 

79. Parapsidal grooves rather thickly hairy posteriorly ; all coxae and more or 

less of remainder of legs, black ; first abscissa of radius usually nearly as 
long as first intercubitus and much more than half the second abscissa 

of radius 21. connecticutorum Viereck. 

Parapsidal grooves exceedingly sparsely hairy 80. 

80. Second abdominal tergite usually with a rather prominent polished basal 

median area and with some sculpture adjoining this ; coxae and more or 

less of remainder of legs black 31. nuperus (Cresson). 

Second abdominal tergite, like remainder of abdomen, completely polished ; 
legs, including all coxae, usually uniformly yellowish-red or reddish- 
brown 32. curtus (Provancher). 

81. Abdomen wholly smooth and polished, the second tergite with two short 

oblique furrows setting off a basal median area ; parapsidal furrows 
thickly hairy ; head more than usually thick antero-posteriorly ; antennae 
usually 29 to 32 segmented, tapering distinctly toward tip; face yellow; 
body usually mostly yellow ; legs yellow, posterior coxae sometimes a 

little infuscated 22. psilocorsi Viereck. 

Abdomen rarely entirely smooth and polished, and then not agreeing com- 
pletely with the above characters 82. 

82. Legs including all coxae bright yellow ; antennae never stout, all flagellar 

segments decidedly longer than broad ; suturiform articulation always 

very fine ; wings frequently hyaline 83. 

Legs dark brown or blackish ; coxae black or blackish ; wings distinctly 
infuscated 88. 

83. Propodeum usually with a complete or nearly complete median longitudinal 

carina ; second and third tergites finely sculptured ; first abdominal ter- 
gite mostly rugose 23. meromyzae (Gahan). 

Propodeum smooth and polished with only a short stub of a median ridge 
posteriorly ; third tergite always entirely smooth and polished 84. 

84. Abdomen entirely polished with no indication of sculpture ; wings per- 

fectly clear hyaline ; face yellow ; thorax and abdomen usually en- 
tirely yellow 27. angelesius (Provancher). 

Second abdominal tergite nearly always a little sculptured ; face black ; 
thorax and more or less of abdomen black 85. 

85. First abscissa of radius about as long as inner side of stigma and nearly 

as long as first intercubitus ; second abscissa of radius not twice the 
first ; wings distinctly fuscous on basal two-thirds ; flagellar segments 

of antennae not twice as long as thick 67. cinctus (Provancher). 

Not agreeing entirely with the above 86. 



abt. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICTtOBEACON MUESEBECK 19 

86. Propodeum somewhat sculptured medially at base and with a distinct 

median ridge on apical third ; posterior tarsi scarcely as long as their 
tibiae, the last tarsal segment fully as long as the second, and stout 

2G. uncas Viereck. 

Propodeum perfectly smooth and polished except for an exceedingly short, 

often indistinct, stub of a median ridge at apex ; posterior tarsi longer 

than their tibiae, the last tarsal segment not nearly as long as the 

second S7. 

87. Antennae very slender, normally 27 to 32-segmented, all flagellar segments 

at least twice as long as broad ; head entirely black 

2S. auripes (Provancher)- 

Antennae usually 33 to 36-segmented, the flagellar segments mostly less 

than twice as long as broad; head usually with very narrow inner and 

superior ferruginous orbital lines 24. nigridorsum (Ashmead). 

88. Posterior tarsi stout, the last tarsal segment fully as long as the second and 

more than half the metatarsus ; abdomen slender ; first tergite long and 
narrow, broadening gradually from base and about twice as long as broad 
at apex ; second tergite at most with faint sculpturing medially ; suturi- 

form articulation very delicate ; stigma large ; abdomen black 89. 

Posterior tarsi more slender, the last tarsal segment shorter than the second 
and not more than half the metatarsus ; otherwise not as above 90. 

89. Abdomen completely polished ; wings strongly infuscated. 

68. wawequa Viereck 

Abdomen with second tergite a little striate medially ; wings slightly dusky 

on basal two-thirds 25. ashmeadi, new name. 

90. Second and third abdominal tergites rather evenly striate ; suturiform ar- 

ticulation broad, coarsely foveolate ; last abscissa of radius shorter than 
first and second combined ; propodeum with a median carina on apical 
half ; all segments of antennal flagellum longer than broad 

69. sulcifrons (Ashmead). 
Third abdominal tergite rarely sculptured and then with only very faint 
roughening toward base ; at least not the above combination of char- 
acters 91. 

91. Stigma yellow* at base and along costal margin; malar space about as long 

as first segment of antennal flagellum ; all flagellar segments longer than 

broad, the first and second of equal length 33. hyslopi Viereck. 

Stigma unicolorous, brown 92. 

92. Antennae stout, frequently broadening faintly beyond the first flagellar seg- 

ment, and narrowing again toward apex, most of the flagellar segments 
but little or no longer than broad ; second abscissa of radius usually 
twice the first ; abdomen frequently ferruginous with only first tergite 

and median spot on second, black 93. 

Antennae more slender, all flagellar segments much longer than broad ; 
second abscissa of radius usually distinctly less than twice the first ; 
abdomen black with more or less of second and third tergites pale 95. 

93. Antennae normally 25 to 30-segmented ; propodeum with a median carina 

on apical half and raore or less rugulose on the median line toward base ; 
second abscissa of radius more than twice the first, the third longer 
than the first and second combined ; abdomen with second and third 
tergites mostly yellowish or red, the remainder black. 

34. nitidus (Provancher). 

Antennae normally 32 to 37-segmented ; propodeum not so completely 

sculptured on the median line ; abdomen usually ferruginous with only 

first tergite and a median spot on second black 94 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.67 

94. Third abscissa of radius shorter than last abscissa of cubitus and not 

distinctly as long as first and second abscissae of radius combined ; 
flagellar segments of antennae mostly not longer than broad; posterior 

tibiae dusky only at apex _• 38. nevadensis (Ashmead). 

Third abscissa of radius as long as last abscissa of cubitus and fully as 
long as the first and second abscissae of radius combined ; all flagellar 
segments of antennae a little longer than broad ; posterior tibiae wholly 
black 37. sesiae, new species. 

95. Propodeum with a prominent stub of a median ridge on its posterior third ; 

first abscissa of radius not as long as the side of stigma bordering first 

cubital cell 3G. pini, new species. 

Propodeum without a distinct stub of a median carina extending one- 
third the distance toward base ; first abscissa of radius as long" as the 
side of stigma bordering first cubital cell 35. tychii, new species. 

96. Second abdominal tergite almost smooth, strongly shining and provided 

with two distinct short furrows that set off a basal median area and 
usually with two longitudinal furrows laterally ; third, fourth, and fifth 
tergites granular ; antennae shorter than the body, usually 20 to 24-seg- 
mented ; radius arising much before middle of stigma ; posterior coxae 

strongly infuscated 39. thurberiphagae, new species. 

Not agreeing entirely with the above 97. 

97. Antennae very slender, usually 22 to 29-segmented, all of the flagellar 

segments fully twice as long as thick, the basal segments not thicker 
than the apical segments, the antennae not tapering toward tip ; wings 
perfectly clear hyaline ; stigma long ; radius arising much before its 

middle; propodeum smooth and polished 98. 

Antennae not as above; at least not that combination of characters 100. 

98. Abdomen very delicately sculptured, smooth laterally ; antennae usually 

22 to 24-segmented ; abdomen usually yellow. 

40. pityophthori, new species. 

Abdomen coarsely sculptured ; suturiform articulation very broad, foveo- 

late ; antennae usually 26 to 29-segmented ; abdomen mostly black 

above 99. 

99. Abdomen, especially second tergite, strongly longitudinally rugose, the 

second tergite usually with a complete median longitudinal raised line ; 
parapsidal grooves rather thickly hairy anteriorly as well as posteriorly; 
abdomen black above, more or less yellow medially on third, fourth, and 

fifth tergites 41. laemosacci, new species. 

Abdomen coarsely granular; parapsidal grooves not thickly hairy ante- 
riorly ; abdomen blackish above, yellow laterally- 42. metacomet Viereck. 

100. Wings long, unifoi-mly infuscated to apex, the wing membrane abnormally 

thickly hairy over its entire surface ; cubitus and subdiscoideus nearly 
parallel, the second discoidal cell scarcely broadening apically ; radial 
cell exceptionally long, radius going to extreme apex of wing; pro- 
podeum entirely finely rugulose ; antennae slender and more than 40- 

segmented 43. atricollis (Ashmead). 

Wings not agreeing with the above characterization 101. 

101. All coxae and trochanters black ; more or less of remainder of legs, 

especially posterior tibiae, blackish ; head, including face, deep black ; 
wings strongly infuscated ; thorax black ; abdomen usually more or less 

red 4S. hemimenae Rohwer. 

Coxae yellow, rarely a little infuscated ; face very rarely brownish- 
black 102 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MIGROBEACON MUESEBECK 21 

102. Propodeum, except at extreme base, rugulose; most flagellar segments but 

very little longer than broad; body usually yellowish; abdomen only 

very faintly sculptured beyond second tergite 103. 

Propodeum usually smooth and polished, although often with diverging 
ridges medially, and sometimes delicately punctate or reticulate over 
most of its surface 104. 

103. Second abdominal tergite with an irregularly rugose area on basal middle ; 

antennae usually 28 to 32-segmented 45. podunkorum Viereck. 

Second abdominal tergite rather evenly finely sculptured ; antennae usually 
32 to 36-segmented 44. analcidis (Ashmead). 

104. Propodeum faintly reticulate on its posterior half; sometimes more dis- 

tinctly granular over its entire surface ; thorax never wholly black__ 105. 
Propodeum smooth and polished, with no indication of such reticula- 
tion 108. 

105. Second abscissa of radius much more than twice the first ; radius going 

to extreme apex of wing, the third abscissa of radius almost on a 
straight line with the second ; wings distinctly somewhat infuscated, 
the stigma usually yellow ; antennae rather slender, usually 30 to 36- 
segmented ; body entirely yellow, very rarely with propodeum and first 
tergite dusky; ocell-ocular line not more than twice the diameter of an 

ocellus GO. caulicola Gahan. 

Second abscissa of radius usually not more than twice the first, and 
usually making a distinct angle with the second 106. 

106. Antennae normally 23 to 29-segmented ; second abdominal tergite usually 

fully as long as the first and longer than the third ; propodeum and 
first abdominal tergite usually infuscated ; mesonotal lobes often more 

or less blackish 63. argutator (Say). 

Antennae usually 27 to 37-segmented ; second abdominal tergite very rarely 
longer than third 107. 

107. Flagellar segments of antennae slender; antennae composed of 27 to 33 

.segments ; abdomen beyond 3d tergite usually only very faintly sculp- 
tured ; propodeum and first abdominal tergite usually yellow ; head, 
sometimes including part of face, and anterior parts of mesonotum, 

usually blackish 64. geraei, new species. 

Flagellar segments mostly only a little longer than broad; antennae 
normally composed of 32 to 37 segments; third to fifth abdominal 
tergites granular and opaque; propodeum and first abdominal tergite, 
and usually venter of thorax, black 54. nigropectus (Provancher). 

108. Abdomen not or only indistinctly sculptured beyond third tergite, strongly 

shining, suturiform articulation very fine 109. 

Abdomen granular on second to fifth tergites; suturiform articulation 
often rather broad, foveolate 115. 

109. Antennae stout, most of the flagellar segments but little or no longer 

than broad HO. 

Antennae slender, flagellar segments much longer than broad; face yellow; 
abdomen mostly yellow 112. 

110. Suturiform articulation usually finely foveolate; antennae usually 28 to 

33-segmented ; face yellow ; abdomen usually largely ferruginous, blackish 
at base and apex; frons and vertex mostly ferruginous, black only 

medially 51. apicatus (Provancher). 

59. hobomok Viereck. 
Suturiform articulation not distinctly foveolate; antennae usually 24 to 
29-segmented; face usually brownish-black; frons and vertex wholly 
black HI. 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

111. First abdominal tergite with a foveolate groove just inside the lateral 

margins ; abdomen black, with only the suturiform articulation and a 
lateral spot on second tergite yellow ; segments of antennal flagellum all 
a little longer than broad ; posterior coxae more or less inf uscated. 

50. papaipemae Gahan. 
First abdominal tergite without a distinct foveolate groove inside lateral 
margins, but with elongate apical lateral pits ; abdomen with second and 
third tergites mostly pale ; most segments of antennal flagellum not dis- 
tinctly longer than broad; all coxae yellow 52. nanus (Provancher). 

112. Face yellow ; all coxae bright yellow ; abdomen usually mostly yellow 113. 

Face brownish-black; posterior coxae more or less inf uscated above; 

abdomen mostly blackish 61. niger (Provancher). 

113. Third cubital cell long, the last abscissa of cubitus much longer than the 

preceding, the third abscissa of radius considerably longer than the first 
and second abscissae combined ; second abscissa of radius usually not 
twice the first ; abdomen black except the suturiform articulation and 

second tergite laterally 70. canadensis (Ashmead). 

Last abscissa of cubitus not. distinctly longer than the preceding ; third 
abscissa of radius not longer than first and second abscissae combined; 
second abscissa of radius at least twice the first; abdomen mostly 
yellow : 114. 

114. Propodeum very smooth and polished with only an exceedingly short stub 

of a median ridge at apex ; first flagellar segment more than twice as 
long as broad and distinctly longer than the scape ; scape yellow. 

46. montowesi Viereck. 

Propodeum with a median carina extending nearly half-way to the base; 

first flagellar segment of antennae nearly twice as long as broad, but 

scarcely as long as the scape; scape black_ 62. aequalis (Provancher). 

115. Malar space one-third as long as the eye height; ocelli very small, the 

ocell-ocular line three times as long as the diameter of an ocellus; 
second abdominal tergite considerably shorter than third; sixth ter- 
gite, as well as all the preceding, sculptured ; propodeum usually with a 
nearly complete median longitudinal carina ; antennae usually 33 to 40- 

segmented 49. oenotherae, new species 

Malar space not nearly one-third the eye-height ; ocell-ocular line not 
three times as long as the diameter of an ocellus ; second abdominal 
tergite usually as long as the third ; sixth tergite practically always 
completely polished 116. 

116. Distance between clypeal foveae more than twice as long as malar space; 

antennae usually 24 to 32-segmented, very rarely with 33 or 34 seg- 
ments 117. 

Distance between clypeal foveae not distinctly twice as long as malar 
space ; or, if apparently as long, then with antennae 34 to 40-segmented ; 
antennae rarely with less than 33 segments 12L 

117. Head, including face black or brownish-black 118. 

Face pale yellow ; frons and vertex mostly yellow 119. 

118. Thorax and abdomen entirely or mostly yellow ; propodeum impressed, 

almost grooved along the median line, with some transverse rugae in 
the depression ; thorax not stout, about twice as long as high, viewed 

laterally 71. konkapoti Viereck. 

Thorax and abdomen mostly black ; propodeum smooth and polished ex- 
cept for a stub of a median ridge at apex, not impressed along the 
median line; thorax stout 56. tachypteri, new species 



art. S REVISION OF THE GENUS MIOROBRACON MUESEBECK 23 

119. Second to fifth abdominal tergites evenly granular and opaque, the second 

not longitudinally rugulose and without a median irregularly rugose 
shining area ; ocell-ocular line a little more than twice the diameter of 
of an ocellus ; last abscissa of radius scarcely as long as first and second 

abscissae combined 72. rhyssemati (Ashmead). 

Second abdominal tergite usually with a median irregularly rugose shin- 
ing area at base, or longitudinally rugose; fourth and fifth tergites us- 
ually much more weakly sculptured and shining; last abscissa of radius 
usually a little longer than first and second abscissae combined ; ocell- 
ocular line scarcely twice as long as greatest diameter of an ocellus__120. 

120. Thorax, viewed laterally, twice as long as high ; antennae usually 31 to 

34-segmented, the first flagellar segment usually distinctly longer than 
the second ; abdomen usually entirely yellow beyond first tergite. 

58. sanninoideae Gahan. 
Thorax more compact, not twice as long as its greatest height ; antennae 
usually 24 to 32-segmented, the first and second flagellar segments 
usually of equal length and twice as long as broad ; abdomen usually 
with first tergite, median spot on second, and more or less of apical 
tergites blackish 57. variabilis (Provancher). 

121. Recurrent vein not distinctly longer than second abscissa of discoideus, 

and but very little longer than the portion of cubitus between recur- 
rent and first intercubitus; antennae rather stout, none of the flagellar 
segments twice as long as broad ; second tergite usually slightly emargin- 
ate at the middle posteriorly ; wings usually infuscated, with the stigma 

yellow 53. mellitor (Say). 

Recurrent vein longer than second abscissa of discoideus and usually twice 
as long as the portion of cubitus between recurrent and first inter- 
cubitus ; antennae usually more slender, with at least the basal flagellar 
segments and the terminal segments twice as long as broad 122. 

122. Last segment of posterior tarsi as long as the second ; second abscissa of 

radius more than twice the first ; measured on the cubitus the third 
cubital cell shorter than the second ; second abdominal tergite not ir- 
regularly strongly rugose on basal middle; antennae 34 to 40-segmented; 

thorax long, not stout 47. cephi Gahan. 

Last segment of posterior tarsi shorter than second ; at least not exactly 
as above 123. 

123. Second abdominal tergite with an irregularly rugose shining area on basal 

middle ; antennae ususally 35 to 42-segmented ; malar space scarcely 

more than half the distance between clypeal foveae 124. 

Second abdominal tergite without such irregularly rugose area on basal 
middle, evenly granular or somewhat longtitudinally sculptured 
medially : 125. 

124. Suturiform articulation straight, the second abdominal tergite not at all 

emarginate behind ; second abdominal tergite, like remainder of abdo- 
men, usually entirely yellow 6G. cerambycidiphagus, new species. 

Suturiform articulation broadly a little emarginate behind; second tergite 
usually with a black median spot, and more or less of remainder of ab- 
domen usually blackish or fuscous G5. lutus (Provancher). 

125. Face more or less blackish ; second abscissa of radius not distinctly 

twice the first; thorax wholly black 73. cookii (Ashmead). 

Face yellow; second abscissa of radius usually distinctly more than twice 
the first 55. furtivus (Fyles). 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.67 

1. MICROERACON QUINNIPIACORUM Viereck 

Microbracon quinnipincorum Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. 
Survey, 1917 (1916), p. 207. 

Type. — In the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station at 
New Haven. 

The antennae of the type are 31-segmented and slender, the basal 
flagellar segments twice, or nearly twice, as long as broad; irons, 
vertex, mesoscutum, scutellum, pro-, meso-, and metapleura, propo- 
deum and dorsum of abdomen entirely, uniformly finely punctate or 
reticulate and opaque; parapsidal grooves pubescent; the surface of 
the middle lobe of mesoscutum bare; propodeum with a stub of a 
median ridge at apex; wings only very slightly dusky; second ab- 
scissa of radius at least twice as long as the first, the first and second 
abscissae combined scarcely as long as the third; second abdominal 
tergite much longer than the third; in the type the ovipositor sheaths 
project scarcely the length of the first abdominal tergite. Ferrugin- 
ous; head, thorax and base of abdomen more or less marked Avith 
blackish. A small species, about 2 mm. in length. 

Distribution. — Connecticut, Maryland. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the type, and one female specimen in the United 
States National Museum, labeled " Md., Collection Ashmead." 

2. MICROBRACON PUNCTATUS, new species 

Female. — Length 2.8 mm. Head rather thick antero-posteriorly 
at insertion of antennae, the face receding somewhat below; face 
including clypeus, frons, and vertex finely closely punctate and 
opaque; frons with a distinct median groove from anterior ocellus 
to the antennae; antennae 28-segmented, nearly or quite as long as 
the body, the tw'o basal flagellar segments about twice as long as 
wide, all the following much longer than broad; mesoscutum and 
scutellum, pro-, meso- and metapleura, propodeum, and posterior 
coxae all finely evenly punctate and opaque; propodeum with a dis- 
tinct complete median longitudinal groove; pubescence on mesono- 
tum sparse and restricted to the parapsidal grooves; second abscissa 
of radius more than twice as long as the first, the latter about half 
the first intercubitus; third abscissa of radius about as long as the 
first and second abscissae combined; last abscissa of cubitus about 
as long as the preceding abscissa ; the portion of cubitus between re- 
current and first intercubitus very short, the recurrent nearly inter- 
stitial with first intercubitus; abdomen ovate; first tergite evenly 
punctate, opaque; the second and third finely punctate or minutely 
granular, the posterior tergites much more weakly so and more shin- 
ing; ovipositor sheaths as long as the abdomen beyond first tergite. 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 25 

Ferruginous; frons, vertex and occiput piceous; antennae yellowish 
below toward base, brownish to brownish-black above and apically; 
wings hyaline, stigma brown ; legs ferruginous. 

Type.— Cat. No. 26661, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Nassau Count}'', New York. 

Host. — The type is labeled " With larva of Listronotus latiusculus." 

Described from a single specimen taken by F. H. Chittenden. 

3. MICROBRACON SPHENOPHOR1, new species 
Fig. 6 

Female. — Length 3 mm. Head very nearly as long antero-pos- 
teriorly as high; e} 7 es rather small, hardly more than half as long 
as the height of head ; distinctly though sparsely hairy ; malar space 
short, less than half the transverse diameter of the opening between 
clypeus and mandibles, which is about equal to the distance from 
base of antennae to clypeus; face and frons closely minutely punc- 
tate and opaque, the vertex faintly punctate; vertex and temples 
broad; frons without a distinct median groove descending from 
median ocellus; ocell-ocular line more than three times the diameter 
of an ocellus; antennae missing beyond 19th segment; first flagellar 
segment about twice as long as broad, much longer than the second, 
the following but very little longer than broad; mesoscutum and 
scutellum very faintly punctate, more distinctly so in the region of 
the parapsidal grooves, shining; anteriorly the mesoscutum is very 
smooth and shining, not distinctly punctate; pleura entirely, pro- 
podeum and posterior coxae, minutely evenly punctate and sub- 
opaque ; the propodeum with a more or less distinct median furrow ; 
pubescence on mesoscutum very sparse and restricted to the parap- 
sidal furrows; fore wing with radius going nearly to the apex; 
second abscissa of radius fully twice the first, but the first and 
second combined less than the third; the first abscissa of radius 
about half the first intercubitus ; last abscissa of cubitus much longer 
than the preceding; the portion of cubitus between recurrent and 
intercubitus very short, the recurrent nearly interstitial with first 
intercubitus; posterior femora rather stout, but little more than 
three times as long as broad ; abdomen long and narrow ; first 
tergite evenly punctate, like the propodeum; the following tergites 
very minutely punctate, becoming gradually less distinctly so pos- 
teriorly, the apical tergites being smooth and shining; ovipositor 
sheaths as long as the abdomen beyond the first tergite. Entirely 
yellow including antennae and legs; wings hyaline, stigma and 
veins yellowish. 

Male. — Essentially as in the female; the malar space is a little 
shorter; the antennae are 36-segmented, and the flagellar segments 



26 PBOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol. 67 

longer than in the female; on the basal half the antennae are yel- 
lowish, on the apical half blackish. 

Type.— Cat. No. 26660, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Charleston, Missouri. 

Host. — Sphenophorus callosus Olivier. 

Described from three specimens reared by Bagby and Satter- 
thwaite, August 16 to 25, 1917 under Webster No. 17835. 

4. MICROBRACON GELECHIAE (Ashmead) 
Fig. 23 

Bracon gelechiae Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 1889 (1888), p. 623. 
Bracon notaticeps Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 1S89 (18S8) p. 624. 
Bracon. species Riley and Howard, Insect Life, vol. 2, 1890. p. 349. 
Habrobracon gelechiae Johnson, Ent. News, vol. 6, 1895, p. 324. 
Bracon, species Johannsen and Patch, Bull. 195, Maine Agr. Exp. Sta., 1912, 

p. 243. 
Habrobracon johannscni Viereck, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 42, 1913, p. 622. 
Habrobracon tetralophae Viereck, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 42, 1913, p. 623. 
Habrobracon gelechiae Cushman, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 16, 1914, p. 106. 
Habrobracon johannseni Cushman, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 16, 1914, p. 107. 
Habrobracon gelechiae Stearns, Journ. Econ. Ent., vol. 12, 1919, p. 348. 

Type. — The types of gelechiae, notaticeps, johannseni, and tetra- 
lophae are all in the United States National Museum, and respec- 
tively bear Type Catalogue Nos. 2919, 2920, 14720, and 14721. 

The female antennae normally are 22 to 26-segmented, although 
very small specimens rarely have as few as 19 or 20 segments in the 
antennae; the 'antennae of the males are 22 to 27-segmented ; the flag- 
ellar segments are always much longer than broad, the first being 
twice as long as broad. The entire body is closely finely punctate 
and opaque or subopaque; the propodeum is without a distinct stub 
of a carina posteriorly; the color Varies greatly, but the head is 
nearly always black, with pale inner and superior orbital lines, and 
the thorax is black; the first abscissa of the radius is almost invari- 
ably about as long as. the second, and the portion of cubitus between 
the recurrent and the first intercubitus is fully as long as the re- 
current, and in small specimens longer. 

Distribution. — Throughout the United States. 

Flosts. — Gelechia, species (Ashmead) ; (Gelechia) Phthorimaea 
cinerella Murtfeldt (Ashmead) ; " oak-leaf skeletonizer " (Ash- 
mead) ; (Tetralopha) Wanda haptisiella Fernald (Viereck); " 4- 
spotted oak-leaf tyer;" {Gelechia) Aristotelia roseosuffusella 
Clemens (Riley and Howard) ; Canarsia hammondi Riley; Pyrausta 
nubilalis Huebner; Laspeyresia molesta Busck (Stearns) ; Gelechia 
hibiscclla Busck; Phthorimaea operculella Zeller; Papaipema. 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 27 

species in pinks; Desmia funeralis Huebner; Pohjchrosis viteana 
Clemens ; and Archips argyrospila Walker. 

A large quantity of material which is in the United States 
National Museum has been examined. This includes, in addition to 
the types, specimens from the hosts listed above and from the follow- 
ing localities: Riley Co., Kansas; Franklin Co., Arkansas; Benton- 
ville, Arkansas (D. Isely). Watertown, Massachusetts (D. H. 
Craig) ; Peabody and Wakefield, Massachusetts (D. W. Jones and 
H. L. Parker); Cedar Point, Maryland; Oswego, New York; 
Whitesburg, New Jersey (H. B. Scammell) ; Leesburg, Virginia 
(L. A. Stearns) ; Rutherford, New Jersey (E. L. Dickerson) ; Fair- 
fax County, Virginia (J. F. Strauss) ; Norfolk, Virginia (F. H. 
O'Neill) ; Carlisle, Pennsylvania (P. R, Myers) ; Northeast, Penn- 
sylvania; Champaign, Illinois. Salineville, Ohio; Agricultural Col- 
lege, Michigan; Spokane, Washington (H. E. Newman); Los 
Angeles and El Monte, California (J. E. Graf). Most of this ma- 
terial was reared in the Bureau of Entomology under various Chit- 
tenden, Quaintance and Webster numbers. There is also a series 
of this species at the Gipsy Moth Laboratory, reared by R. T. 
Webber from an unknown tortricid on Monarda didyma, at Melrose 
Highlands, Massachusetts, under Gipsy Moth Laboratory No. 12164 
C21. . 

5. MICROBRACON DIVERSICOLOR (Viereck) 

Habrobracon cliversicolor Viereck, Ent. News, vol. 32, 1921, p. 174. 

Type. — In the California Academy of Sciences. 

The type of this species has not been seen ; but from the original 
description it appears to be gelechiae (Ashmead). However, I pre- 
fer to hold the name distinct until an opportunity is presented for an 
examination of the type. 

Distribution. — Berkeley, California. 

Host. — Unknown. 

6. MICROBRACON ERUCARUM (Cushman) 
Fig. 24 

Habrobracon erucarum Cushman, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 5S, 1920, p. 291. 

Type.— Cat. No. 22870, U.S.N.M. 

Near americanus (Ashmead) and gelechiae (Ashmead), but separa- 
ble from these by the characters given in the foregoing table. Usually 
entirely black except for very narrow, sometimes mostly obsolete, 
pale inner orbital lines, the venter of the abdomen, which is usually 
yellow, and usually more or less of the tibiae, which are somewhat 
brownish ; the mesonotum, pleura, and propodeum are faintly closely 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

punctate: the scutellimi almost polished; the abdomen beyond the 
second tergite is smooth and shining, only faintly minutely reticulate ; 
the radial cell is exceptionally small, measured along the wing mar- 
gin but little longer than the stigma; the first abscissa of radius is 
usually longer than the second; the only entire female antenna seen 
has 22 segments, that of the male 25. 

Distribution. — "Utah; Colorado; Arizona. 

Host. — Euxoa, species. 

In addition to the type series the United States National Museum 
has one specimen from Chiric Mountains, Arizona (H. G. Hubbard) ; 
and another from Colorado (C. F. Baker). 

7. MICROBRACON AMKRICANUS (Ashmead) 

Trachyusa amcricana Ashmead, Bull. Colorado Biol. Assoc, 1, 1S90, p. IS. 
Habrobracon americanus Gahan, Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 55, 1919, p. 123. 

Type.— -Cat, No. 13421, U.S.N.M. 

Although in his description Ashmead stated that he had but one 
specimen, and that a male, the specimen in the National Museum 
labeled " type " is a female. It agrees in every detail with Ashmead's 
description and I have no doubt whatever that it is the specimen 
which he had before him. The face, f rons, vertex, temples, even occi- 
put to some extent, and the entire thorax, minutely punctate or 
reticulate and opaque; antennae of type 23-segmented ; antennae of 
two other specimens, one female and one male, likewise 23-segmented, 
not tapering toward tip; the two basal flagellar segments twice as 
long as broad; middle lobe of mesoscutum destitute of pubescence 
medially; propodeum with a distinct median carina on its posterior 
third or half; abdomen beyond second tergite a little more strongly 
punctate and less shining than in erucarum; radial cell short, the 
radius attaining wing margin much before the apex ; second abscissa 
of radius distinctly longer than first, and at least as long as first inter- 
cubitus ; the portion of cubitus between recurrent vein and first inter- 
cubitus decidedly shorter than recurrent; ovipositor sheaths project- 
ing much less than half the length of the abdomen beyond apex of 
the last dorsal segment ; head black except for narrow superior orbi- 
tal lines and a yellowish spot on cheeks adjoining the malar space; 
thorax and abdomen mostly or entirely black; coxae black; remainder 
of legs more or less black ; one male in the National Museum has the 
abdomen almost entirely red, and the antennae 22-segmented. 

Distribution. — Colorado. 

Host. — Unknown . 

In addition to the type there are three specimens, one female and 
two males, in the United States National Museum, all from Colorado, 
the female labeled " Colo. 2075," the two males " Colo. 413." 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 29 

8. MICROBRACON CUSHMANI, new name 
Fig. 17 

Eabrobracon variabilis Cushman, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 16, 1914, p. 103 
(not rrovancher). 

Type.— Cat. No. 18275, U.S.N.M. 

Separated from xanthonotus and platynotae by the antennae, 
which, especially in the female, are stout and taper toward the tip ; 
and by the paler head and thorax. It is further distinguished from 
platynotae by the usually coarser longitudinal sculpture of the second 
tergite, and from xanthonotus by the longer ovipositor sheaths, which 
are a little more than half as long as the abdomen. Head and thorax 
entirely finely granularly sculptured; antennae of female usually 19 
to 22-segmented ; of male, normally 21 to 25 segmented; malar space 
of female at least as long as the first flagellar segment; of male, 
nearly as long; wings a little dusky on basal half or more; second 
abscissa of radius only a little or no longer than the first; last ab- 
scissa of radius as long as the last abscissa of cubitus, the latter not 
distinctly twice the preceding abscissa of cubitus; the portion of 
cubitus between recurrent and first intercubitus fully as long as 
recurrent ; abdomen entirely or nearly entirely sculptured, the second 
tergite coarsely so ; the oblique grooves on first tergite usually f oveo- 
late; head, thorax, and abdomen usually mostly testaceous, the 
thorax often more or less fuscous ; legs mostly yellowish-brown. 

Distribution. — Occurs from Florida to Arizona and north to Illi- 
nois and Pennsylvania ; also found on the Virgin Islands. 

Hosts. — Canarsia hammondi Riley; Acrobasis nebuleUa Riley; 
Mineola indiginella Zeller; Mesocondyla gastralis Guenee; Enar- 
monia prunivora Walsh. 

Represented in the National Museum by considerable material 
from the above-named hosts and from the following localities : Cham- 
paign, Illinois; Brownsville, Texas (Bridwell) ; Tucson, Arizona; 
Siloam Springs, Arkansas (S. W. Foster) ; Bentonville, Arkansas 
(D. Isely) ; Anderson, Missouri (F. L. Wellman and D. Isely) ; Kirk- 
wood, Missouri; Thomasville, Georgia; Monticello, Florida (J. B. 
Gill) ; and St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Most of this material was 
reared in the Bureau of Entomology under Quaintance Nos. 5083, 
9160, 16459, 16487, 20730. 

9. MICROBRACON PLATYNOTAE (Cushman) 

Habrobracon platynotae Cushman, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 16, 1914, p. 104. 

Type.— Cat. No. 18276, U.S.N.M. 

Distinguished from cushm,ani as noted under that species; from 
xanthonotus it differs especially by the characters given in the key; 
from gelechiae, which it very closely resembles in general appearance 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

and in the length of ovipositor, it can be separated by the broader, 
foveolate suturiform articulation, the presence of a median area on 
the second tergite set off by Short longitudinal furrows, and by the 
usually more coarsely granular sculpture of the abdomen. Antennae 
of female usually 22 to 25 segmented, of the male 24 to 27 segmented ; 
first flagellar segment twice as long as thick; head and thorax en- 
tirely finely granular; first abscissa of radius usually as long as the 
second ; the part of cubitus between recurrent and intercubitus longer 
than the recurrent ; propocleum without a distinct median carina pos- 
teriorly ; head and thorax mostly black ; abdomen usually testaceous, 
except at base. 

Distribution. — Hollywood, California ; Durango, Mexico. 

Hosts. — Platynota, species ; Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders. 

In addition to the types the National Museum has a small series of 
specimens reared from the pink bollworm, at Tlahualilo and Lirdo, 
Durango, Mexico, by A. C. Johnson and N. B. McKinney. 

10. MICROBRACON XANTHONOTUS (Ashmead) 
Fig. 26 

Bracon xanthonotus Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 1SS9 (1888), 

p. 618. 
Habrobracon hopkinsi Viereck, Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 38, 1910, p. 3S0. 
Habrobracon mali Viereck, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 44, 1913, p. 641. 
Habrobracon xanthonotus Cushman, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 16, 1914, p. 

105. 

7^.— Cat. No. 14757, U.S.N.M. The types of hopkinsi (Cat. 
No. 12284) and mali (Cat. No. 15331) are also in the National 
Museum. 

A thorough study of the types of xanthonotus, hopkinsi, and mali 
can leave no doubt that all, as Cushman suggested, belong to the 
same species. The characters upon which they were originally sepa- 
rated are all extremely variable. Some series exhibit practically all 
intergradations. The head and thorax are finely punctate or minu- 
tely granular ; the antennae are slender, and in the female normally 
23 to 27-segmented, in the male usually 25 to 28-segmented ; the first 
flagellar segment is more than twice as long as thick, in the male 
nearly three times as long as thick ; malar space in female as long as 
first segment of flagellum, but considerably shorter in the male ; sec- 
ond abscissa of radius nearly always a little longer than the first; 
third abscissa of radius going very nearly to extreme apex of wing 
and as long as last abscissa of cubitus; the part of cubitus between 
recurrent and first intercubitus nearly always a little shorter than 
the recurrent, apparently as long as recurrent in some small males; 
abdomen usually strongly sculptured, the second tergite and base of 
third usually longitudinally rugulose; the oblique grooves on first 



art. 8 REVISION OP THE GENUS MICROBEACON MUESEBECK 31 

tergite coarsely foveolate, the apex of this tergite commonly rugose; 
second tergite nearly always with a median basal area set off by 
longitudinal foveolate furrows; ovipositor sheaths distinctly less 
than half the length of the abdomen ; head and thorax usually black, 
more or less marked with yellow or red; abdomen varying from 
mostly testaceous to entirely black; legs varying from mostly black- 
ish to testaceous. 

Distribution. — California; Washington; Virginia; Minnesota; 
New Hampshire. 

Hosts. — Notolophus oslari Barnes; Malacosoma pluvialis Dyar; 
M. constricta Packard. 

The foregoing discussion and characterization are based on the 
types of xanthonotus, mali, and hopkinsi, and on considerable addi- 
tional material in the United States National Museum. This ma- 
terial includes series reared from Malacosoma pluvialis, at Pullman, 
Washington, under Washington Experiment Station No. 025; from 
M. constricta, at Sacramento, California, under Bureau of Entomo- 
logy No. 2747 ; and from an unknown lepidopterous larva, at Vienna, 
Virginia, under Quaintance No. 7863 (R. A. Cushman). There are 
also collected specimens from Santa Cruz Mountains, Yosemite, 
Summerdale and Alameda, California; Durham, New Hampshire 
(Weed and Fiske) ; and St. Anthony Park, Minnesota. 

11. MICROBRACON HEBETOR (Say) 

Bracon hebetor Say, Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist, vol. 1, 1S36, p. 252. 

Bracon dorsator Say, Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, 1S36, p. 253. 

Bracon brevicornis Kikby, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud., 1S84, p. xxxi. — Marshall, 

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 24, pi. 1, fig. la and b. 
Bracon juglandis Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 18S9 (1SSS), p. 621. 
Habrobracon liebctor Johnson, Ent. News, vol. 6, 1S95, p. 324. 
Bracon (Habrobracon) honestor Riley and Howard, Ins. Life, vol. 7, 1895, 

p. 42S. Misprint for hebetor, corrected in general index. 
Habrobracon beneficientior Viereck, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 40, 1911, p. 1S2. 
Habrobracon brevicornis Cushman, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 16, 1914, p. 

101.— Whiting, Biol. Bull. 34, 1918, p. 350. 
Habrobracon juglandis Cushman, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 24, 1922, p. 213. 

Type. — The types of hebetor Say and dorsator Say have been lost ; 
that of juglandis Ashmead and that of beneficientior Viereck are in 
the United States National Museum, the former bearing type cata- 
logue No. 2913, the latter, No. 13494. 

This species is exceedingly close to brevicornis (Wesmael), and 
the two have been much confused in literature. Cushman (1922) 
cleared up this matter, calling attention to the difference in habit in 
the two species, and pointing out some morphological differences, 
although he did not regard juglandis Ashmead as identical with 
hebetor Say. It appears, after a careful consideration of Say's 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

description of hebetor, that there can be no reasonable doubt that 
Say and Ashmead were dealing with the same species. In fact, 
Ashmead determined some specimens of this species in the National 
Museum as hebetor Say, although failing to recognize the identity 
of juglandis with this material. The combination of characters 
ascribed to hebetor by Say is found nowhere else in the Braconidae, 
and after allowing for the wide range of variation occurring in the 
species, will be found to agree nicely with juglandis. Bracon dor- 
sator Say is also, without question, this species; and a study of the 
type of Habrobracon beneftcientior Viereck shows this species, too, 
to be identical with hebetor Say. References in literature to Bracon 
or Habrobracon brevicornis, hebetor or juglandis as parasites of the 
Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, of the meal moth, 
Plodia interpunctella, or of the bee-moth, Galleria mellonella, con- 
cern this species. 

The females of hebetor are readily distinguished from those of 
brevicornis by the antennae, which are 13 to 15-segmented in the 
former, and 17 to 19-segmented in the latter. The males of the two 
species are much more difficult to distinguish, but the characters 
mentioned in the key will nearly always separate them. The abdo- 
men in hebetor is almost invariably somewhat smoother, with the 
punctures less distinct, than in brevicornis. In color this species is 
exceedingly inconstant. 

Distribution. — Apparently occurs throughout the world, wher- 
ever its hosts, particularly the flour and meal moths, are present. 

Hosts. — Ephestia kuehniella Zeller; E. elutella Huebner; E. 
cahiritella Zeller; Plodia interpunctella Huebner; Galleria mellon- 
ella Linnaeus; Vitula edmansii Packard; Sitotroga cerealella 
Olivier. 

The above discussion is based on abundant reared and collected 
material in the United States National Museum. Series from the 
following hosts and localities are contained in this collection; 
Ephestia kuehniella — Reno, Nevada (S. B. Doten) ; San Fran- 
cisco, California (G. Compere and W. G. Johnson) ; Vitula ed- 
mansii in Bombus nests — Riverton, New Jersej'' and Champaign, 
Illinois (T. H. Frison) ; Sitotroga cerealella — Potchefstroom, S. 
Africa (W. F. Schepp) ; Galleria mellonella — Fillmore, California 
(J. F. Mclntyre) ; Plodia interpunctella — Jamaica Plain, Massa- 
chusetts (J. G. Jack) ; also specimens from cone galls on Salix 
longifolia, Reno, Nevada (G. G. Schweiss) ; a series from seeds of 
Prosopis juli flora, Cairo, Egypt (H. Morrison) ; another from a 
larva infesting soy beans, Mayaguez, Porto Rico (W. A. Mace) ; 
6 specimens labeled "on ship with cocoa beans, O. K. Courtney; 1 ' 
a series reared from infested corn, Santo Domingo, West Indies 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON — MUESEBECK 33 

(W. V. Tower) ; 8 specimens from a lepidopterous larva in seeds of 
Canarium indicum, Buitenzorg, Java (L. L. Spessard) ; 12, labeled 
'• Grewia cana, Transvaal, S. Africa;" 2 from St. Petersburg, Rus- 
sia (J. Schreiner) ; 1 from Charroux, France (Oberthur) ; 4 from a 
seed storehouse, Yates City, Illinois (W. S. Abbott) ; other speci- 
mens from Jacksonville, Florida; Morgantown, West Virginia; 
Agricultural College, Michigan, and Milton, Massachusetts; and 
a series of several hundred individuals bred by P. W. Whiting 
in connection with genetic studies on this species at the University 
of Pennsylvania. 

12. MICROBRACON BREVICORNIS (Wesmael) 
Fig. 19 

Bracon brevicornis Wesmael, Nouv. Mem. Acad. Sci. Bruxelles, vol. 11, 1338, 
p. 23, fig. 2. — Brischke, Schr. Naturf. Ges. Danzig, ser. 2, vol. 4, 1SS2. 
p. 135. 

Eabrobracpn brevicornis Cushman, Proc. Ent. Soe. Wash., vol. 24, 1922. p. 122. 

Type. — Probabhy in the Brussels Academy of Science. 

The similarity of this species to hebetor (Say) and the confusion 
of the two species in literature are discussed under hebetor. 

Distribution. — This species apparently occurs throughout Europe. 
It has recently been introduced into Massachusetts from France, as 
a parasite of the imported European Corn-Borer, Pyrausta nubilalis 
Huebner. While it is too early to say whether or not it has become 
definitely established in the United States, it is included in this paper 
because of the probability that it will eventually establish itself here. 

Hosts. — Dioryctria abietetta Zinck (Brischke) ; Pyrausta nubilalis 
Huebner. 

The following material has been examined : a series of 16 specimens 
in the National Museum, reared from Pyrausta nubilalis at Auch, 
Gers, France and Hyeres, Var, France, by W. R. Thompson, in the 
United States Bureau of Entomology, under Webster No. 16490; 
collected specimens in the National Museum from Saxony and Berlin, 
Germany, and La Chatre, France; and several hundred specimens 
bred at the Corn Borer Laboratoiy of the Bureau of Entomology, at 
Arlington, Massachusetts, in reproduction work with this species. 

13. MICROBRACON SCANTICORUM Viereck 

Microbracon scanticorum Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 
1917 (1916) pp. 205, 207. 

Type. — In the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, at 
New Haven. 

The following notes were made on an examination of the t}'pe and 
are given here because the species was originally poorly charac- 
terized: Antennae broken at 27th segment, first flagellar segment 
12053—25 3 



34 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol. C7 

much longer than the second ; malar space shorter than first flagellar 
segment ; transverse diameter of opening between clypeus and mandi- 
bles much greater than the distance from the opening to the eyes and 
about twice the malar space ; face minutely sculptured ; f rons smooth 
and polished; thorax smooth and polished; parapsidal furrows 
sparsely hairy; propodeum polished with a stub of a median ridge 
at apex, and a more or less distinct median roughened groove from 
the anterior end of this stub to the base of propodeum; propodeum 
also provided with two lateral oblique foveolate grooves; radius 
arising distinctly beyond middle of stigma; first abscissa of radius 
less than one-third the length of the second abscissa and less than 
half the first intercubitus ; radius attaining wing margin much before 
apex of wing; the portion of cubitus between recurrent and first in- 
tercubitus very short, the recurrent very nearly interstitial with first 
intercubitus; first abdominal tergite finely sculptured apically and 
laterally ; second tergite very minutley granular with a more strongly 
roughened area medially ; following tergites very delicately punctate, 
the apical tergites very faintly or indistinctly so ; suturif orm articu- 
lation very fine, arcuate, not distinctty foveolate; ovipositor sheaths 
just about as long as the abdomen. Mostly yellowish; dorsum of 
thorax more or less blackish ; propodeum and first abdominal tergite 
blackish ; wings slightly fuliginous ; legs, including all coxae, yellow. 

Distribution. — West Thompson, Connecticut; Algonquin, Illinois. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the type, and one additional specimen, a homo- 
type determined by Muesebeck, labeled "Algonquin, 111. 5-16-96, 
No. 6603." The latter is in the United States National Museum. 

14. MICROBRACON PYRALJDIPHAGUS, new species 

Resembles scanticorum in that the radius arises from beyond the 
middle of a rather long, narrow, non-angular stigma; in the very 
short first abscissa of radius, and the rather short radial cell; it 
differs from that species particularly as noted in the key. 

Female. — Length, 3.3 mm. Head transverse but rather thick 
antero-posteriorly at insertion of antennae; face finely granular 
and opaque; frons smooth and polished; antennae 36-segmented, 
slightly shorter than the body; first flagellar segment about twice 
as long as thick; mesonotum and mesopleura smooth and polished; 
parapsidal grooves sparsely pubescent, more thickly so posteriorly; 
propodeum finely rugulose over most of its surface and provided 
with a distinct median longitudinal carina ; metapleura finely sculp- 
tured; stigma rather narrow, not angular; the radius arising dis- 
tinctly beyond the middle of stigma; radial cell short, the radius 
attaining wing margin much before apex of wing; first abscissa of 
radius short, decidedly less than half the first intercubitus and 



art. S REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 35 

hardly one-third the second abscissa of radius; posterior femora 
stout, about three times as long as broad; first abdominal tergite 
strongly rugulose, the sculpture occurring on the middle of the plate 
as well as laterally ; second tergite about as long as third, granularly 
rugulose, its posterior margin straight; third tergite granular; the 
fourth and fifth somewhat granular but less strongly than third; 
ovipositor sheaths about as long as that part of the dorsum of ab- 
domen bej^ond second tergite. Reddish brown; head entirely black; 
mesonotal lobes, metanotum, propodeum and pectus blackish; wings 
entirely a little fuscous; legs ferruginous, the apex of posterior tibiae 
and the posterior tarsi dusky; abdomen reddish-brown, the first 
tergite somewhat infuscated. 

Type.— Cat Xo. 26064, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Crowley, Louisiana. 

Described from a single specimen labeled "Parasite of Chilo and 
Diatraea, Crowley, La., 9-8-23, J. W. Ingram." 

15. MICROBRACON GASTROIDEAE (Ashmead) 

Fig. 1 

Bracon gastroideae Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 18S9 (1888), p. 617. 

Type.— Cat. No. 2904, U.S.N.M. 

The opening betwen clypeus and mandibles is enormous, its trans- 
verse diameter being greater than the length of the face below 
antennae; female antennae usually 24 to 27-segmented, the basal 
flagellar segment twice as long as broad, all the following somewhat 
longer than broad; thorax smooth and polished; parapsidal grooves 
very sparsely hairy ; propodeum with a nearly complete median lon- 
gitudinal carina, otherwise mostly smooth and polished; first 
abscissa of radius usually not more than half the first intercubitus 
and less than half the second abscissa of radius; radial cell rather 
short, the radius attaining wing margin distinctly before apex of 
wing; tarsi stout, the posterior tarsi shorter than their tibiae, in 
the female much shorter; the last segment of posterior tarsi very 
large, broadening strongly toward apex; much longer than the 
second segment and more than twice the fourth; in the female at 
least, and usually in the male, the posterior tibiae three times as 
long as the metatarsi; abdomen smooth and polished, the second 
tergite sometimes a little longitudinally sculptured at base; ovi- 
positor sheaths scarcely as long as the first abdominal tergite. Head 
and thorax black; wings strongly infuscated; coxae black; usually 
base of femora and more or less of tibiae and tarsi blackish or 
fuscous; abdomen usually red with first tergite and a median spot 
on second black, altKough sometimes abdomen is entirely black. 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vou 07 

Distribution. — Ohio; Michigan; Illinois; Massachusetts; Canada. 

Host. — Gastroidea cyanea Melsh. 

In addition to the type which is from Columbus, Ohio, the Na- 
tional Museum has specimens from Agricultural College, Michigan ; 
Algonquin, Illinois; and Canada (C. F. Baker). There is also a 
specimen, taken at Arlington, Massachusetts, in the collection of the 
Corn Borer Laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology at Arlington. 

16. MICROBRACON BRACHYURUS (Ashmead; 

Bracon brachyurus Ashmead, Can. Ent., vol. 23, 1891, p. 1. 

Type.— Cat. No. 6853, U.S.N.M. 

Very similar to gastroideae, with which it agrees in the large open- 
ing between clypeus and mandibles, the presence of a median carina 
on the propodeum, the wing venation, the short posterior tarsi, and 
the very short ovipositor. It can be readily distinguished, however, 
by the characters given in the key. The ocelli are exceptionally 
small, the ocell-ocular line being four times the diameter of an 
ocellus; the propodeum more or less finely rugulose; head and 
thorax black; abdomen usually entirely black: posterior coxae black; 
the two anterior pairs usually yellowish. 

Distribution. — Ottawa, Canada. 

Host. — Unknown. 

The United States National Museum has, in addition to the type, 
one other specimen, also from Ottawa, Canada. 

17. MICROBRACON MELANASPIS (Ashmead, 

Fig. 5 

Bracon melanaspis Ashmead, Can. Ent., vol. 23, 1S91, i>. 1. 

Type.— Cut. No. 6863, U.S.N.M. 

Distinguished especially by the character of the second tergite as 
described in the key. Frons polished; antennae longer than the 
body; malar space in the female fully as long as the distance be- 
tween clypeal f oveae ; parapsidal grooves rather conspicuously hairy, 
especially posteriorly; propodeum completely polished without a 
suggestion of a stub of a median carina at apex; first abscissa of 
radius about three-fourths the first intercubitus and more than half 
the second abscissa of radius; posterior legs slender; abdomen com- 
pletely polished; the chitinized plate of the first tergite slender, 
parallel-sided; the lateral membranous margins of first tergite 
broad; second tergite with weakly chitinized areas laterally opposite 
the membranous margins of the first tergite; the following tergites 
with the apical margins membranous; suturiform articulation rep- 
resented by a fine impressed arcuate line, without a suggestion of 
foveolae; ovipositor sheaths scarcely half as long as the abdomen. 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 37 

Black; head and thorax black; abdomen black, the membranous 
parts of the dorsum paler; legs usually blackish. 

Distribution. — Ottawa, Canada ; S. W. Harbor, Maine. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the type, and one other fine female specimen 
which is in the Boston Societ}^ of Natural History and was taken 
by C. W. Johnson at S. W. Harbor, Maine. July 13, 1918. 

18. MICROBRACON JUNCICOLA (Ashmead) 

Bracon jtmcicola Abhmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 18S9 (18SS), p. 020. 
Microbracon sebequanash Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 
1917 (1916), pp. 204 and 206. 

Type. — Cat. No. 2911, U.S.N.M. The type of sebequanash is in the 
Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station at New Haven. 

Exceedingly like melanaspis in structure, but is probably a dis- 
tinct species. The few specimens that have been seen differ mark- 
edly in color from the t}-pe of melanaspis, being mostly yellow. 
Face yellow ; thorax and abdomen largely yellow ; legs, including all 
coxae, yellow ; malar space about as in melanaspis; antennae likewise 
are similar, being slender and usually 25 to 30-segmented ; parapsidal 
grooves rather strongly pubescent posteriorly; propodeum com- 
pletely polished with not even an indication of a stub of a median 
ridge at apex; suturiform articulation exceedingly delicate, merely 
a fine impressed line; as in melanaspis, the apical margins of the 
tergites beyond the second are usually more or less membranous; 
ovipositor sheaths hardly half as long as the abdomen. 

Distribution. — From Missouri to West Virginia and Connecticut. 

Hosts. — Evidently species of Coleophora (Ashmead). 

The above notes are based on the types of juncicola and sebequa- 
nash? and on several other specimens in the National Museum from 
the following localities: Highspire, Pennsylvania; Ohio; West 
Virginia; Algonquin, Illinois. 

19. MICROBRACON POLITIVENTRIS (Cuskman) 

Habrobracon politiventris Cushman, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 55, 1919, 
p. 517. 

Type— Cat. No. 21639, U.S.N.M. 

Very similar to pygmaeus, which it very closely resembles in size, 
color, habitus, malar space, the sculptured frons and vertex, the 
pubescence of the parapsidal furrows, the color and venation of 
the wings, and in other points. It is often difficult to distinguish 
from that species. 

Malar space in the female usually fully as long as the transverse 
diameter of the opening between clypeus and mandibles; vertex and 



38 PROCEEDINGS OP THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.67 

frons closely punctate and opaque; antennae usually 21 to 25-seg- 
mented; thorax stout; parapsidal furrows completely strongly 
hairy; the surface of the middle lobe of mesoscutum with scatter- 
ing pubescence anteriorly; propodeum usually faintly minutely 
reticulate over most of its surface; metapleura with long pubsecence; 
second abscissa of radius nearly always less than twice the first, and 
sometimes only half the third ; the portion of cubitus between recur- 
rent and first intercubitus usually about half the first intercubitus ; 
abdomen rather broad, smooth and polished; the second tergite 
usually considerably longer than the third, polished, and provided 
with two short oblique f oveolate furrows medially ; ovipositor sheaths 
not or scarcely half as long as the abdomen. Black; head black, 
with pale yellow orbital lines; thorax black; wings dusky; coxae 
black or blackish; femora usually yellow; tibiae and tarsi mostly 
blackish; abdomen black, usually bright yellow laterally. 

Distribution. — From Maine to Virginia, and west to Iowa. 

Flosts. — Polychrosis viteana Clemens; Eulia triferana Walker; 
Archips 'paralella Kobinson or Pandemis lamprosana Robinson. The 
parasite is gregarious, several individuals developing on a single host. 

In addition to the types the collection of the United States 
National Museum contains two specimens reared from Eulia 
triferana, at Washington, District of Columbia, under Chittenden 
No. 6099 02 ; a series reared from a lepidopterous larva on wild 
cherry, by R. A. Cushman, at Vienna, Virginia, under Quaintance 
No. 7719; a specimen labeled "la. Exp. Sta., Plum curculio"; and 
one specimen from Hanover, New Hampshire (C. M. Weed). At 
the Gipsy Moth Laboratory there is a series reared by J. V. Schaff- 
ner from a collection of two different species of Tortricidae, Archips 
paralexia and Pandemis lamprosana taken at Melrose Highlands, 
Massachusetts; one or the other of these was the host. The collec- 
tion of the Boston Society of Natural History has a specimen 
collected at Liberty, Maine, by J. A. Cushman. 

20. MICROBRACON PYGMAEUS (Provancher) 

Figs. 3, 15 

Bracon pygmacus Provancher, Natural. Canad., vol. 12, 18S0, p. 144. 
Bracon junci Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 1889 (1SS8), p. 619. 
Bracon trifolii Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 1SS9 (18S8), p. 622. 
Bracon kansensis Viereck, Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., vol. 19, 1905 (1903-04), 

p. 2G8. 
Microbracon coleophorae Rohwer, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 49, 1915, p. 231. 
Microbracon massasoit Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 

1917 (1916), pp. 205 and 207. 

Type. — Yellow label 555, Museum of Public Instruction, Parlia- 
ment Building, Quebec, Canada. The types of junci (Cat. No. 2910) 



aet. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 39 

trifolii (Cat. No. 2916) and coleophorae (Cat. No. 18180) are in the 
United States National Museum ; that of hansensis is in the Kansas 
University collection; and that of massasoit is in the collection of the 
State Agricultural Experiment Station, at New Haven, Connecticut. 
Very similar to the preceding as pointed out in the discussion un- 
der that species; but the characters given in the table to species will 
serve to distinguish between the two. 

Malar space in the female as long as the transverse diameter of 
the opening between clypeus and mandibles; frons and vertex closely 
punctate and opaque; antennae usually 24 to 29-segmented ; thorax 
stout; mesoscutum with long and rather thick pubescence along the 
anterior lateral margins and in the parapsidal grooves; metapleura 
thickly pubescent ; propodeum smooth and shining, not minutely reti- 
culate; second abscissa of radius rarely distinctly twice as long as 
the first ; posterior tibiae and tarsi slender ; plate of first abdominal 
tergite usually a little roughened laterally and across the apex; sec- 
ond tergite usually more or less finely granularly sculptured, with- 
out oblique foveolate furrows medially toward base; very rarely 
third and fourth tergites granular, usually smooth and shining; ovi- 
positor sheaths projecting about half the length of the abdomen. 
Head black with contrasting yellow inner orbital lines; thorax 
mostly black, sometimes ferruginous behind the middle lobe of meso- 
scutum and on the scutellum ; wings dusky on basal two-thirds ; coxae 
usually black, although sometimes mostly testaceous ; posterior tibiae 
at apex and their tarsi fuscous ; abdomen often mostly reddish testa- 
ceous with the first tergite and the apical tergites black, but this is 
variable, the entire abdomen sometimes being black. 

Distribution. — Very widely distributed. Occurs from Canada to 
Florida and westward to California. 

Hosts. — Coleophora leucochry sella Clemens (Eohwer) ; C. volckei 
Heinrich; and various undetermined species of Coleophora. 

In addition to the types of pygmaeus, junci, trifolii, coleophorae, 
and massasoit, I have seen the following material: In the National 
Museum, a series reared from Coleophora volckei at Washington, 
District of Columbia, by E. E. Selkregg, under Quaintance No. 7890 ; 
another series reared from the same host, at Watsonville, California 
by W. H. Volck ; several specimens from a species of Coleophora on 
Amaranthus at Washington, District of Columbia; and collected 
specimens from Cedar Point, Maryland ; Jacksonville, Florida ; Al- 
gonquin, Illinois; Agricultural College, Maryland; Onaga and Riley 
Co., Kansas; Vienna, Virginia (E, A. Cushman) ; Ames, Iowa (C. 
W. Mally) ; Indiana; Colorado. The Boston Society of Natural 
History has one specimen taken by C. W. Johnson at S. W. Harbor, 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 07 

Maine. At the Gipsy Moth Laboratory there is a specimen reared 
from a species of Coleopkora taken at Wilmington, Massachusetts. 
The original description of kansensis and notes on the type by A. B. 
Gahan leave no doubt that this species is pygmaeus. 

21. MICROBRACON CONNECTICUTORUM Viereck 

Microoracon connect icutorum Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. 
Survey, 1917 (1916), pp. 205 and 209. 

Type. — In the State Agricultural Experiment Station at New- 
Haven, Connecticut. 

Resembles nuperus and curtus in having the head thin antero-pos- 
teriorly, in the smooth and polished frons, the completely polished 
propodeum and the smooth abdomen, but differs especially in the 
much shorter ovipositor sheaths. 

Following are notes made on an examination of the type: Face, 
frons and vertex smooth and shining; malar space as long as the 
transverse diameter of the opening between clypeus and mandibles; 
antennae missing; thorax stout; parapsidal grooves posteriorly, and 
the metapleura, thickty pubescent; propodeum completely smooth 
and polished, without a suggestion of a stub of a median ridge at 
apex ; first abscissa of radius nearly as long as the first intercubitus, 
the second abscissa hardly one and one-half times as long as the first ; 
the portion of cubitus between recurrent vein and first intercubitus 
nearly as long as the recurrent; abdomen smooth and polished, with 
a few extremely faint punctures or striae on second tergite; the 
plate of the first tergite completely polished; ovipositor sheaths 
not projecting half the length of the abdomen. 

Distribution. — New Haven, Connecticut. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the type. 

22. MICROBRACON PSILOCORSI Viereck 

Microbracon psilocorsi Viekeck, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 42, 1912, p. 143. 

Type.— Oat. No. 14317, U.S.N.M. 

Resembles politiventris in habitus, and in some details, but is eas- 
ily distinguished. Head thick antero-posteriorly at insertion of an- 
tennae; face strongly receding; eyes very short, broad-oval; frons 
polished; antennae usually 30 to 33-segmented, tapering distinctly 
toward tip; the ten or twelve basal segments of flagellum more 
or less subequal ; thorax stout, rather thickly pubescent in the parap- 
sidal grooves and on metapleura; scutellum large; radius arising 
much before middle of stigma and going to extreme apex of wing; 
second abscissa of radius much more than twice the first; the part 
of cubitus between recurrent and first intercubitus only half the 
length of recurrent; measured along cubitus the third cubital cell 
not distinctly as long as the second ; propodeum smooth and polished ; 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 41 

abdomen entirely smooth and polished; second tergite with a basal 
median area set off by short oblique foveolate furrows, and some- 
times with less distinct longitudinal furrows laterally; second ter- 
gite about as long as the third ; ovipositor sheaths less than half as 
long as the abdomen. Mostly yellowish; face yellow; frons and 
vertex sometimes piceous to blackish; mesonotal lobes, lateral faces 
of scutellum, metathorax, propodeum, and pectus more or less 
piceous, sometimes thorax mostly blackish except on the pleura; 
wings infumated on basal two-thirds; legs yellow, the posterior 
coxae sometimes infuscated; abdomen usually yellowish, with first 
tergite, and the third and following medially, more or less blackish. 

Distribution. — Cuero, Texas. 

Host. — (Psilocorsis) Cryptolechia, species. 

Known only from the type series. 

23. MICROBRACON MEROMYZAE (Gahan) 

Bracon (Tropidobracon) meromyzae Gahan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 48, 
1913, p. 432. 

Type.— Cat. No. 16350, U.S.N.M. 

Head rather thick antero-posteriorly, not broad; face and frons 
smooth and polished; antennae slender, usually 28 to 32-segmented, 
as long as the body in the female, longer in the male; thorax slender, 
polished; parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy; propodeum polished, 
usually with a nearly complete median longitudinal carina; radius 
going practically to extreme apex of wing; second abscissa of radius 
twice as long as the first; the chitinized plate of first tergite slender, 
rugose laterally and at apex ; second and third tergites finely granu- 
lar, shining; rarely the fourth tergite faintly granular in part; re- 
mainder of dorsum of abdomen smooth and polished; ovipositor 
sheaths less than half the length of abdomen. Head wholly black; 
thorax black, pectus sometimes more or less yellowish; wings very 
slightly dusky; legs, including all coxae, bright yellow; abdomen 
more or less blackish above, second and third tergites mostly yellow. 

Distribution. — South Dakota. 

Host. — Meromyza americana Fitch. 

Known only from the types, and two additional specimens, from 
Brookings, South Dakota, in the United States National Museum. 

24. MICROBRACON NIGRIDORSUM (Ashmead) 

Bracon nigridorsum Ashmead, Can. Ent., vol. 23, 1891, p. 2. 

Type.— Oat. No. 6862, U.S.N.M. 

Head rather thick antero-posteriorly, the face strongly receding; 
temples broad; eyes short, broad-oval; face and frons smooth and 
polished; antennae slender, 35-segmented in the type, the first flagel- 
12053—25 i 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

lar segment twice as long as broad, all the following one and one- 
half times as long as broad, thorax stout, smooth and polished; 
parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy ; propodeum smooth and polished ; 
first abdominal tergite somewhat roughened laterally and at apex; 
second tergite with a little very faint sculpture medially ; suturif orm 
articulation very fine; third and following tergites completely 
smooth and polished; ovipostor sheaths projecting hardly half the 
length of the abdomen. Head black, with very narrow ferruginous 
inner and superior orbital lines; thorax black; wings hyaline; legs, 
including all coxae, bright yellow; abdomen in type honey-yellow, 
with first tergite and transverse median spots on second, third and 
fourth tergites, black. 

Distribution. — Ottawa, Canada. 

Host. — Unknown. 

The type is the only specimen known to me. 

25. MICROBRACON ASHMEADI, new name 

Macrodi/ctium politum Ashmead, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 4, 1902, p. 252 ; 
[not (Bracon politus Provancher) =M icrohracon nuperus (Cresson).] 

Type.— €at. No. 5712, U.S.N.M. 

Head not thin antero-posteriorly, face receding; eyes broad; face 
and f rons smooth and polished ; opening between clypeus and mandi- 
bles small, its transverse diameter not greater than the distance from 
the opening to the eye ; thorax long and slender, fully twice as long 
as its greatest depth ; parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy ; metanotum 
longer than usual ; propodeum long, with a stub of a median carina 
at apex and a few short ridges diverging from this; stigma large, 
long; both second and third cubital cells long; last abscissa of radius 
longer than first and second abscissae combined; posterior tarsi 
rather stout, the apical tarsal segment large and fully as long as the 
second; abdomen long and narrow; first tergite slender, broadening 
gradually toward apex, and a little rugulose laterally and at apex; 
second tergite with faint striae medially; suturif orm articulation 
very delicate; remainder of tergum polished; hypopygium not at- 
taining apex of last dorsal segment ; ovipositor sheaths less than half 
as long as the abdomen. Head, thorax and abdomen entirely black ; 
wings a little infuscated; legs, including coxae, black; tibiae yellow 
on the basal half. 

Distribution. — Alaska. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the unique type. 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECTC 43 

26. MICROBRACON UNCAS Viereck 

Microbracon uncus Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 1917 
(1916), pp. 206 and 20S. 

Type. — In the State Agricultural Experiment Station, at New 
Haven, Connecticut. 

Exceedingly similar to ashmeadi, agreeing in habitus, in the small 
size of the opening between clypeus and mandibles, in the smooth 
f rons, in the form, sculpture and pubescence of thorax ; in the vena- 
tion of the wings; in the stout tarsi and large last tarsal segment; 
in size, shape and sculpture of the abdomen ; in the hypopygium not 
attaining apex of last dorsal abdominal segment; the length of the 
ovipositor sheaths, and the general color. Appears to differ only in 
the color of the legs, which are yellow, with the posterior coxae a lit- 
tle blackish at extreme base. The propodeum has, in addition to the 
apical median carina, a slight median longitudinal elevation and 
adjoining fine sculpture at base. 

Distribution. — New Haven, Connecticut. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the type. 

27. MICROBRACON ANGELESIUS (Provancher) 

Bracon angclcsius Provancher, Addit. faun. Canad. Hymen., 1S8S, p. 372. 
Bracon cecidomyiue Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 1SS9 (1888), p. 616. 
Bracon euurae Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 1889 (1888), p. 621. 

Type. — Yellow label 1486, Museum of Public Instruction, at 
Quebec, Canada; the head is broken off, but is mounted on one of 
the labels. The types of cecidomyiae (Cat. No. 2903) and euurae 
(Cat. No. 2914) are in the United States National Museum. 

Distinguished especially by the very slender antennae, the long 
ovipositor, the entirely polished abdomen, hyaline wings, and color 
of the body. Head rather thick antero-posteriorly ; face receding 
rather strongly; antennae of the type, and those of the type of 
euurae, are broken at or beyond the middle ; the type of cecidomyiae 
has 32-segmented antennae; in all three the first flagellar segment 
is nearly three times as long as broad, and all the following seg- 
ments are fully twice as long as broad ; f rons polished ; thorax pol- 
ished; parapsidal grooves very sparsely hairy anteriorly, more 
closely hairy behind; propodeum smooth and polished, with a short 
stub of a median carina at apex ; anterior wings of type are missing ; 
in the types of euurae and cecidomyiae the radial cell is large and 
long, and the second abscissa of radius is not distinctly twice as long 
as the first; posterior femora slender; abdomen completely smooth 
and polished; ovipositor sheaths one and one-half times as long as 



44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.67 

the abdomen. Face yellow; vertex and occiput more or less piceous; 
thorax yellow, the pectus and the propodeum usually fuscous or 
blackish; wings perfectly clear hyaline; legs, including all coxae, 
bright yellow, the posterior tibiae at apex and their tarsi more or 
less inf uscated ; abdomen yellow or yellowish-ferruginous with trans- 
verse fuscous or blackish bands on the second, third, and fourth 
tergites. 

Distribution. — California. 

Hosts. — Euura, species, which forms galls on Salix; and a ceci- 
domyid gall on Mimulus. 

Known only from the types of angelesius, cecidomyiae, and euurae. 
A thorough study of the three types clearly shows them to be 
conspecific. 

28. MICROBRACON AURIPES (Provancher) 

Bracon auripes Provancheu, Addit. faun. Canad. Hymen., 1888, p. 372. 

Type. — Blue label 670, yellow label 1571, Museum of Public In- 
struction, at Quebec, Canada. 

Following are notes made upon an examination of the type : Head 
missing; thorax slender, smooth and polished; radius going practi- 
cally to extreme apex of wing; second abscissa of radius more than 
twice the first, the third longer than first and second combined; re- 
current vein more than twice as long as the portion of cubitus be- 
tween recurrent and first intercubitus ; first abdominal tergite slen- 
der, broadening gradually toward apex, with a finely foveolate 
groove just inside the lateral margins; second tergite longer than 
third, finely ruguloso-striate ; suturiform articulation very fine; re- 
mainder of abdomen highly polished ; ovipositor sheaths very nearly 
as long as the abdomen. Thorax*- black with a large testaceous spot 
behind middle lobe of mesoscutum, and with the propleura testace- 
ous; wings hyaline; legs, including all coxae, wholly yellow; abdo- 
men black above, with narrow yellow lateral margins and with a 
bright j^ellow spot at the apex; venter mostl}?- yellowish. A homo- 
type and other specimens in the same series t>how the species to have 
a black, smooth and polished, evenly rounded head, with very slen- 
der antennae, which have all the flagellar segments more than twice 
as long as thick, and are 27 to 32-segmented. The thorax is some- 
times entirely black. 

Distribution. — Ottawa, Canada ; Massachusetts. 

Hosts. — Lepidopterous larvae boring in various weeds, such as 
Amaranthus, Ambrosia, Xanthium, etc. 

In addition to the type, I have seen a large series of specimens 
reared from such plants as indicated above, at the Corn Borer Labo- 
ratory of the Bureau of Entomology, at Arlington, Massachusetts. 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON— ^MUESEBECK 45 

This material is from Watertown, Maiden, Melrose, Stoneham, Sau- 

gus, and Wakefield, Massachusetts. One of these specimens was 
compared with the type, designated a homotype, and placed in the 
United States National Museum. 

29. MICROBRACON RLDBECKIAE, new species 

Figs. 2, 22 

Female. — Length. 3.3 mm. Head rather thin, not prominent at 
insertion of antennae, the face rather flat, not, or very slightly, re- 
ceding; eyes small; ocelli small; ocell-ocular line more three times 
the diameter of an ocellus; postocellar line about twice the diameter 
of an ocellus: opening between clypeus and mandibles large, its 
transverse diameter nearly twice the length of malar space; face, 
frons, vertex, temples, smooth and polished; antennae 24-segmented, 
shorter than the body, basal flagellar segments the longest; thorax 
stout, smooth, and polished; the parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy; 
propodeum entirely polished, without even a suggestion of a stub 
of a carina at apex; second abscissa of radius usually distinctly less 
than twice the first ; the third longer than the first and second com- 
bined and usually about twice as long as the second, which is but 
little longer than the first intercubitus ; the portion of cubitus be- 
tween recurrent and first intercubitus more than half as long as the 
recurrent; the last abscissa of cubitus considerably longer than the 
preceding abscissa; legs slender; last segment of posterior tarsi not 
as long as the second ; abdomen a little longer than the thorax ; the 
chitinized plate of the first tergite nearly parallel-sided, angled at 
the spiracles, smooth and polished, with two fine curved grooves con- 
verging toward the base ; second tergite transverse, with conspicuous 
membranous areas laterally opposite the membranous margins along 
the first tergite. and with a slight tubercle at base and adjoining fine 
striae; third and following tergites smooth and polished; ovipositor 
sheaths distinctly longer than the entire body. Yellow; vertex of 
head and occiput more or less piceous; mesonotal lobes and propo- 
deum sometimes a little dusky; wings distinctly infuscated on basal 
two-thirds, nearly hyaline at apex; legs including all coxae yellow, 
the tibiae usually slightly dusky. 

Male. — Antennae 26-segmented. Essentially as in the female. 

Type.— Cat. No. 26662, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Mineral Wells. Texas. 

Host. — A larva living in the head of Rudbeckia amplex. 

Described from 20 female and 2 male specimens reared by C. R. 
Jones. The number of segments in the antennae in this series varies 
from 23 to. 26. 



46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

30. MICROBRACON TENUICEPS, new species 

Fig. 7 

Very similar in structure to rudbeckiae, but is almost completely 
black, has the second abdominal tergite wholly smooth and polished, 
and differs in numerous details ; also resembles nuperus, but differs as 
noted in the key. 

Female. — Length, 3 mm. Head thin antero-posteriorly, scarcely 
thicker at insertion of antennae than at the clypeus, the face not or 
hardly receding; the frons almost vertical; face, frons, vertex, and 
temples smooth and polished; eyes nearly twice as long as broad, 
faintly hairy; transverse diameter of opening between clypeus and 
mandibles not twice the length of the malar space; post-ocellar Hue 
not distinctly twice, the ocell-ocular line not distinctly three times, 
as long as the diameter of an ocellus; antennae 23-segmented, the 
basal flagellar segment nearly three times as long as broad, the 
following gradually decreasing in length, but most of them fully 
twice as long as broad ; thorax rather stout, completely smooth and 
polished ; parapsidal furrows sparsely hairy anteriorly, more thickly 
so posteriorly ; propodeum entirely polished, without even a stub of 
a median longitudinal ridge at apex; first abscissa of radius longer 
than the recurrent vein ; second abscissa of radius much less than twice 
the first, only half the third, and but very slightly longer than the 
first intercubitus ; radius attaining wing margin distinctly before the 
apex; last abscissa of cubitus a little longer than the preceding ab- 
scissa ; legs slender, the posterior femora at least four-fifths as long as 
their tibiae ; abdomen about as long as the thorax, completely smooth 
and highly polished; the chitinized plate of first tergite broad, and 
with two fine impressed curved lines converging toward base; sec- 
ond abdominal tergite with a small but conspicuous, more or less tri- 
angular, membranous area at either side joining the lateral membran- 
ous margins of the first tergite ; second tergite much shorter than the 
third ; hypopygium attaining apex of last dorsal abdominal segment ; 
ovipositor sheaths fully as long as the entire body. Black ; head and 
thorax wholly black; wings strongly infuscated; legs deep black, 
except the anterior femora at apex, their tibiae within, and the 
middle and posterior tibiae at extreme base, where they are brownish ; 
abdomen black except the membranous margins along first tergite, 
the membranous areas in the basal lateral angles of the second, and 
a very small spot in the basal lateral angles of the third, which are 
bright yellow, contrasting strongly with the deep black of the re- 
mainder of the abdomen. 

Type.— Cat. No. 27142, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Chester, Virginia. 

Host. — f Phytonomus nigrirostris Fabricius. 



aet. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 47 

Described from a fine single specimen taken by W. J. Schoene in 
connection with studies of the clover weevil, Phytonomus nigrirostris. 
C. W. Johnson, of the Boston Society of Natural History, has several 
fine specimens of this striking species, which were collected by him 
at Bar Harbor, Southwest Harbor, Salisbury Cove, and Mount 
Desert, Maine; one small female in this collection has only 18 seg- 
ments in the antennae. 

31. MICROBRACON NUPERUS (Cresson) 

Bracon nuperus Cresson, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 4, 1872, p. 187, line 20. 
Bracon minimus Cresson, Trans. Amer, Ent. Soc, vol. 4, 1872, p. 187, line 31. 
Bracon politus Provancher, Addit. faun. Canad. Hymen., 18S8, p. 373. 
Microbracon (Bracon) nuperus Pierce, U. S. D. A., Bur. Ent. Bull. 63, 1909, 
p. 44. 

Type. — No. 1686, Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. The types of minimus (Cat. No. 1613, allotype; holo- 
type lost) and politus (Cat. No. 19G9) are in the United States 
National Museum. The allotype of vernoniae Ashmead, which also 
belongs here, is likewise in the National Museum. 

Resembles tenuiceps in the general conformation of the head, in 
the polished frons, completely polished propodeum, in the dusky 
wings and the long ovipositor, but can be readily separated. It is 
very closely allied to curtus, and some males can probably be dis- 
tinguished only with great difficulty ; the female differs in the longer 
ovipositor. 

Head thin, the face but slightly receding; eyes shorter than in 
tenuiceps; transverse diameter of the opening between clypeus and 
mandibles not distinctly one and one-half times the length of the 
malar space in either sex; ocell-ocular line at least three times the 
diameter of an ocellus; antennae usually 21 to 30 segmented, the 
number varying with the size of the insect ; thorax, with propodeum, 
entirely highly polished; second abscissa of radius about twice the 
first; the third longer than the first and second combined; radius 
attaining wing margin before the apex ; last abscissa of cubitus longer 
than the preceding abscissa; plate of first abdominal tergite rather 
broad posteriorly, smooth and polished, sometimes more or less 
punctate along apical margin ; second tergite usually with a polished 
elevation medially at base, and more or less rugulose on the basal 
two-thirds; suturiform articulation usually slightly arcuate medi- 
ally and finely foveolate; second tergite as long as the third; third 
and following completely polished ; ovipositor sheaths as long as the 
body. Head black, rarely with poorly defined ferruginous inner 
orbital markings; thorax wholly black, although rarely with some 
ferruginous or testaceous markings; wings strongly infuscated on 



48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

basal two-thirds, more hyaline at apex ; legs, at least the coxae, nearly 
always black; rarely the coxae mostly ferruginous or testaceous; 
femora sometimes testaceous or yellowish-brown, although frequently 
mostly black; abdomen varying from entirely ferruginous or testa- 
ceous, except at extreme base, to entirely black except more or less 
of second and third tergites. 

Distribution. — From Montana to Mexico, and from Illinois to 
California; apparently more common over the western half of the 
United States. 

Hosts. — ? Orthoris crotchii LeConte; larva feeding in seed cap- 
sules of Vemonia. 

In addition to the types, the following material, all of it in the 
National Museum, has been examined; the allotype of vernoniae 
Ashmead, which is certainly nuperus; two specimens labeled " para- 
site on dipteron in seeds of Vemonia, Kirkwood, Missouri, M. E. 
Murtfeldt;" one female bearing Bureau of Entomology No. 3557% 
and dated May 18, 1885, which are the same data found on the labels 
of the allotype of vernoniae; one specimen labeled " Pullman, Wash- 
ington, C. V. Piper, Wash. Exp. Sta. No. 010;" and collected speci- 
mens from Helena, Montana; Las Cruces, New Mexico (Cockerell) ; 
Texas (Belfrage) ; Alameda Co., California; Forest Grove, Oregon 
(L. P. Rockwood) ; "40 miles north of Lusk, Wyoming;" Torreon 
Coahuilo, Mexico; Algonquin, Illinois. There is one specimen at 
the Gipsy Moth Laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology from 
Fresno, California (M. E. Phillips). Pierce records the species as 
having been reared in very large numbers from Orthoris crotchii, 
feeding in the seed pods of Mentzelia nuda at Clarendon, Texas. 

32. MICROBRACON CURTUS (Provancher) 

Pliylax curtus Provancher, Addit. faun. Canad. Hyiueii., 1886, p. 130. 
Zele curtus Provancher, Addit. faun. Canad. Hymen., 1SSS, p. 380. 

Type. — Blue label 277, yellow label 127G, Museum of Public In- 
struction, Quebec, Canada. 

Head thin antero-posteriorly, the face scarcely receding; malar 
space, in female, about as long as first flagellar segment; face and 
frons smooth and polished ; antennae of type 25-segmented, none of 
the flagellar segments twice as long as thick; thorax stout, smooth 
and polished; propodeum completely polished, without even a stub 
of a median ridge at apex; radius arising before middle of stigma; 
second abscissa of radius scarcely twice the first; last abscissa of 
cubitus not distinctly longer than the preceding abscissa; abdomen 
broad-oval, entirely smooth and polished, with no suggestion of sculp- 
ture on the second tergite, in which respect this species appears to 
differ from nwperus; ovipositor sheaths slightly longer than the ab- 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICEOBRACON — MUESEBECK 49 

domen. Head and thorax mostly brownish-black to black; wings 
strongly infuscated on basal two-thirds; legs, including coxae tes- 
taceous to reddish-brown ; abdomen mostly testaceous to ferruginous. 

Distribution. — Ottawa, Canada. 

Host. — Unknown. 

The foregoing notes are based on the type, and a homotype (de- 
termined by Rohwer) ; the latter is in the United States National Mu- 
seum; it bears no locality data. 

33. MICROBRACON HYSLOPI Viereck 

Microbracon hyslopi Viereck, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 42, 1912, p. 143. 

Type.— Cat. No. 14316, U.S.N.M. 

Head not very prominent at insertion of antennae; face slightly 
receding; malar space in female about as long as first segment of an- 
tenna! flagellum; the transverse diameter of the opening between 
clypeus and mandibles but little greater than the distance from this 
opening to the eye; face very faintly punctate; frons weakly punc- 
tate just above insertion of antennae; antennae usually 30 to 40 
segmented ; the two basal flagellar segments of equal length, all flagel- 
lar segments considerably longer than broad, but none of them dis- 
tinctly twice as long as broad; oeell-ocular line three times as long as 
the diameter of an ocellus; thorax stout, smooth and polished; pro- 
podeum with a distinct stub of a median ridge at apex; radius not 
attaining apex of wing, second abscissa of radius about twice as long 
as the first, the third about as long as the first and second combined ; 
the portion of cubitus between recurrent and first intercubitus more 
than half as long as recurrent: abdomen robust, mostly smooth and 
polished: first tergite rugulose along posterior margin; second ter- 
gite more or less rugulose or granular; third tergite rarely faintly 
punctate; ovipositor sheaths fully as long as the abdomen. Head 
black, sometimes with ferruginous or testaceous inner and superior 
orbital markings; cheeks and temples sometimes testaceous; thorax 
with mesoscutum and scutellum and more or less of the pleura usually 
testaceous ; propodeum and pectus black ; rarely thorax almost wholly 
black ; wings rather strongly infuscated, the stigma, at least at base 
and along costal margin bright yellow ; all coxae and trochanters, and 
usually most of the middle and hind femora, tibiae and tarsi, black; 
abdomen usually mostly testaceous, with black median areas on most 
of the tergites. 

Distribution. — Washington, Oregon, Utah, Colorado. 

Host. — Etiella zinckenella schisiicolor Zeller. 

In addition to the type the United States National Museum has 
three specimens reared from a lepidopteron on Trifolium at Manzan- 



50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

ita, Oregon, by L. P. Rockwood, and one specimen from Colorado. At 
the Gipsy Moth Laboratory there are two specimens from Salt Lake 
City. 

34. MICROBRACON NITIDUS (Provancher) 

Bracon nitidus Provancher, Natural. Canad., vol. 14, 1SS3, p. 15. 

Type. — Yellow label 1026. Museum of Public Instruction, at 
Quebec, Canada. 

The following notes were made upon an examination of the tpye : 
Frons polished ; antennae 28-segmented, stout, the flagellar segments 
beyond second only a little longer than broad: transverse diameter 
of opening between clypeus and mandibles but very little greater 
than the distance from the opening to the eyes; malar space as long 
as or longer than the first segment of antennal flagellum; thorax 
nearly twice as long as its greatest height, smooth and polished ; pro- 
podeum mostly smooth and polished, with a median longitudinal 
carina extending from the apex half way to the base, and finely 
sculptured along the median line between the end of this carina and 
the base, usually also with a little faint sculpture either side of the 
median line on the basal half; second abscissa of radius a little more 
than twice as long as the first; the third abscissa slightly longer 
than the first and second abscissae combined ; first abdominal tergite 
broad posteriorly, finely rugulose laterally and a little punctate 
along the apical margin; second tergite slightly rugulose over a small 
basal middle area, very faintly punctate over most of the remain- 
der of its surface, strongty shining, third and following tergites 
smooth and polished; ovipositor sheaths about as long as the abdo- 
men. Head blackish; face brownish-black; thorax black; wings a 
little dusky ; legs reddish-yellow, the coxae black or blackish ; abdo- 
men black, the second and third tergites mostly yellowish-ferrugi- 
nous; apical margin of third tergite black; base of fourth tergite 
reddish. 

Distribution. — Canada ; Maine. 

Host. — Unknown. 

In addition to the type, I have seen a female specimen taken by 
C. W. Johnson at Fort Kent, Maine, August 19, 1910, which, fol- 
lowing comparison with the type, I designated a homotype. This 
specimen is in the collection of the Boston Society of Natural 
History. It differs from the type only in having 25 instead of 28 
segments in the antennae, and in having the parts that are testaceous 
in the type, reddish or reddish-brown. Mr. Johnson has taken two 
other female specimens of this species, at Southwest Harbor and 
Mount Desert, Maine, respectively. He has very kindly presented 
one of these to the National Museum. 



art. S REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 51 

35. MICROBRACON TYCHII, new species 
Fig. 21 

Somewhat resembles hyslopi, but can be readily distinguished by 
the characters given in the key. 

Length 3.8 mm. Head rather thick antero-posteriorly at insertion 
of antennae; face strongly receding below; temples broad; trans- 
verse diameter of opening between clypeus and mandibles but very 
little greater than the distance from the opening to the eyes ; malar 
space as long as first segment of antennal flagellum, or very nearly ; 
antennae shorter than the body, 28-segmented, tapering slightly 
toward tip, the basal flagellar segment about twice as long as broad, 
all the following considerably longer than broad; postocellar line 
about twice, ocell-ocular line three times, as long as the diameter of 
an ocellus; face very faintly punctate and clothed with long hairs; 
frons smooth and polished; thorax rather robust, although about 
twice as long as high, smooth and polished ; parapsidal furrows with 
scattered long hairs; propodeum smooth and polished without a 
distinct median longitudinal carina posteriorly, but sometimes with 
a faint stub of a median ridge at apex; metapleura, propodeum 
laterally, and the posterior coxae clothed with long silken hairs; 
second abscissa of radius usually decidedly less than twice the first; 
the latter about as long as the side of stigma bordering the first 
cubital cell; the third abscissa of radius longer than the first and 
second abscissae combined; abdomen fully as long as the thorax; 
plate of first tergite more or less sculptured laterally and pos- 
teriori; second tergite transverse, about as long as the third, with 
a low polished tubercle at base in the middle, and the integument 
immediately adjoining the tubercle more or less finely sculptured; 
the second tergite laterally and posteriorly, and the third and fol- 
lowing tergites entirely, smooth and polished; suturiform articula- 
tion fine, smooth, not at all foveolate; ovipositor sheaths about as 
long as the abdomen or slightly shorter. Black ; head entirely black ; 
thorax black, the scutellum usually yellowish or ferruginous at apex 
and along its sides, and sometimes poorly defined pale markings 
on the mesopleura and pectus; wings dusky toward base, more 
hyaline apically; all coxae and trochanters, and more or less of the 
femora basally, black; the tibiae and tarsi more or less blackish or 
fuscous; abdomen black except along the lateral margins. 

Male. — Essentially as in the female. The antennae are 30-seg- 
mented; the malar space is a little shorter and the opening between 
clypeus and mandibles a little larger, than in the opposite sex. 



52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

Type.— Cat, No. 26069, U.S.N.M. 
Type-locality. — Los Angeles County, California. 
Host. — Tychius semisquamosus LeConte. 

Described from 24 specimens reared in May and June. 1892, by 
D. W. Coquillet. 

36. MICROBRACON PINI, new species 
Fig. 14 

Closely resembles tychii, but differs in the somewhat shorter malar 
space, the larger opening between clypeus and mandibles, in the 
presence of a distinct sharp stub of a median longitudinal ridge 
at the apex of propodeum; in the first abscissa of radius being 
shorter than the inner side of stigma, and in the legs being usually 
less black. 

Female. — Length, 3 mm. Head much thicker antero-posteriorly 
at insertion of antennae than at the lower margin of clypeus ; trans- 
verse diameter of opening between clypeus and mandibles greater than 
the distance from the opening to the eyes, malar space much shorter 
than the first segment of antennal flagellum ; temples not as broad as 
in the preceding species, postocellar line scarcely one and one-half 
times, ocell-ocular line less than three times, the diameter of an ocel- 
lus; antennae 31-segmented, the first flagellar segment about twice 
as long as broad, all the following considerably longer than broad ; 
face and frons polished ; thorax smooth and polished, parapsidal fur- 
rows sparsely hairy; propodeum polished, with a distinct stub of a 
median longitudinal ridge at apex; second abscissa of radius de- 
cidedly less than twice the first; the third abscissa longer than the 
first and second abscissae combined; last abscissa of cubitus much 
longer than the preceding abscissa; the portion of cubitus between 
recurrent and first intercubitus much more than half as long as the 
recurrent; abdomen long-oval; plate of first tergite more or less 
sculptured laterally and apically; second tergite reguloso-striate 
medially, smooth and shining laterally ; third and following tergites 
smooth and polished; rarely the third faintly sculptured; ovipositor 
sheaths about as long as the abdomen beyond first tergite. Black; 
head and thorax wholly black; wings very slightly dusky; coxae 
usually mostly black or blackish, remainder of legs brownish with 
more or less inf uscation ; abdomen black ; second tergite usually yel- 
lowish-brown except medially where it is black; third tergite usually 
somewhat yellowish along basal margin and laterally. 

Male, — Agrees with the female except for the usual sexual dif- 
ferences. Antennae 33-segmented, the flagellar segments a little 
more slender than in the female. 

Type.— Cat. No. 27143, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Gardner, Massachusetts. 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON — MUESEBECK 53 

A Uotype-locality. — Saugus, Massachusetts. 

Host. — Pissodes strobi Peck. 

Described from 8 female and 4 male specimens reared at the 
Gipsy Moth Laboratory, Melrose Highlands, Massachusetts, from 
the above-named host, by J. V. Schaffner under Gipsy Moth Labo- 
ratory Nos. 12164 H 1-a, and 12164 H 1-b. There are several addi- 
tional specimens in the United States National Museum, reared from 
Pissodes strobi taken at Rainbow, Windsor, and Portland, Connecti- 
cut, by S. N. Spring, B. H. Walden and M. P. Zappe. 

37. MICROBRACON SESIAE, new species 
Figs. 8, 9 

Very similar to nevadensis, but distinguished as noted in the table 
to species. 

Female. — Length, 4 mm. Head thick at insertion of antennae; 
face short, receding below; transverse diameter of tfye opening be- 
tween clypeus and mandibles considerably greater than the shortest 
distance from the opening to the eyes, and nearly as long as the 
distance from lower margin of antennal foramina to the clypeus; 
malar space shorter than first segment of antennal flagellum; eyes 
broad, very sparsely hairy; ocell-ocular line about three times as 
long as the diameter of an ocellus; face finely punctate; frons 
very faintly punctate just above antennae; antennae 32-segmented 
in type, stout, most of the flagellar segments only a little longer 
than broad; thorax stout, smooth and polished; parapsidal grooves 
very sparsely hairy; propodeum smooth and polished, with a short 
stub of a median longitudinal ridge at apex and a few short lateral 
ridges diverging from this; posterior tibiae and tarsi long, the 
third segment of tarsi about as long as the fifth, the second much 
longer; radius attaining wing margin distinctly before the apex; 
second abscissa of radius twice as long as the first; the third fully 
as long as the first and second combined and as long as the last 
abscissa of cubitus ; the latter is distinctly longer than the preceding 
abscissa of cubitus, the third cubital cell being longer, measured 
along the cubitus, than the second; abdomen long-oval; the chitin- 
ized plate of the first tergite sculptured laterally and along the 
apical margin; second tergite usually mostly finely longitudinally 
striate with a more or less triangular median embossed area, which 
is broadest at the base of the tergite; third tergite nearly always 
finely striate toward base; remainder of dorsum of abdomen smooth 
and polished; ovipositor sheaths about as long as the abdomen. 
Head black, usually with poorly defined ferruginous orbital mark- 
ings; thorax black, usually somewhat marked with ferruginous, 
especially in the parapsidal furrows and on the propleura; wings 



54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.67 

dusky, weakly so toward apex; coxae and trochanters black or 
blackish; the femora varying from entirely ferrugino-testaceous 
to almost entirely black; even in specimens having the posterior 
femora wholly ferruginous the hind tibiae are entirely black except 
at extreme base and their tarsi are black ; abdomen mostly yellowish 
ferruginous, with the first tergite and the embossed area on second 
black ; sometimes apex of abdomen is more or less blackish. 

Male. — Agrees with the female in all essential characters. The 
antennae of allotype are 34-segmented. 

Type.— Cat. No. 26663, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Wallingford, Connecticut. 

Host. — (Sesia) Aegeria tipuliformis Linnaeus. 

Described from 7 female and 8 male specimens reared by B. A. 
Porter in the Bureau of Entomology. In this series the number of 
segments in the antennae varies from 32 to 37. 

38. MICROBRACON NEVADENSIS (Ashmead) 

Bracon nevadensis Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 1S89 (1S88), 
p. 623. 

Type.— Cat. No. 2916, U.S.N.M. 

Exceedingly similar to sesiae; but the antennal segments are even 
stouter than in that species; the radial cell is shorter; the last ab- 
scissa of radius is distinctly shorter than the last abscissa of cubitus ; 
and the duskiness of the posterior tibiae is confined to the apical 
third. The antennae are very stout, most of the flagellar segments 
being not longer than broad and some of them being broader tha-i 
long; opening between clypeus and mandibles large; the thorax is 
not quite so deep as in sesiae, being twice as long as its greatest 
height; in the sculpture of the abdomen and the color of the body 
the two species agree almost exactly; the difference in the color of 
the tibiae noted above appears to be constant ; the ovipositor sheaths 
are about as long as the abdomen. 

Distribution. — California; Idaho. 

In addition to the type, the United States National Museum has 
four specimens recorded as a parasite of Ghrysobothris deleta 
LeConte on strawberry, at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, under Bureau of 
Entomology No. 4765 02 . 

39. MICROBRACON THURBERIPHAGAE, new species 

Microbracon, new species, Webb, Journ. Econ. Ent, vol. 16, 1923, p. 545. 

Female. — Length, 2.5 mm.; head rather thick at insertion of an- 
tennae ; face strongly receding below ; malar space much shorter than 
first segment of antennal flagellum and only a little more than half 
the transverse diameter of the opening between clypeus and mandi- 



art. S REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBEACON MUESEBECK 55 

bles; postocellar line one and one-half times, ocellocular line less 
than three times, as long as the diameter of an ocellus ; antennae 23 
segmented in the type, shorter than the body, all the flagellar seg- 
ments considerably longer than broad, the first twice as long as broad ; 
eyes very short-oval, only a little longer than broad; face faintly 
punctate, shining; frons closely minutely punctate or reticulate; 
thorax compact, smooth and polished ; scutellum large, the furrow be- 
tween it and the mesoscutum very fine, minutely foveolate; propo- 
deum polished, with a short stub of a median longitudinal ridge at 
apex ; radius arising much before the middle of the long stigma and 
going to extreme apex of wing; second abscissa of radius twice, or. 
nearly, as long as the first, the third about as long as the first and 
second combined; abdomen short oval; the chitinized plate of the 
first tergite broad posteriorly, more or less rugulose laterally and 
faintly sculptured along apical margin; second tergite emarginate 
medially behind, mostly smooth, shining, with a small basal median 
embossed area set off by short impressions, and usually with two 
longitudinal furrows laterally, suturiform articulation arcuate and 
finely foveolate; third, fourth, and fifth tergites evenly granular; 
ovipositor sheaths a little longer than the abdomen. Yellow; an- 
tennae and stemmaticum black ; occipufblackish ; wings very slightly 
dusky ; legs yellow, the posterior tibiae at apex and their tarsi dusky ; 
abdomen entirely yellow. 

Male. — Agrees with the female except for the usual sexual differ- 
ences; antennae 23-segmented ; the mesonotal lobes, the propodeum, 
and the posterior coxae are somewhat infuscated. 

Type.— Cat, No. 26667, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Sabino Canyon, Arizona. 

Host. — Thurberiphaga diffusa Barnes. 

Described from two female and five male specimens reared by C. H. 
T. Townsend, October 2, 1918. The thorax and abdomen are some- 
times more or less marked with black, and the middle and posterior 
coxae, at least of the males, are sometimes black. The number of 
segments in the antennae varies, in this series, from 21 to 23. 

40. MICROBRACON PITYOPHTHORI, new species 

Female. — Length, 2.3 mm. Head much thicker at insertion of 
antennae than at the clypeus, the face strongly receding; malar 
space nearly as long as the transverse diameter of the opening be- 
tween clypeus and mandibles, but much shorter than the first seg- 
ment of antennal flagellum; eyes short oval, hardly one and one- 
half times as long as broad ; ocelli small ; postocellar line about one 
and one-half times, ocell-ocular line three times, as long as the 
diameter of an ocellus; antennae very slender, slightly shorter than 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

the body. 23-segmented : the first flagellar segment three times as 
long as thick, all the following at least twice as long as thick; face 
very faintly punctate, shining; frons minutely reticulately punc- 
tate; thorax robust, smooth and polished; parapsidal grooves very 
sparsely hairy anteriorly, more closely so posteriorly; propodeum 
smooth and polished with an exceedingly short stub of a median 
ridge at apex ; stigma very long ; veins slender ; radius arising much 
before middle of stigma and going to extreme apex of wing ; first ab- 
scissa of radius long; second abscissa hardly twice the first; the 
third as long as the first and second combined ; abdomen broad-oval ; 
chitinized plate of first tergite finely rugulose apically; second ter- 
gite delicately ruguloso-striate, with a more or less distinct fine 
median raised line down the middle ; suturiform articulation slightly 
arcuate medially ,and curving forward strongly at the sides, weakly 
foveolate; third and fourth tergites finely granular, smooth later- 
ally, the fourth with a fine impressed transverse line at the base: 
fifth tergite very faintly punctate, strongly shining; ovipositor 
sheaths as long as the dorsum of abdomen beyond first tergite. 
Head piceous, the face yellowish ferruginous; thorax dark red- 
dish brown ; legs, including all coxae, yellow ; wings perfectly clear 
hyaline; abdomen yellowish ferruginous. 
"Type.— Cat. No. 27144, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Las Vegas, New Mexico. 

Host. — Pityophthorus, species. 

Described from two female specimens reared by Barber and 
Schwarz from the above host, which was infesting twigs of Pinus 
edulis. 

41. MICROBRACON LAEMOSACCI, new species 

Closely related to the preceding species, as indicated in the key. 
but differing especially in the characters there noted. 

Female. — Length, 3 mm.; head thick antero-posteriorly at insertion 
of antennae; face receding; transverse diameter of opening between 
clypeus and mandibles fully twice as long as the malar space, and 
much longer than the distance from the opening to the eyes; eyes 
broad-oval; postocellar line slightly longer than the diameter of 
an ocellus; ocell-ocular line twice the diameter of an ocellus; an- 
tennae slender, a little shorter than the body, 27-segmented ; the first 
and second flagellar segments nearly three times as long as thick, 
all the following at least twice as long as thick; thorax compact, 
smooth, and polished; parapsidal grooves thickly hairy anteriorly 
as well as posteriorly; propodeum polished, with a short stub of a 
median longitudinal ridge at apex; stigma long; radius arising 
much before middle of stigma and going practically to the apex of 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 57 

wing; first abscissa of radius longer than the recurrent; the second 
not or hardly twice as long as the first; the third longer than the 
first and second combined; last abscissa of cubitus longer than the 
preceding abscissa; radiella distinct only at base; abdomen broad- 
oval; first tergite finely rugulose except at extreme base; second 
tergite broadly emarginate behind, strongly longitudinally rugulose, 
with a usually distinct fine raised line down the middle; suturiform 
articulation very broad, coarsely foveolate; third, fourth, fifth, and 
sixth tergites granular, the third more or less longitudinally sculp- 
tured ; ovipositor sheaths very nearly as long as the abdomen. Head 
testaceous, a large median spot on the front and vertex, and the 
occiput black; thorax black, the parapsidal grooves and a large 
spot behind middle lobe of mesoscutum f errugino-testaceous ; legs, 
including all coxae, yellow ; the posterior tibiae at apex and their 
tarsi dusky, wings clear hyaline; abdomen curiously marked: the 
first tergite black, the second mostly black, with two small basal 
spots and the middle of the apical margin reddish-yellow; third, 
fourth, fifth, and sixth tergites black, reddish-yellow medially and 
at the sides. 

Male. — Agrees with the female in all essential characters; the an- 
tennae are 28-segmented ; the sixth abdominal tergite is smooth and 
polished. 

Type.— Cat. No. 26666, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Altitude, 4,700 feet, Superstition Mountains, Ari- 
zona. 

Host. — Lasmosaecus, species in Thvrberia. 

Described from seven females and sixteen males reared by H. S. 
Barber. The number of segments in the antennae varies in this series 
from 26 to 29. The series is remarkably constant in the striking 
color pattern. 

42. MICROBRACON METACOMET Viereck 

Microhracon metacomet Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 
1917 (1916), pp. 206, 20S. 

Type. — In the State Agricultural Experiment Station, at New 
Haven, Connecticut. 

Face and frons finely punctate; antennae broken at tip, 25 seg- 
ments remaining, very slender, the first flagellar segment nearly 
three times as long as thick, the remainder twice as long as broad; 
thorax smooth and polished; legs slender; first abscissa of radius 
long; the second not distinctly twice the first; the third much 
longer than the first and second abscissae combined; last abscissa 
of cubitus decidedly longer than the preceding abscissa; abdomen 
long, very coarsely granular or rugulose, and nearly as coarsely so 
nn the fifth tergite as on the third: suturiform articulation broad, 



58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

foveolate, and somewhat arcuate mediall} 7 , the second tergite 
being a little emarginate behind; hypopygium large; ovipositor 
sheaths nearly as long as the abdomen. Face yellow ; antennae most- 
ly yellowish ; f rons, vertex and occiput mostly piceous to blackish ; 
thorax wholly black ; legs, including coxae, bright yellow ; wings clear 
hyaline; abdomen mostly blackish above, yellow laterally. 

Distribution. — New Canaan, Connecticut. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the unique type. 

43. MICROBRACON ATRICOLLIS (Ashmead) 

Bracon atricollis Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 1SS9 (1888), p. 622. 
Micro~bracon naioaasorum Vieeeck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Sur- 
vey, 1917 (1916), pp. 205, 207. 

Type. — Cat. No. 2917, U.S.N.M. The type of nawaasorum is in 
the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station at New Haven. 

Very distinct from all other species of the genus. Head thick at 
insertion of antennae ; face and f rons minutely granular ; ocell-ocular 
line at least three times the diameter of an ocellus; antennae long, 
slender, usually about 40-segmented, most of the flagellar segments 
twice as long as broad; thorax long, mostly smooth and polished; 
parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy ; propodeum finely rugulose ; meta- 
pleura granular ; the metapleura and the propodeum laterally thickly 
clothed with long hairs ; posterior tibiae and tarsi slender ; last seg- 
ment of all tarsi long, stout, the claws large; wings long, the entire 
wing membrane uniformly very densely covered with very short 
pubescence ; stigma rather long and narrow ; radius arising at or be- 
fore its middle and going to extreme apex of wing ; first abscissa of 
radius a little longer than the recurrent vein ; the second abscissa of 
radius more than twice the first; the third as long as the first and 
second combined and almost on a straight line with the second ; the 
portion of cubitus between recurrent and intercubitus more than half 
as long as the recurrent; lower side of cubital cell decidedly more 
than twice the first intercubitus and longer than the lower side of third 
cubital cell ; last abscissa of radius longer than last abscissa of cubi- 
tus; cubitus and subdiscoideus nearly parallel, the second discoidal 
cell not or scarcely broadening toward apex; the chitinized plate of 
first tergite strongly rugose; second tergite longer than the third, 
finely granularly rugulose, much less strongly sculptured than first 
tergite; third, fourth, and fifth tergites very delicately sculptured, 
the fifth only faintly; ovipositor as long as the abdomen or a little 
longer. Head yellow; thorax mostly yellow; pronotum above, propo- 
deum, and metapleura partly, blackish; abdomen yellow, the first 
tergite black, the following tergites more or less blackish medially. 



art. 8 REVISION OP THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 59 

Distribution. — ? Missouri; Connecticut; Illinois. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the holotypes of atricollis and nawaasorum, 
and one additional female specimen, labeled "Algonquin, 111. 18-12- 
95-134, 4855." The only complete antennae are those on the type of 
nawaasorum, which have 43 segments. A thorough studj' of the 
types shows nawaasorum to be, without doubt conspecific with 
atricollis. 

44. M1CROBRACON ANALCIDIS (Ashmead) 

Bracon analcidis Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 18S9 (18S8), p. 619. 

Type.— Cat. No. 2908, U.S.N.M. 

Superficially quite similar to sphenophori, but differs especially 
in the thorax being smooth and polished, except on the propodeum 
which is mostly rugulose. Head thick antero-posteriorly at insertion 
of antennae ; face and f rons finely punctate ; opening between clypeus 
and mandibles large, its transverse diameter twice as long as the 
malar space; antennae 35-segmented, the flagellar segments beyond 
second but little or no longer than broad; first flagellar segment 
much longer than second; propodeum rugulose, smooth and shining 
at base; second abscissa of radius more than twice as long as the 
first, the latter about half the first intercubitus ; abdomen long- 
first tergite sculptured apically and laterally ; second and third very 
delicately granular, the following smooth and shining; ovipositor 
sheaths considerably longer than the abdomen. Entirely yellow; 
wings nearly hyaline; antennae, and the legs including all coxae, 
yellow. 

Distribution. — Missouri. 

Host. — (Analcis) Tyloderma fragariae Eiley. 

Known only from the unique type. 

45. MICROBRACON PODUNKORUM Viereck 

Microbracon podunkorum Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 
1917 (1916), pp. 205, 207. 

Type. — In the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station at 
New Haven. 

Resembles the preceding species in the rugulose propodeum, and 
the delicately sculptured abdomen, but differs as noted in the key. 
Antennae 31-segmented, stout, most of the flagellar segments but little 
or no longer than broad ; face and f rons finely punctate and opaque ; 
thorax mostly polished; parapsidal furrows sparsely hairy; propo- 
deum completely finely rugulose; second abscissa of radius twice 
as long as the first; abdomen a little longer than the thorax; plate 
of first tergite rugulose laterally and at apex; second tergite finely 
granular with a strongly shining rugulose basal median area; third 



60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEL'M vol.67 

tergite very minutely granular; fourth and following tergites in- 
creasingly faintly sculptured, the fifth and sixth being almost com- 
pletely smooth; ovipositor sheaths as long as the abdomen beyond 
first tergite. Yellow; propodeum. first abdominal tergite, and a 
basal median spot covering the shining rugulose area on the second 
tergite, black; wings very nearly hyaline; legs, including all coxae, 
yellow. 

Distribution. — Branford, Connecticut; Cadet. Missouri. 

Host. — Aristotelia absconditella Walker. 

Known only from the holotype, and a single female in the National 
Collection recorded under Bureau of Entomology number 4575° 
which was reared December 30, 1889, as a parasite of Aristotelia 
absconditella. 

46. MICROBRACON MONTOWESI Viereck 

Mierobracon montowesi Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. anil Nat. Hist. Survey, 
1917 (1916), pp. 206, 208. 

Type. — In the State Agricultural Experiment Station at New 
Haven, Connecticut. 

Head not thin, but the temples narrow, receding directly behind 
the eyes; head broader than the thorax; eyes unusually large, the 
face hardly broader between eyes than long between the antennal 
foramina and the lower margin of clypeus; face minutely punctate 
laterally, smooth and shining medially ; f rons very weakly punctate, 
shining ; antennae as long as the body, 32-segmented, all the flagellar 
segments considerably longer than broad; thorax stout, smooth and 
polished; parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy; propodeum smooth 
and polished, with a very short stub of a median ridge at apex ; first 
abscissa of radius about as long as recurrent vein; second abscissa 
of radius about twice as long as the first; abdomen broad-oval; 
chitinized plate of first tergite almost entirely smooth, slightly 
sculptured at the apex; second tergite very delicately granular; third 
and following tergites smooth and shining; ovipositor sheaths less 
than half as long as the abdomen. Face yellow; frons and vertex 
mostly piceous to blackish; occiput black; thorax black, with fine 
ferruginous lines in the parapsidal furrows, and with the apex of 
scutellum and the propleura, ferruginous ; wings very slightly dusky ; 
legs, including all coxae, yellow; the posterior tibiae at apex and 
their tarsi dusky ; abdomen yellow except the first tergite and a 
basal median spot on the second, which are black. 

Distribution. — New Haven, Connecticut. 

Host — fPriophorus acericaulis McGillivrav. 

The above notes are based on the type. The United States 
National Museum has two male paratypes, reared with the type 
from maple leaf -stems infested with larvae of the above-named saw- 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 61 

fly. These paratjqoes agree with the type in the essential characters; 
the antennae are 28-segmented ; the third and fourth abdominal 
tergites are very faintly partly sculptured. 

47. MICROBRACON CEPHI Gahan 

Fig. 20 

Microbracon cephi Gahan, Proc. Eut. Soc. Wash., vol. 20, 1918. p. 19. 
Microbracon cephi Griddle, Can. Ent., vol. 55, 1923, p. 3. 

Type.— Cat. No. 21772, U.S.N.M. 

Transverse diameter of the opening between clypeus and mandibles 
much greater than the distance from this opening to the eyes, in the 
male at least twice as long as the malar space; frons minutely 
punctate or reticulate; antennae rarely with less than 35 segments: 
all the flagellar segments considerably longer than broad; thorax 
long, rather slender, highly polished; parapsidal furrows sparsely 
hairy; metanotum a little longer than is usual in the genus: 
propodeum usually longer than first abdominal tergite ; last segment 
of posterior tarsi large, usually fully as long as the second tarsal 
segment; second abscissa of radius more than twice as long as the 
first, the third about as long as the first and second combined; 
last abscissa of cubitus usually a little shorter than the preceding- 
abscissa ; abdomen long oval ; first abdominal tergite rugulose later- 
ally and apicaily; second to fifth tergites in the male, second to 
sixth in the female, granular; ovipositor sheaths not distinctly half 
the length of the abdomen, usually appearing much less than half. 
Yellow; usually entirely yellow, or with the mesonotal lobes, 
propodeum and first abdominal tergite piceous to blackish; rarely 
with the thorax almost wholly black and the abdomen mostly 
blackish above; wings a little dusky; legs, including coxae, yellow. 

Distribution. — North Dakota; Minnesota; Manitoba, Canada. 
Probably occurs throughout the range of its chief host, the Western 
Wheat-stem Sawfly. 

Host. — Cephus cinctus Norton. 

In addition to the type series the United States National Museum 
has considerable material, all reared in the Bureau of Entomology, 
by C. N. Ainsiie, from Cephvs cinctvs taken at various points in 
North Dakota and Minnesota. 

48. MICROBRACON HEMIMENAE Rohwer 
Fig. 11 

Uierobracon hemimenae Rohwer, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 49, 1915, p. 232. 

Type.— Cat. No. 18434, U.S.N.M. 

A very distinct species, combining a black head and black coxae 
with a sculptured frons and a nearly completely sculptured abdomen. 



62 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

Malar space in the female nearly as long as the transverse diameter 
.of the opening between the clypeus and mandibles ; in the male con- 
siderably shorter; postocellar line slightly longer than the diameter 
of an ocellus ; ocell-ocular line less than three times as long as the di- 
ameter of an ocellus; antennae about as long as the body, usually 24 
to 28-segmented, all the flagellar segments much longer than tiroad ; 
face and f rons minutely punctate or reticulate, opaque ; thorax stout, 
smooth and polished ; radius arising before middle of stigma ; second 
abscissa of radius about twice the first; abdomen short and broad, 
especially in the female; plate of first tergite broad, more or less 
sculptured ; second tergite rugulose, shining ; suturif orm articulation 
broad, f oveolate ; third, fourth and fifth tergites granular ; ovipositor 
sheaths about as long as the dorsum of abdomen beyond first tergite, 
or nearly. Head black, sometimes with ferruginous orbital lines; 
thorax black, the parapsidal furrows and a spot behind middle lobe 
of mesoscutum sometimes ferruginous; wings strongly infumated, 
more weakly so toward apex; coxae and trochanters black; femora 
sometimes more or less black ; posterior tibiae black except at extreme 
base ; tarsi blackish ; abdomen red, the first tergite black ; sometimes, 
especially in the males, more or less of the abdomen beyond first 
tergite also blackish. 

Distribution. — Plummer Island, Maryland. 

Host. — Hemimene flummerana Busck. 

In addition to the types the National Museum has a large series 
bearing the same data as the type specimens. 

49. MICROBRACON OENOTHERAE. new species 

Very similar to mellitor, from which it differs in having usually a 
complete median longitudinal carina on the propodeum, in the 
shorter second abdominal tergite, and the relatively longer flagellar 
segments of the antennae. 

Female. — Length, 4 mm. ; head rather thick at insertion of anten- 
nae ; transverse diameter of the opening between clypeus and mandi- 
bles but very slightly longer than the distance from the opening to 
the eyes; antennae 35-segmented, the first flagellar segment twice as 
long as broad, all the following much longer than broad; face and 
frons very faintly punctate; thorax stout, smooth and polished; 
parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy ; propodeum polished with a com- 
plete median longitudinal carina; second abscissa of radius more than 
twice as long as the first ; the third slightly longer than the first and 
second combined; abdomen long-oval; plate of first tergite more or 
less sculptured apically and laterally; second tergite very short, 
much shorter than the third, with a large median shining rugose 
area; remainder of second tergite granular; third, fourth, fifth and 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 63 

sixth tergites strongly granular; ovipositor sheaths about as long as 
the abdomen. Head, thorax and abdomen yellow; antennae black- 
ish ; the median line of propodeum dusky ; legs, including all coxae, 
yellow ; the middle and hind tibiae and all tarsi more or less dusky or 
blackish ; wings strongly inf uscated, especially toward the base. 

Male. — Agrees in most essential characters with the female. An- 
tennae broken, 28 segments remaining, the flagellar segments nearly 
twice as long as broad ; eyes small ; ocell-ocular line about three times 
the diameter of an ocellus; malar space fully one-third the eye- 
height; propodeal carina not so distinct as in the type. 

Type.— Cat. No. 27145, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Knoxville, Tennessee. 

A llotype-locality. — Vienna, Virginia. 

Host. — Mompha eloisella Clemens. 

Described from 7 females and one male ; the type and two female 
paratypes were reared from the above host at Knoxville, Tennessee, 
by C. C. Hill in the Bureau of Entomology, under Knoxville No. 
16334; the allotype was reared by E. A. Cushman from Mompha, 
at Vienna, Virginia, under Quaintance No. 7805* two female para- 
types were secured by H. B. Weiss from seed capsules of evening 
primrose in Middlesex Co., New Jersey ; and two other paratypes are 
labeled "On Oenothera, Glendale, Md., H. H. Bartlett, Oct. 23, 
1915." All the specimens agree very closely with the type in color and 
structure; the number of segments in the antennae varies from 33 
to 36. 

50. MICROBRACON PAPAIPEMAE Gahan 

Microbracon papaipemae Gahan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 61, 1922, p. 4. 

Type.— Cat. No. 24983, U.S.N.M. 

Distinguished particularly by the color, the delicate sculpture of 
the abdomen, the very fine straight suturiform articulation and the 
long ovipositor, the short and stout antennae, and the sculptured 
frons. Antennae shorter than the body, 26 to 28-segmented in the 
type series; face granular; frons finely reticulately sculptured; 
thorax polished ; parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy ; propodeum pol- 
ished, with a short stub of a median carina at apex and a few short 
ridges diverging from it; second abscissa of radius more than twice 
as long as the first; the third fully as long as the first and second 
combined and going to the apex of wing ; last abscissa of cubitus no 
longer than the preceding abscissa ; abdomen long-oval ; first tergite 
sculptured laterally and at apex; second tergite granular with a 
finely rugulose area medially ; suturiform articulation very fine, per- 
fectly straight; third and following tergites gradually more deli- 
cately sculptured, the fourth and fifth faintly so ; ovipositor sheaths 



64 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.67 

nearly as long as the body. Head black, except the face which is 
yellow ; thorax black ; wings nearly hyaline ; legs yellowish, the hind 
tibiae and tarsi blackish; abdomen black, the membranous margins 
of first tergite, the sides of the second tergite and the suturiform 
articulation, yellow. 

Distribution. — Rye, New York. 

Host. — Papaipema frigida Smith. 

Known only from the four female specimens of the type series. 

51. MICROBRACON APICATUS (Provancher) 

Bra con apicatus Provancher, Natural. Canad., vol. 12, 18S0, p. 143. 

Type. — In the Museum of Public Instruction at Quebec, Canada. 

The transverse diameter of the opening between clypeus and man- 
dibles slightly greater than the distance from the opening to the 
eyes ; antennae of type broken, 25 segments remaining ; the flagellar 
segments stout, those beyond the second but very little longer than 
broad ; malar space about as long as the first flagellar segment ; 
frons minutely closely punctate or reticulate and opaque; thorax 
polished; propodetim polished, with a prominent stub of a median 
ridge at apex and a little fine sculpture adjoining this; second 
abscissa of radius more than twice as long as the first; abdomen 
of type missing; head yellow, with a median spot on front and 
vertex enclosing ocelli, and the occiput, blackish; thorax black, the 
propleura, lateral anterior angles of mesoscutum, the parapsidal fur- 
rows and the space behind the middle lobe of mesoscutum, fer- 
ruginous; legs, including all coxae, testaceous; the posterior tibiae 
at apex and their tarsi, fuscous. 

Distribution. — Canada; ? Maine; ?Long Island, New York. 

Host. — Unknown. 

The above notes are based on the type. The United States Nation- 
al Museum lias two specimens without locality data, one of them 
called apicatus by Ashmead, another from Ottawa, Canada, also 
named apicatus by Ashmead, and two specimens from Long Island, 
New York, all of which appear to be this species although positive 
identification is difficult owing to the loss of the type abdomen. The 
head and thorax, with their appendages, agree perfectly with the 
type in structure and color, and in placing the species in the key I 
have considered these specimens to be apicatus. The single complete 
antenna has 30 segments; the abdomen is very delicately sculptured 
beyond the second tergite; the second is granular; the suturiform ar- 
ticulation, straight, finely minutely foveolate ; the ovipositor sheaths 
as long as the abdomen. One specimen, with 30-segmented antennae, 
in the collection of the Boston Society of Natural History, was col- 
lected by C. W. Johnson at Bar Harbor, Maine. The abdomen of all 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 65 

of these specimens is somewhat longer than suggested by Provan- 
cher's description, and the type may be a different species, but the 
agreement of the antennae, and of the structure, sculpture and color 
of the thorax, is striking. 

52. MICROBRACON NANUS (Provancher) 

Bracon nanus Peovancher, Natural, Canad., vol. 12, 1880, p. 143. 

Type. — In the Museum of Public Instruction at Quebec, Canada; 
bears yellow label 725. 

Frons finely reticulately sculptured and opaque; antennae 24- 
segmented, the segments of apical half of flagellum scarcely longer 
than broad; thorax smooth and polished; propodeum polished, with 
a stub of a median longitudinal ridge at apex and a slight longitudi- 
nal impression in front of this stub ; radius going nearly to the apex 
of wing; second abscissa of radius more than twice as long as the 
first; second abdominal tergite finely granular; third tergite with 
only a faint suggestion of sculpture; remainder of dorsum of abdo- 
men smooth and polished ; ovipositor sheaths as long as the abdomen. 
Head mostly blackish, face brownish-black; thorax black; wings 
nearly hyaline ; legs, including all coxae, bright testaceous ; abdomen 
black above, the second tergite mostly, the third laterally, and most 
of the venter, yellow. 

Distribution. — Canada. 

Host. — Unknown. 

The above notes are based on the type. The only other specimen 
known to me is a female, without locality data, which is in the United 
States National Museum. 

53. MICROBRACON MELLITOR (Say) 

Figs. 4, 18 

Bracon mellitor Say, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, 1S36, p. 256. 

Bracon xanthostigma Cresson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., vol. 4, 1865, p. 303. 

Bracon vernoniae Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 1SS9, (1SS8), p. 619. 

Bracon anthonomi Ashmead, Insect Life, vol. 5, 1893, p. 185. 

Bracon mellitor Hunter and Hinds, U. S. D. A., Bur. Ent. Bull. 45, 1904, p. 

106, fig. 4.— Pierce, U. S. D. A., Bur. *Ent. Bull. 73, 190S, p. 39. 
Microoracon pemoertoni Bridwell, Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc, vol. 4, pt. 1, 1919 

(1918), p. 115. 

Type. — The type of mellitor is lost; that of xanthostigmus is in the 
Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, and bears No. 1687.1 ; the types of 
vernoniae (Cat. No. 2909), anthonomi (Cat. No. 1360), and paratypes 
of pembertoni (Cat. No. 23615) are in the United States National 
Museum. 

Say's description of mellitor will fit any one of several other species 
of Microbracon as well as this species. But since the name mellitor 
12053—25 5 



66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.67 

has been widely used in literature on economic entomology for the 
species here treated under that name, and since it is impossible to 
show conclusively that Say did not actually prepare his description 
from a specimen of this species, it seems best to continue to use the 
name mellitor. There is tremendous variation in the size of indi- 
viduals of this species, and with this is combined rather marked vari- 
ability in structure and sculpture, particularly in the males, which 
it is often very difficult to identify. The malar space in the female 
is about as long as the first segment of the antennal flagellum ; it is 
considerably shorter in the male; the antennae are rather stout, and 
are from 26 to 40-segmented, the smallest number of segments being 
found in very small males ; most frequently the antennae are from 32 
to 36-segmented ; most of the flagellar segments are usually only a 
little longer than broad; the thorax is polished; the propodeum with 
a stub of a median ridge at apex; second abscissa of radius usually 
not distinctly twice as long as the first ; the third not longer than the 
first and second combined; the radius attaining the wing margin 
before the apex; abdomen usually broadly oval; the second tergite 
varying from strongly granular to mostly rugose, nearly always dis- 
tinctly a little emarginate medially behind; the third to sixth ter- 
gites in the female, the third to fifth in the male, granular; oviposi- 
tor sheaths at least as long as the abdomen, sometimes considerably 
longer, a good deal of variation being evident in the same series of 
specimens. In color mellitor is nearly always entirely testaceous or 
ferruginous, with the propodeum and the first tergite blackish; 
rarely the thorax has black markings on the mesonotum and pectus. 

Distribution. — Occurs at least from Texas to South Dakota and 
eastward to the Atlantic States, where it is found as far north as 
southern Massachusetts. Also occurs in the Hawaiian Islands; and 
quite probably is much more widely distributed than here noted. 

Hosts. — Anthonomus grandis Boheman; A. signatus Say; Poly- 
chrosis viteana Clemens; Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders. 
Material from these hosts has been examined. Other hosts, re- 
corded by Pierce, which records are probably correct, include 
Anthonomus albopilosus Dietz, A. eugenii Cano, A. fulvus LeConte, 
A. squamosus LeConte, Desmoris scapalis LeConte. 

The National Museum has a large quantity of material of this 
species reared from the cotton boll weevil, at various points in the 
cotton-growing area of the United States; also an extensive series 
reared by R. A. Cushman from the grapeberry moth at North- 
east, Pennsylvania, in the Bureau of Entomology under Quaintance 
numbers, 11100, 11082, 14410, 14472 ; many specimens from the same 
host reared by H. G. Ingerson at Sandusky, Ohio ; and collected speci- 
mens from points in Kansas, South Dakota, Florida, Texas, New 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 67 

Jersey, Virginia. In the collection of the Boston Society of Natural 
History are two specimens from Woods Hole and Horseneck Beach, 
Massachusetts, collected by C. W. Johnson. A study of the types 
leaves no doubt that xanthostigmus, vernoniae, anthonomi, and 
pevibertoni are the same species. The allotype of vernoniae is 
nuperus, as stated under that species. 

54. MICROBRACON NIGROPECTUS (Provancher) 

Bracon nigropectus Provancher, Natural. Canad., vol. 12, 1880, p. 143. 

Type. — In the Museum of Public Instruction, at Quebec, Canada. 

Malar space about as long as the first segment of antennal flagel- 
lum; face and frons minutely granular, opaque; antennae of type 
missing beyond 10th segment; the flagellar segments beyond second 
but little longer than broad; thorax smooth and polished; parap- 
sidal grooves sparsely hairy; propodeum is mostly finely punctate, 
and is provided with a stub of a median longitudinal ridge pos- 
teriorly, with some short ridges diverging from this stub; second 
abscissa of radius not quite twice as long as the first ; first abdominal 
tergite sculptured apically and laterally; second tergite granular, 
with an irregularly rugose basal median area; third, fourth, fifth, 
and sixth tergites finely granular; ovipositor sheaths about as long 
as the abdomen. Head yellow, antennae blackish; thorax yellow 
except propodeum and mesopectus, which are blackish ; abdomen yel- 
low, the first tergite with a blackish spot and third and fourth 
tergites weakly infuscated medially; wings nearly hyaline; legs, 
including coxae, yellow. 

Distribution. — Canada ; Vermont. 

Host. — Unknown. 

The above description is based on the type. The only other speci- 
men which I have seen is a female taken at Bennington, Vermont, by 
C. "W. Johnson. This specimen, which is in the collection of the 
Boston Society of Natural History, was compared with the type, 
and designated a homotype. The male is unknown. 

55. MICROBRACON FURTIVUS (Fyles) 

Fig. 25 

Bracon furtivus Fyles, Can. Ent., vol. 24, 1892, p. 34. 

Bracon fungicola Ashmead, Journ. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 27, 1895, 
p. 46. 

Type. — The types of both species are in the United States Na- 
tional Museum, furtivus Cat. No. 14762 and fungicola Cat. No. 6864. 

This species is extremely variable, especially in color; the speci- 
mens of some series are entirely or almost entirely yellow; those 
of other series are mostly black ; all intergradations occur. The an- 



68 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.67 

tennae are rather slender, all the flagellar segments being consider- 
ably longer than broad, and the two basal flagellar segments usually 
being about equal; face and frons finely sculptured; transverse 
diameter of the opening between clypeus and mandibles scarcely 
greater than the distance from the opening to the eyes, in the fe- 
male; malar space long; propodeum smooth and polished, with a 
stub of a median ridge at apex; second abscissa of radius usually 
more than twice as long as the first; last abscissa of radius not 
longer than the first and second abscissae combined ; first abdominal 
tergite rugulose apically and laterally; second and following ter- 
gites granular, opaque; ovipositor sheaths as long as, or a little 
longer than, the abdomen, and slender, but broadening conspicu- 
ously on the apical fifth. Color varying from wholly yellow to 
mostly black ; but face and legs, including coxae, always yellow. 

Distribution. — From Canada to North Carolina, as judged by the 
material examined; probably occurs wherever its primary hosts are 
found. 

Hosts. — Gnonmoschema gallaesolidaginis Riley; G. gallaeasteri- 
ella Kellicott. 

The above notes are based on the types and extensive series in 
the National Museum reared from Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis 
by R. A. Cushman, at Vienna and East Falls Church, Virginia, and 
northern Pennsylvania, and by R. W. Leiby in North Carolina. At 
the Gipsy Moth Laboratory there is a series reared from the same 
host taken at Melrose Highlands, Massachusetts. I have been un- 
able to separate fungicola from furtivus. 

56. MICROBRACON TACHYPTERI, new species 

Distinguished especially by combining a sculptured frons and 
a short, broad, sculptured abdomen, with a blackish face and very 
long ovipositor. 

Female. — Length, 3.3 mm. Head not thick; temples not broad, 
receding directly behind the eyes; face receding somewhat below; 
transverse diameter of opening between clypeus and mandibles 
nearly twice as long as the malar space and about equal to half 
the width of the face; malar space much shorter than the first 
segment of antennal flagellum; ocell-ocular line a little more than 
twice as long as the diameter of an ocellus; antennae 32-segmented, 
all the flagellar segments much longer than broad, the first two of 
equal length and about twice as long as broad; face and frons 
minutely granular ; thorax short, stout, smooth and polished ; parap- 
sidal grooves sparsely hairy; propodeum polished, with a short 
stub of a median longitudinal ridge at apex; stigma large; second 
abscissa of radius about twice the first; the third a little longer 
than the first and second combined, and slightly longer than the 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 69 

last abscissa of cubitus; radius going practically to extreme apex 
of wing ; abdomen short and broad ; first tergite with the chitinized 
plate large, strongly elevated posteriorly and rugulose laterally and 
along apical margin; second tergite short and broad, slightly 
emarginate medially behind, and finely rugulose or granular ; suturi- 
form articulation arcuate, f oveolate ; third tergite much more finely 
sculptured than the second; fourth, fifth, and sixth tergites very 
delicately sculptured, the sculpture becoming faint on the fifth and 
sixth; ovipositor sheaths about as long as the entire body. Black; 
head including the face, except narrowly along the eyes, black or 
blackish; malar space ferruginous; thorax black, the propleura, 
parapsidal grooves, and space behind the middle lobe of mesoscutum, 
more or less ferruginous; legs, including coxae, testaceous, except 
the apical half of posterior tibiae and the posterior tarsi, which parts 
are blackish; wings slightly dusky; dorsum of abdomen black, yel- 
lowish laterally, the second and third tergites more broadly yel- 
lowish laterally. 

Type.— Cat. No. 26665, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — French Creek, West Virginia. 

Host. — Tachypterus quadrigibbus Say. 

Described from a single specimen reared by F. E. Brooks under 
Quaintance No. 9521. The United States National Museum has 
another female specimen of this species labeled " Stony Island, N. Y., 
July 8, 1896." 

57. MICROBRACON VARIABILIS (Provancher) 

Opius variabilis Provancher, Addit. faun. Canad. Hymen., 1888, p. 382. 
Bracon tortricicola Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, 1889 (188S), p. 621. 
(Opius variabilis Provancher )=Microbracon dorsator Gahan, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., vol. 49, 1915, p. 93. 
Microbracon dorsator, var. variabilis Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. 

Hist. Survey, 1917 (1916), p. 207. 

Type. — In the Museum of Public Instruction, Parliament Build- 
ing, Quebec, Canada. The type of tortricicola (Cat. No. 2915) is in 
the United States National Museum. 

Head not thick, the temples receding directly behind the eyes ; trans- 
verse diameter of the opening between clypeus and mandibles much 
greater than the distance from the opening to the eyes, in the male 
fully twice as long as the malar space, in the female one and one-half 
times as long; face and frons minutely punctate or reticulate; an- 
tennae usually 25 to 32-segmented, all the flagellar segments much 
longer than broad, the first two usually of about equal length and 
twice as long as broad, the apical segments slender ; thorax compact, 
smooth, and polished ; parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy ; propodeum 
polished, with a stub of a median longitudinal ridge at apex ; second 
abscissa of radius more than twice as long as the first ; the third not 



70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

distinctly longer than the first and second combined ; abdomen broad- 
oval ; chitinized plate of first tergite rugulose laterally and at apex ; 
second tergite broad, usually very faintly medially emarginate be- 
hind, granular, and usually with a basal median, shining, irregularly 
rugose area; suturiform articulation rather broad, foveolate; third 
to fifth tergites, and sometimes the sixth in the female, granular ; ovi- 
positor sheaths usually about equal to the dorsum of the abdomen 
beyond first tergite but sometimes apparently as long as the abdomen. 
Yellow, more or less marked with black ; sometimes entirely yellow ; 
but more frequently with a spot enclosing ocelli, occiput, mesonotal 
lobes, propodeum, pectus, first abdominal tergite and a basal median 
spot on second, black or blackish ; face always yellow ; rarely thorax 
almost entirely black, and the abdomen largely blackish or dusky 
above; wings very slightly dusky; legs, including all coxae, yellow, 
the posterior tibiae at apex and all the tarsi more or less dusky. A 
study of the types of variabilis and tortricicola has convinced me that 
they belong to the same species. 

Distribution. — Canada, Missouri, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia, West Virginia. 

Hosts. — Polychrosis viteana Clemens; Conotrachelus nenuphar 
Herbst; Tortricid in seeds of Ambrosia (Ashmead) ; larva in seed- 
pod of Oenothera biennis; Tachypterus quadrigibbus Say. 

The above characterization is based on the types, and on a large 
quantity of material in the National Museum. This material includes 
extensive series reared by R. A. Cushman from Polychrosis viteana 
at Northeast, Pennsylvania, under Quaintance Nos. 11058, 11070, 
11432, and 14462; several series reared from Conotrachelus nenuphar 
by the same investigator, at Vienna, Virginia, under Quaintance Nos. 
7025, 7050, and 7837; also several specimens obtained by Cushman 
from the seed pods of the evening primrose, at Vienna, Virginia, 
under Quaintance No. 7195 ; and a single female reared from Tachyp- 
terus quadrigibbus Say, at French Creek, Virginia, by F. E. Brooks, 
under Quaintance No. 9505. 

58. MICROBRACON SANNINOIDEAE Gahan 

Fig. 12 
Micro'bracon sanninoideae Gahan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 53, 1917, p. 196. 

Type.— Cat. No. 20374, U.S.N.M. 

Differs from mellitor, to which it is quite similar in general ap- 
pearance, in having a much larger opening between clypeus and 
mandibles; in the shorter malar space; in the second abscissa of 
radius being more than twice the first, and the third longer than the 
first and second combined; in the posterior margin of the second 
tergite being straight, and in the tergites beyond the second being 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 71 

more weakly sculptured. The transverse diameter of the opening 
between clypeus and mandibles is usually twice as long as the malar 
space; face and frons minutely punctate or reticulate; antennae 
usually with 30 to 34 segments, the first flagellar segment longer 
than the second, none beyond the first twice as long as broad; pro- 
podeum polished, with a stub of a median ridge at apex; radius 
going more nearly to extreme apex of wing than is the case in 
mellitor; abdomen long-oval, beyond the second tergite usually very 
delicately sculptured, the sculpture becoming faint beyond the 
fourth tergite; suturiform articulation straight, finely foveolate; 
ovipositor sheaths about as long as the abdomen. Usually entirely 
yellow, except the antennae and posterior tarsi, but sometimes the 
thorax, especially on the mesonotal lobes, propodeum and pectus, and 
the abdomen at base, more or less black. 

Distribution. — Occurs at least from Connecticut to Georgia, and 
westward to Kansas and Arkansas. 

Host. — ( Sanninoidea) Aegeria exitiosa Say. 

In addition to the types the National Museum has the following 
material: 2 specimens reared from A. exitiosa at Indianapolis, Indi- 
ana, by F. N. Wallace; 1 obtained from the same host hy E. M. 
Craighead, at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania; 1 taken on peach at 
Hamden, Connecticut, by M. P. Zappe; 1 from Riley Co., Kansas 
(Marlatt) ; 6 reared from the peach borer at Fort Valley, Georgia, 
by C. H. Alden ; 15 from the same host at Rogers, Arkansas ; many 
specimens reared by E. B. Blakeslee from A. exitiosa, at Winchester, 
Virginia, and collected specimens from Harrisburg and Enterline, 
Pennsylvania. 

59. MICROBRACON HOBOMOK Viereck 

Microbracon hobomok Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 
1917 (1916), pp. 206, 20S. 

Type. — In the State Agricultural Experiment Station, at New 
Haven, Connecticut. 

The following notes are based on the tj^pe : Malar space nearly as 
long as the first segment of antennal flagellum ; antennae broken, 20 
segments remaining, the flagellar segments beyond the first scarcely 
as long as broad; frons finely sculptured; thorax polished; parap- 
sidal grooves sparsely hairy; propodeum mostly polished, with a 
stub of a median ridge at apex, a few short ridges diverging from 
this stub, and the median part of the posterior face somewhat punc- 
tate ; last abscissa of radius a little longer than the first and second 
abscissae combined; abdomen long-oval; the first tergite rugulose 
along the apex; second tergite finely granular; suturiform articula- 
tion fine, straight; third to fifth tergites very delicately sculptured, 
the sculpture becoming faint on the fourth and fifth; ovipositor 



72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

sheaths as long as the abdomen beyond first tergite. Face yellow; 
vertex and occiput somewhat piceous; thorax mostly black, the 
pleura ferruginous; legs, including all coxae bright testaceous; 
wings very slightly dusky; abdomen yellowish, the first tergite, and 
a basal median spot on the second, blackish ; apical tergites more or 
less brownish. This species is very similar to apicatus, but differs 
especially in the shorter ovipositor. I have seen no males of either 
species; doubtless it will be found almost impossible to separate the 
two species on the basis of this sex. 

Distribution. — Branford, Connecticut. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the holotype. 

60. MICROBRACON CAULICOLA Gahan 

Fig. 13 

Microbracon caulicola Gahan, U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 61, 1922, p. 2. 

Type.— Cat. No. 24982, U.S.N.M. 

Closely resembles mellitor, but differs in the shorter ovipositor, in 
the longer flagellar segments of antennae, the usually straight pos- 
terior margin of second abdominal tergite; in the second abscissa of 
radius being much more than twice as long as the first, in the radius 
going more nearly to the extreme apex of wing, and in the propodeum 
being usually minutely reticulated over most of its surface. The an- 
tennae are usually 29 to 35-segmented, the two basal flagellar seg- 
ments usually twice as long as thick; propodeum usually delicately 
reticulated, sometimes granular and more strongly sculptured on the 
median line; abdomen broadly oval; the first tergite rugulose later- 
ally and at apex, the second coarsely granular or rugulose; the third 
to sixth tergites in the female, the third to fifth in the male, granular, 
much less strongly sculptured than the second; ovipositor sheaths 
nearly as long as the dorsum of the abdomen beyond first tergite. 
Usually entirely yellow; rarely the propodeum and first abdominal 
tergite more or less fuscous; wings dusky, the stigma nearly always 
yellow except at apex; in some small male specimens the stigma is 
brownish; legs, including all coxae, yellow. 

Distribution. — Evidently occurs throughout the eastern half of the 
United States wherever its principal hosts are found. 

Hosts. — Pyrausta ainsliei Heinrich; P. penitalis Grote; P. nubilalis 
Huebner. 

In addition to the types and the other material mentioned by 
Gahan as being contained in the collection of the National Museum, 
there are two specimens received from R. W. Harned, of Mississippi, 
bearing his No. S4750. At the Corn Borer Laboratory of the Bureau 
of Entomology, at Arlington, Massachusetts, there is a large quantity 
of material of this species, most of it reared from Pyrausta ainsliei, 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MTJESEBECK 73 

from Champaign and Urbana, Illinois. There is also a series in this 
collection, recorded as probably from Pyrausta nubilalis. the intro- 
duced European Corn Borer, taken at Woburn, Massachusetts; and 
a single specimen reared from Pyrausta ainsliei by H. W. Allen, at 
Agricultural College, Mississippi. 

61. MICROBRACON NIGER (Provancher) 

Ophts niger Pkovancher, Addit. faun. Canad. Hymen., 1888, p. 381. 
Microbracon niger Gahan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 49, 1915, p. 93. 

Type. — In the Museum of Public Instruction at Quebec, Canada. 

The following notes are based on the type : Head not thin ; f rons 
distinctly finely punctate; opening between clypeus and mandibles 
small, circular, its transverse diameter scarcely greater than the dis- 
tance from the opening to the eyes; antennae broken, only 13 seg- 
ments of one remaining, the other entirely missing; flagellar seg- 
ments slender, very nearly twice as long as thick; thorax stout, 
smooth and polished ; parapsidal furrows sparsely hairy ; propodeum 
polished, with a short stub of a median ridge at apex and a few 
short ridges diverging from this stub; radius arising much before 
middle of stigma ; second abscissa of radius fully twice as long as the 
first ; second cubital cell long ; third abscissa of radius hardly as long 
as the first and second abscissae combined; last abscissa of cubitus 
scarcely as long as the preceding abscissa ; second abdominal tergite 
minutely granular, finely striate medially; third tergite finely punc- 
tate; remainder of dorsum of abdomen smooth; ovipositor sheaths 
about as long as the abdomen behind first tergite. Head black, the 
face brown; thorax black; wings strongly infumated on basal half; 
legs yellowish, the coxae more or less dusky above, the posterior tibiae 
and tarsi dusky ; abdomen piceous. A very small specimen. 

Distribution. — Cap Rouge, near Quebec, Canada. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the unique type. 

62. MICROBRACON AEQUALIS (Provancher) 

Bracon aequalis Provancher, Natural. Canad., vol. 12, 1880, p. 141. 

Type. — In the Museum of Public Instruction, at Quebec, Canada. 

The following notes are based on the type: Face and frons finely 
sculptured; flagellar segments of antennae considerably longer than 
broad, the first nearly twice as long as broad; thorax smooth and 
polished ; propodeum with a median carina extending from the apex 
nearly half way to the base; second abscissa of radius fully twice as 
long as the first; first tergite sculptured apically and laterally; sec- 
ond tergite finely striate either side of the middle, punctate lat- 
erally; third and following tergites faintly punctate; ovipositor 



74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol. 67 

sheaths as long as the abdomen beyond second tergite. Face yellow ; 
frons, vertex, and occiput more or less piceous or blackish; thorax 
black; legs, including all coxae, yellow; wings nearly hyaline; ab- 
domen yellow, first tergite black, the apical tergites brownish. 

Distribution. — Canada. 

Host. — Unknown. 

The unique type is the only specimen of this species that I have 
seen. 

63. MICROBRACON ARGUTATOR (Say) 
Fig. 10 
Bracon argutator Say, Journ. Bost. Soe. Nat. Hist, vol. 1, 1836, p. 233. 

Type. — Lost. 

The species here regarded as argutator agrees very well with Say's 
description, and it seems more desirable to identify it as that species 
than to describe it as new. Head rather thick at insertion of an- 
tennae ; temples broad ; malar space in the female nearly as long as 
the first segment of antenna! flagellum ; antennae normally 25 to 30- 
segmented, shorter than the body in the female ; eyes short-oval ; face 
and frons finely punctate; thorax smooth and polished; parapsidal 
grooves weakly hairy ; propodeum usually mostly weakly reticulately 
sculptured, and more or less rugulose along the median line; second 
abscissa of radius about twice as long as the first, the third slightly 
longer than the first and second combined; abdomen long-oval, the 
first tergite sculptured apically and laterally; the second granular, 
usually as long as the first and longer than the third, more than half 
as long as broad at base ; third, fourth and fifth tergites much more 
delicately sculptured, shining; ovipositor sheaths projecting the 
length of the abdomen beyond second tergite or a little more. Yel- 
low ; sometimes entirely yellow, with only a spot enclosing the ocelli 
black; the abdomen often of a paler yellow than the thorax; some- 
times the occiput, mesonotal lobes, propodeum, pectus and first ab- 
dominal tergite more or less blackish; wings slightly dusky, the 
stigma more or less yellowish ; legs, including all coxae, yellow. 

Distribution. — Indiana ; Missouri. 

Host. — " Lepidopterous larva boring in Elymusf Saluria, species. 

The United States National Museum has considerable material 
reared from the above hosts at Lafayette, Indiana and Charleston, 
Missouri, by C. N. Ainslie, in the Bureau of Entomology, under 
Webster Nos. 14705 and 14781. 

64. MICROBRACON GERAEI, new species 

Very similar to argutator, but distinguished as noted in the table 
to species. 

Female. — Length, 3 mm. Head rather thick at insertion of an- 
tennae ; malar space much shorter than first flagellar segment of an- 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 75 

tennae ; transverse diameter of the opening between clypeus and man- 
dibles very much greater than the distance from the opening to the 
eyes, and at least one and one-half times as long as the malar 
space; face and frons very delicately punctate; antennae usually 27 
to 33-segmented, slender, usually as long as the body, the first flagellar 
segment about twice as long as broad; thorax smooth and polished; 
propodeum finely reticulate or minutely granular and opaque or sub- 
opaque; second abscissa of radius hardly twice as long as the first, 
the third a little longer than the first and second combined; last 
abscissa of cubitus longer than the preceding abscissa; abdomen 
long-oval ; first tergite rugulose laterally and at apex ; second tergite 
large, about as long as third, and about twice as broad at base as 
long, granular, often a little rugulose medially; third, fourth, and 
fifth tergites, and sometimes the sixth, exceedingly delicately sculp- 
tured; ovipositor sheaths nearly as long as the dorsum of the abdo- 
men beyond first tergite. Yellow ; usually the frons, vertex, occiput 
and mesonotal lobes more or less black; even in the specimens which 
have these parts deep black, the propodeum and the abdomen in- 
cluding first tergite are almost invariably yellow ; wings very slightly 
dusky ; legs including coxae, yellow, the apical tarsal segment black. 

Male. — Antennae of allotype 31-segmented; other males vary in 
this respect, the number of segments being usually 27 to 32. Some- 
times the thorax is almost entirely black, although usually at least 
the pectus and the propodeum are pale ; face occasionally with a quad- 
rate blackish spot. In some specimens the fourth and following 
abdominal tergites are entirely polished. 

Type.— Cat. No. 26668, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Sioux City, Iowa. 

Host. — " Geraeus larva in Panicum." 

Described from eight female and three male specimens reared by 
C. N. Ainslie in the Bureau of Entomology, under Webster No. 
8885. In addition to the type series there is considerable material 
in the National Museum, all of it reared from Panicum by C. N. 
Ainslie, at Sioux City, Iowa and Elk Point, South Dakota. 

65. MICROBRACON LUTUS (Provancher) 

Bracon lutus Provancher, Natural. Canad., vol. 12, 18S0, p. 142. 
Dracon lixi Ashmead, Canad. Ent, vol. 25, 1893, p. 67. 

Type. — In the Museum of Public Instruction at Quebec, Canada. 
The type of lixi is in the United States National Museum (Cat. No. 
2145). 

Very closely related to variabilis and often very difficult to distin- 
guish from that species; it is generally more robust, has longer an- 
tennae, a slightly longer malar space, and usually slightly shorter 
ovipositor sheaths. A study of the types of lutus and lixi has con- 



76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

vinced me that they are the same species. Eyes very broad, not dis- 
tinctly one and one-half times as long as broad, in the female; 
malar space, in the female, very nearly half as long as the distance 
from the lower margin of antennal foramina to lower margin of 
clypeus; antennae usually 36 to 40-segmented ; all the segments 
at least one and one-half times as long as broad; face and frons 
finely punctate, opaque; thorax stout, smooth and polished; pro- 
podeum mostly polished ; second abscissa of radius a little more than 
twice as long as the first; the third slightly longer than the first 
and second abscissae combined; second abdominal tergite granular, 
with a shining irregularly rugose area on basal middle; third, 
fourth, fifth, and in the female, the sixth, tergites finely sculptured ; 
suturiform articulation rather broad, foveolate, usually a little arcu- 
ate medially; ovipositor sheaths as long as the abdomen beyond sec- 
ond tergite or a little longer. Yellow; spot enclosing ocelli, and 
occiput usually blackish; thorax varying from mostly black to 
blackish only on the mesonotal lobes and propodeum; wings usually 
slightly dusky; legs, including all coxae, yellow; abdomen yellow, 
with first tergite and a median spot on second, black; apical ter- 
gites usually brownish. 

Distribution. — Canada; Virginia; New York; Massachusetts; 
Pennsylvania. 

Hosts. — Lixus scrobicollis Boheman, in Ambrosia triftda; Papai- 
pema nebris Guenee. 

But little material of this species, in addition to the types, has 
been seen. The United States National Museum has two specimens 
reared by H. Bird at Rye, New York, from Papaipema nebris; and 
a collected specimen from Natrona, Pennsylvania. The Corn-Borer 
Laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology has two specimens reared 
from Ambrosia at Manchester, Massachusetts. All these specimens 
are females. 

66. MICROBRACON CERAMBYCIDIPHAGUS, new species 
Fig. 16 

Very similar to the preceding in habitus, structure and sculpture ; 
it will frequently be found difficult to distinguish them. The char- 
acters given in the key together with the description should, how- 
ever, suffice to separate these two species, at least in the female sex. 

Female. — Length 3.5 mm. Head about as in lutus; temples reced- 
ing directly behind eyes; malar space as in lutus; postocellar line 
hardly exceeding the diameter of an ocellus; antennae of type 37- 
segmented, the two basal flagellar segments and also the apical seg- 
ments twice as long as thick ; thorax stout, smooth and polished ; 
propodeum a little roughened medially toward apex ; second abscissa 
of radius more than twice as long as the first; the third a little 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON — MUESEBECK 77 

longer than the first and second abscissae combined; abdomen 
broadly oval; first tergite with the chitinized plate broad and 
sculptured apically; second tergite broad, nearly three times as 
broad at base as long, not at all emarginate posteriorly, granular, 
with an irregularly rugose area on its basal middle; suturiform 
articulation straight medially, curving forward a little laterally; 
third to sixth tergites finely granular; ovipositor sheaths about as 
long as the abdomen beyond second tergite. Head, thorax and 
abdomen completely yellow; wings very nearly hyaline; legs, in- 
cluding all coxae, wholly yellow. 

Male. — Essentially as in the female; the antennae of the allotype 
are 36-segmented ; the malar space is much shorter than in the fe- 
male; stemmaticum, occiput, mesonotal lobes, pectus, propodeum 
and spot on first tergite, black. 

Type.— Cat. No. 2G670, U.S.N.M. 

Type-locality. — Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Host. — Oberea, species in Crataegus and Prunus. 

Described from ten female and two male specimens reared by 
H. B. Kirk. 

The color is more or less variable, but even in the darkest speci- 
mens of the type series the abdomen beyond first tergite is entirely 
yellow. 

67. MICROBRACON CINCTUS (Provancher) 

Phylax cinctus Provancher, Natural. Canad., vol. 12, 1880, p. 175. 
Zele cinctus Provancher, Addit. faun. Canad. Hymen., 1888, p. 380. 

Type. — In the Museum of Public Instruction, at Quebec, Canada.. 

The following notes are based on the type, which is a male : Head 
not thin; frons polished; transverse diameter of opening between 
clypeus and mandibles a little longer than the distance from the 
opening to the eye; antennae broken, 16 segments remaining, non& 
of the flagellar segments twice as long as thick; thorax smooth and 
polished; parapsidal grooves sparsely hairy; propodeum polished, 
with a short stub of a median ridge at apex and a slight impression 
just before the stub; first abscissa of radius fully as long as the inner 
side of stigma ; the second abscissa of radius less than twice the first ; 
abdomen missing; head and thorax black; wings dusky; legs, in- 
cluding all coxae, yellow. Somewhat resembles meromyzae, but 
the thorax is not so long and slender as in that species, the first 
abscissa of radius is longer, and the propodeum is without the- 
median carina which is usually distinct in meromyzae. 

Distribution. — Canada. 
- Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the broken holotype. 



78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.67 

68. MICROBRACON WAWEQUA Viereck 

Microhracon wawequa Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 
1917 (1916), pp. 204, 206. 

Type. — In the State Agricultural Experiment Station at New 
Haven, Connecticut. 

Following are notes made upon an examination of the type, a 
male specimen in good condition : Head rather thick at insertion of 
antennae; face and frons smootii and polished; antennae 34-seg- 
mented, all the flagellar segments longer than broad, the first dis- 
tinctly longer than the second; thorax long, rather slender, appar- 
ently twice as long as high, smooth and polished; propodeum pol- 
ished, with a short stub of a median ridge at apex; first abscissa of 
radius very long, about three-fourths as long as the first intercu- 
bitus and more than half the second abscissa of radius ; last abscissa 
of cubitus longer than the lower side of second cubital cell ; abdomen 
long; plate of the first tergite with two elongate pits laterally at 
apex; medially at apex this tergite is polished; second and follow- 
ing tergites completely polished; suturiform articulation very fine, 
not punctate or foveolate. Head and thorax wholly black; abdomen 
piceous black; wings very strongly infumated; all coxae, and fore 
and middle femora mostly, black; posterior femora black at base on 
the outer side. 

Distribution. — New Haven, Connecticut. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the unique type. 

69. MICROBRACON SULCIFRONS Ashmead 

Microbracon sulcifrons Ashmead, Bull. 1, Colo. Biol. Assoc, 1S90, p. 15. 

Type.— Cat. No. 13638, U.S.N.M. 

Head rather prominent at insertion of antennae, the face receding 
below ; face medially, and the frons, smooth and polished ; antennae 
rather stout, none of the flagellar segments twice as long as thick; 
thorax stout, smooth and polished ; propodeum with a median carina 
extending nearly half way from the apex toward base and with a 
few short ridges diverging from this stub; legs of type missing be- 
yond coxae; metacarpus nearly twice as long as the stigma; second 
abscissa of radius at least twice the first, the third not distinctly as 
long as the first and second combined; abdomen rather short; first 
tergite sculptured laterally and apically ; second tergite and basal two- 
thirds of third finely striate; suturiform articulation broad, straight, 
and strongly foveolate; apical third of third tergite and the fourth 
and following tergites smooth and polished. Body wholly black; 
coxae black; wings dusky. 

Distribution. — Smith's Park Gulch, Colorado. 

Host. — Unknown. 

The male type is the only specimen of this species that I have seen. 



art. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBEGK 79 

70. MICROBRACON CANADENSIS (Ashmead) 

Optus canadensis Ashmead, Canad. Eut., vol. 23, 1891, p. 4. 

Microlracon canadensis Gahan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 49, 1915, p. 93. 

Type.— Cat No. 15061, U.S.N.M. 

Somewhat resembles furtivus, but the last abscissa of radius is 
much longer, and the sculpture of the abdomen does not agree with 
any specimens of furtivus examined. Malar space at least one-third 
the length of the face from antennal foramina to lower margin of 
clypeus; antennae broken, the segments beyond the nineteenth miss- 
ing; first flagellar segment about twice as long as broad, the follow- 
ing subequal, about one and one-half times as long as broad ; thorax 
smooth and polished; second abscissa of radius less than twice the 
first ; the third much longer than the first and second combined, and 
going to the apex of the wing; last segment of posterior tarsi slen- 
der; first abdominal tergite sculptured laterally and at apex; the 
second granular, more or less striate medially ; suturif orm articula- 
tion straight, finely foveolate; the third tergite finely granular; the 
fourth faintly so, strongly shining; the following smooth and pol- 
ished. Head piceous black, the face yellow; antennae yellowish 
beneath toward base; thorax wholly black; legs, including coxae, 
yellow ; wings very slightly dusky ; abdomen black, except the second 
tergite laterally and the suturiform articulation. 

Distiibution. — Ottawa, Canada. 

Host. — Unknown. 

The above characterization is based on the male type, which is the 
only specimen I have seen. 

71. MICROBRACON KONKAPOTI Viereck 

Microbracon konkapoti Viereck, Bull. 22, Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 
1917 (1916), pp. 205, 207. 

Type. — In the State Agricultural Experiment Station, at New 
Haven, Connecticut. 

The following notes are based on the type, which is a male speci- 
men: Somewhat resembles rhyssemati in habitus and sculpture of 
the abdomen, but differs in the color of the head, especially the face, 
and in the sculpture of the propodeum. Face smooth and shining 
medially; frons very faintly punctate; antennae broken, 20 seg- 
ments remaining, the first and second flagellar segments of about 
equal length, twice as long as broad ; malar space less than half the 
transverse diameter of the opening between clypeus and mandibles; 
thorax rather long and slender, smooth and polished; propodeum 
polished, with a short stub of a median ridge at apex, and from this 
stub toward the base medially impressed, almost grooved, the impres- 
sion traversed by transverse ridges; first abscissa of radius a little 
longer than the recurrent vein and more than half as long: as the 



80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

second abscissa of radius ; radius going to the wing apex, the radial 
cell broad ; first abdominal tergite sculptured at apex ; second, third, 
fourth and fifth tergites rather evenly closely granular, the fourth 
and fifth a little less strongly so than the second and third. Entire 
body honey-yellow except the head which is piceous black; the face 
mostly blackish; legs, including all coxae, yellow; wings slightly 
dusky. 

Distribution. — West Thompson, Connecticut. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Known only from the holotype. 

72. MICROBRACON RHYSSEMATI (Ashmead) 

Bracon rhyssemati Ashmead, Joum. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., 1894, p. 46. 

Type.— Cat. No. 1362, U.S.N.M. 

Face and frons very minutely punctate; antennae 28 to 30-seg- 
mented, all of the flagellar segments much longer than broad ; trans- 
verse diameter of the opening between clypeus and mandibles at least 
twice as long as the malar space ; thorax smooth and polished ; parap- 
sidal furrows very sparsely hairy ; propodeum polished, with a medi- 
an longitudinal carina at least on the apical third, this carina some- 
times nearly complete, radius going practically to the wing apex; 
second abscissa of radius twice as long as the first, the third scarcely 
as long as the first and second combined; first abdominal tergite 
finely sculptured at apex; second, third, fourth, and fifth tergites 
strongly granular, opaque; sixth tergite faintly punctate, shining. 
"Yellow, the mesonotal lobes, disk of first abdominal tergite and the 
apical tergites very slightly dusky; wings faintly dusky; legs, in- 
cluding coxae, yellow. The female is unknown. 

Distribution. — Ohio. 

Host. — Rhyssematus lineaticollis Say. 

In addition to the three specimens of the type series the United 
States National Museum has one male specimen from Columbus, 
Ohio. 

73. MICROBRACON COOKII (Ashmead) 

Bracon cookii Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11,. 1889 (1S8S), p. 624. 

Type.— Cat. No. 2921, U.S.N.M. 

Very similar to furtivus; it cannot be satisfactorily distinguished 
from that species on the basis of the male holotype, the only speci- 
men of cookii that I have seen. This specimen, however, has a large 
quadrate blackish spot on the face, in which respect it differs from 
all specimens of furtivus examined. The host record, if correct, 
should leave little doubt that cookii represents a distinct species. The 
following notes are based on the type : Ocell-ocular line about twice 
as long as the diameter of an ocellus; face and frons very minutely 
punctate ; antennae broken ; thorax smooth and polished ; propodeum 



akt. 8 REVISION OF THE GENUS MICROBRACON MUESEBECK 81 

polished; first abscissa of radius about as long as recurrent vein; 
the second hardly twice as long as the first; the third scarcely as long 
as the first and second combined; second intercubitus longer than the 
recurrent vein; chitinized plate of first abdominal tergite broadening 
rather gradually posteriorly, rugulose apically and laterally ; second, 
third and fourth tergites granular, opaque; fifth tergite very finely 
granular, shining; frons, vertex and occiput blackish except along 
the eyes; face with a large quadrate black spot; thorax entirely 
black ; wings very faintly dusky ; legs, including all coxae yellow, the 
posterior tibiae and tarsi more or less dusky ; first abdominal tergite 
and a median spot on the second, black; the apical tergites some- 
what fuscous. 

Distribution. — Lansing, Michigan. 

Host. — " Leaf-miner in basswood." 

Known only from the unique type. 

SPECIES OF MICROBRACON NOT INCLUDED IN THE KEY 
MICROBRACON RUFOMARGINATUS (Ashmead) 
Brucon rufomarginatus Ashmead, Canad. Ent., vol. 25, 1S93, p. 08. 

Type. — I have been unable to locate the type of this species. 
Judged by the original description it is very similar to, possibly 
identical with, politiventris (Gtishman) ; if the type is found and 
proves to be politiventris, it will be necessary to place the latter name 
in synonymy. 

Type-locality. — Morgantown, West Virginia. 

Host. — Unknown. 

MICROBRACON PICEICEPS (Viereck) 

Bracon piceiceps Viereck, Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., vol. 19, 1905, p. 268. 

Type. — In the University of Kansas. 

It has been impossible to place this species on the basis of the 
original description and notes by Mr. Gahan who has examined the 
type, principally because the type is a male specimen and males of 
the group to which this species belongs are exceedingly difficult to 
identify. It appears to come nearest to mellitor. 

Type-locality. — Douglas County, Kansas. 

Host. — Unknown. 

SAY'S SPECIES OF THE GENUS BRACON 

When attempting to determine which of Say's species, described in 
the genus Bracon, belong to Microbracon, it became necessary to re- 
view thoroughly all of the species placed in Bracon by Say; and it 
appears desirable to include in this paper a list of these species with 
the names of the genera to which they seem to be referable. Some 
12053—25 6 



82 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



vol. 67 



of them have long since been assigned to their proper genera but are 
nevertheless included here in order to make the list complete. Mr. 
A. B. Gahan, of the Bureau of Entomology, very kindly aided in 
these determinations, and the following list expresses both his opinion 
and that of the writer. The species, the transfer of which has 
previously been published, are indicated by an asterisk. 



argutator Microbracon. 

*dorsator Microbracon. 

exhalans Doryctea. 

*explorator Cardiochiles. 

*hebetor Microbracon. 

honest or Spathius. 

inescator Spathius. 

*ligator Helconidea. 

*mellitor Microbracon. 

paululor Spathius. 

pectinator Odontobracon. 

populator Capitonius. 



pullator Spathius. 

*rugator Campyloneurus. 

rugulosus Rogas. 

scrutator Rogas. 

stigma tor Rogas. 

* thoracicus .__ Triaspis. 

Hibiator Cardiochiles. 

transversus Chrcmylus. 

*trilobatus Triaspis. 

truncator Zele. 

vestitor Rogas. 

*viator- - Cardiochiles. 



HOST LIST 



Anthonomm albopilosus Dietz — 

eugenii Cano 

fvlvus LeConte 

grandis Boheman — 

signatus Say 

squamosus LeConte- 

Chrysobolhris deleta LeConte 

Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst — 

Dcsmoris scapalis LeConte 

Gastroidea cyanea Melsh 

Gcraeus, species 

LaemosacGus, species 

Listro-notus latiusculus Boheman_. 

Lixus scrobicollis Boheman 

Oberea, species 

v Orthoris crotchii LeConte 

? Phytonomus nigrirostris Fabri- 

eitts 

Pissodes strobi Peck 

I'ityophthorus, species 

Rhyssematus lineaticollis Say 

Sphenophorus calloxiis Olivier 

Tachyptcrus quadrigibbus Say — 

Tychius semisquamoxus LeConte. 
T glodcrma fragariae Riley 



COLEOPTEKA 

Microbracon mellitor (Say). 
mellitor (Say). 
mellitor (Say). 
mellitor (Say). 
mellitor (Say). 
mellitor (Say). 
nevadensis ( Asbmead ) . 
variabilis (Provancher) . 
mellitor (Say). 
gastroideae ( Asbmead ) . 
geraci Muesebeck. 
laemosacci Muesebeck. 
punctatus Muesebeck. 
lutus (Provancher). 
cerambycidiphagus Muesebeck. 
nuperus ( Cresson ) . 

tenuiceps Muesebeck. 
pini Muesebeck. 
pityophthori Muesebeck. 
rhyssemati ( Asbmead ) . 
sphenophori Muesebeck. 
tachyptcri Muesebeck. 
variabilis (Provancher). 
tychii Muesebeck. 
analcidis (Asbmead). 



HYMKNOPTEBA 

Cephas I'iiicFiis Norton Microbracon cephi Gahan. 

En itra, species angclesius (Provancher). 

1 Priophorus acericaiilis McGilli- 

vray montowcsi Viereck. 



AKT. 8 



REVISION OF THE GENUS MICBOBBACON — MUESEBECK 



83 



LEP1DOPTEBA 

Acrobasis mbulclia Riley Microbrac 

Aegeria cxitioxa Say 

tipuliformis Linnaeus 

Archips argyrospila Walker 

paralella Robinson 

Aristotelia abscoiidiUlla Walker 

roscosuffu sella Clemens 
Canarisia hammondi Riley 

Chilo. species 

Coleophora leucochrysella Cle- 
mens 

volckei Heinrich — 
Coleophora, species 

Cryptolechia , species 

Desmia funeralis Huebner 

Diatraea, species 

Dioryctria abietella Zinck 

Enarmonia prunivora Walsh 

Ephestia cahiritella Zeller 

elutella Huebner 

kuchniella Zeller 

Etiella zinckcnella schisticolor 
Zeller 

Eulia triferana Walker 

Euxoa, species 

Oalleria melloneUa Linnaeus 

Oelechia hibiscella Busck 

Gelechia, species 

Gnorimoschema gallacastericlla 

Kellicott 

gallaesoHdagi- 
nis Riley 

Hemimene plummerana Busck 

Laspcyresia molesta Busck 

Malacosoma constricta Packard 

phi via I is Dyar 

Meromyza americana Fitch 

Mesocondyla gas trails Guenee 

Mineola indiginclla Zeller 

Mompha eloisclla Clemens 

Notolophus oslari Barnes 

Pandemis lamprosana Robinson 

Papaipema frigida Smith 

ncbris Guenee 

Papaipema, species 

Pectinophora gossypiella Saun- 
ders 

Phthorimaea cinerella Murtfeldt-. 
operculella Zeller 



on cushmani Muesebeck. 
sanninoideae Gahan. 
ses iae M uesebeck. 
gelechiac ( Ashmead ) . 
politiventris (Cushinan). 
/>odi< n koru m Viereek. 
gelechiac ( Ashmead ) . 
cushman i Muesebeck. 
gelechiac (Ashmead). 
pyra lidipha g u s M uesebeck . 

pygmaeus ( Provancher ) . 
pygmaeus (Provancher). 
juncicola ( Ashmead ) . 
pygmaeus ( Provancher ) . 
psilocorsi Viereek. 
gelechiae (Ashmead). 
pyralidiphagus Muesebeck. 
brevicornis ( Wesmael ) . 
cushmani Muesebeck. 
hebetor (Say). 
hebetor (Sa.v). 
hebetor (Say). 

hyxlopi Viereek. 
politiventris ( Cushman ) . 
erucarum ( Cushman) . 
hebetor (Say). 
gelechiae (Ashmead). 
gelcch iae ( Ashmead ) . 

furtirus (Fyles). 

furtivus (Fyles). 
hemimenae Rohwer. 
gelechiae (Ashmead). 
xanthonotus ( Ashmead ) . 
xanthonotus ( Ashmead ) . 
meromyzae (Gahan). 
cushmani Muesebeck. 
cushinan i Muesebeck. 
oenotherae Muesebeck. 
xanthonotus ( Ashmead ) . 
politiventris ( Cushman ) . 
papaipemae Gahan. 
lutus (Provancher). 
gelechiae (Ashmead). 

mellitor (Say). 
platynotae ( Cushman ) . 
gelechiac ( Ashmead ) . 
gelechiae (Asbmead). 



84 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



vol. 67 



Platynota, species Microbracon platynotae (Cushman). 

Plodia interpunctella Huebner hebetor (Say). 

Polyehrosis viteana Clemens gelechiae (Ashniead). 

mellitor (Say). 

politiventris ( Cushman ) . 

variabilis (Provancher). 

Pyrausta ainsliei Heinrich caulicola Gahan. 

nubilalis Huebner caulicola Gahan. 

gelechiae ( Ashniead ) . 

hebetor (Say). 

penitalis Grote ^__. caulicola Gabon. 

Saluria, species argutator (Say). 

Sitotroga cercalella Olivier hebetor (Say). 

Thurberiphaga diffusa Barnes, thurberiphagae Muesebeck. 

Vitula edmansii Packard hebetor (Say). 

Wanda baptisiella Fernald . gelechiae (Ashmead). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

The drawings on Plate 1 are by the writer. The photographs on Plate 2 
were taken by Mr. C. E. Hood, of the Bureau of Entomology. 

Plate 1 

Fig. 1. Microbracon gastroideae. Front view of head. 

2. Microbracon rudbeckiae. Lateral view of abdomen. 

3. Microbracon pygmaeus. Front view of bead. 

4. Microbracon mellitor. Dorsal view of abdomen. 

5. Microbracon melanaspis. Dorsal view of abdomen. 

6. Microbracon sphenophori. Lateral view of head. 

7. Microbracon tenuiceps. Lateral view of head. 

8. Microbracon sesiae. Lateral view of head. 

Plate 2 



Fig. 9. Microbracon sesiae. Anterior wing. 

10. Microbracon argutator. Anterior wing. 

11. Microbracon hemimenae. Anterior wing. 

12. Microbracon sanninoideae. Anterior wing. 

13. Microbracon caulicola. Anterior wing. 

14. Microbracon pini. Anterior wing. 

15. Microbracon ptigmaeus. Anterior wing. 

16. Microbracon cerambtjeidipliagus. Anterior wing: 

17. Microbracon cushmani. Anterior wing. 

18. Microbraeon mellitor. Anterior wing. 

19. Microbracon brevicomis. Anterior wing. 

20. Microbracon ceplii. Anterior wing. 

21. Microbracon tychii. Anterior wing. 

22. Microbracon mdbeckiae. Anterior wing. 

23. Microbracon gelechiae. Anterior wing. 

24. Microbracon crucarum. Anterior wing. 

25. Microbracon furtivus. Anterior wing. 

26. Microbracon xanthonotus. Anterior wing. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 8 PL. I 







Details of Microbracon 



For explanation of plate see page 84 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 67, ART. 3 PL. 2 




Wings of Species of Microbracon 

For explanation of plate see page 84 



SPECIES INDEX 



[Accepted specific names are In roman ; synonyms In Italics] 



Page 

aequalis (Provan«her) 73 

americanus (Ashniead) 28 

analcidis (Ashmead) 59 

angelesius (Frovancher) 43 

anthonomi (Ashmead) 65 

apicatus (Frovancher) 64 

argutator (Say) 74 

nshmeadi Muesebeck 42 

atricollis (Ashmead) 58 

auripes (Provancher) 44 

brachynrus (Ashmead) 36 

brevicornis (Wesmael) 33 

canadensis (Ashmead) 79 

caulicola Gahan 72 

cecidomyiae (Ashmead) 43 

eephi Gahan 61 

cerambycidiphagus Muesebeck 76 

heneficientior (Viereck) 31 

ductus (Provancher) 77 

coleophorae Rohwer 38 

eonnecticutorum Viereck 40 

cookii (Ashmead) 80 

curtus (Provancher) 48 

cushmani Muesebeck 29 

diversicolor (Viereck) 27 

dorsator (Say) 31 

erucarum (Cushman) 27 

euurae (Ashmead) 43 

fungicola (Ashmead) 67 

furtivus (Fyles) 67 

gastroideae (Ashmead) 35 

gelechiae (Ashmead) 26 

geraei Muesebeck 74 

bebetor (Say) 31 

hemimenae Rohwer 61 

hobomok Viereck 71 

hopkinsi (Viereck) 30 

byslopi Viereck 49 

johannseni (Viereck) 26 

jurjlandis (Ashmead) 31 

juncl (Ashmead) 38 

juneicola (Ashmead) 37 

kansensis (Viereck) 38 

konkapoti Viereck 79 

laemosacci Muesebeck 56 

lixi (Ashmead) 75 

lutus (Provancher) 75 

mali (Viereck) 30 

ma8sasoit Viereck 38 

melanaspis (Ashmead) 36 

mellitor (Say) 65 

meromyzae (Gahan) 41 



Page 

metacomet Viereck 57 

minimus (Cresson) 47 

montowesi Viereck 60 

nanus (Provancher) 65 

nawaasorum Viereck 58 

nevadensis (Ashmead) 54 

niger (Provancher) 73 

nlgridorsum (Ashmead) 41 

nigropectus (Provancher) 67 

nitidus (Provancher) 50 

notaticeps (Ashmead) 26 

nuperus (Cresson) 47 

oenotherae Muesebeck 62 

papaipemae Gahan 63 

pembertoni Bridwell 65 

piceiceps (Viereck) 81 

pini Muesebeck 52 

pityophthori Muesebeck 55 

platynotae (Cushman) 29 

podunkorum Viereck 59 

politiventris (Cushman) 37 

politum (Ashmead) 42 

politus (Provancher) 47 

psilocorsi Viereck — 40 

punctatus Muesebeck 24 

pygmaeus (Provancher) 38 

pyralidiphagus Muesebeck 34 

rpiinnipiacorum Viereck 24 

rhyssemati (Ashmead) 80 

rudbeckiae Muesebeck 45 

rufomarglnatus (Ashmead) 81 

sanninoideae Gahan 70 

scanticorum Viereck 33 

scbequanash Viereck 37 

sesiae Muesebeck 53 

sphenophori Muesebeck 25 

sulcifrons (Ashmead) 78 

tachypteri Muesebeck 68 

tenuiceps Muesebeck 46 

tetralophae (Viereck) 26 

thurberiphagae Muesebeck 54 

tortricicola (Ashmead) 69 

trifolli (Ashmead) 38 

tychii Muesebeck 51 

uucas Viereck 43 

variabilis (Cushman) 29 

variabilis (Provancher) 69 

vernoniae (Ashmead) 65 

wawequa Viereck 78 

xanthonotus (Ashmead) 30 

xanthostigmus (Cresson) 65 



85 



o 



UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS 



By Frank Springer, 

Associate in Paleontology, United States National Museum 



INTRODUCTION 

It was originally my intention when preparing the monograph on 
the Crinoidea Flexibilia to follow it up with a similar systematic 
treatise on the Inadunata. But the time and labor consumed in 
bringing out such works proved to be too great, and I have been 
compelled to relinquish the project for the last-mentioned treatise. 
Many preparatory studies were made, however, with such a work in 
view, some of which are embraced in the present paper, containing 
the results of researches extending over many years, which I have 
long desired to publish, but which have been delayed by the pressure 
of other matters. The material used is chiefly from my own col- 
lection, now in the United States National Museum, much of it 
accumulated with special reference to these researches. Most of the 
drawings have been made by Mr. Kenneth M. Chapman, of Santa 
Fe, New Mexico, and some by Miss Francesca Wieser, of the Na- 
tional Museum. I am much indebted to Dr. R. S. Bassler and Dr. 
C. E. Resser, of the National Museum, for their assistance in making 
the photographs upon which the drawings are based. 

THE USUAL STRUCTURE OF CRINOIDS 

The generalized picture of a crinoid, as seen in the forms by 
which the class is most commonly known, is that of a marine organ- 
ism having a calyx, cup, or theca composed of calcareous plates defi- 
nitely arranged, inclosing a cavity which contains the visceral 
organs; attached to the sea bottom or other objects, temporarily or 
permanently, by a columnar stem formed by a series of centrally 
perforated segments; and fringed at the opposite end by a ring of 
movable, food-gathering appendages called arms; these are likewise 
built up of calcareous segments, but instead of being pierced by a 
central opening for a tubular canal, as in the stem, they are notched 
at one side, forming a groove along which the microscopic food is 

No. 2581.— Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 67. Art. 9. 

23832—26 1 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol. 67 

carried by means of currents produced by minute cilia to the oral 
center, or mouth. The arms when gathering food are stretched up- 
ward or outward, but may be folded together when not so employed 
in such a manner that the vital organs and soft parts are protected 
by an outer envelope of hard calcareous material. The excrement 
is discharged through an orifice, either directly piercing the tegmen, 
or roof, or at the end or side of a projecting tube, or exceptionally 
through the side wall of the cup. 

The plates of which the calyx is composed are arranged usually 
according to a quinqueradiate plan, most plainly developed on the 
lower side to which the stem is attached, from which the radiation 
extends upward and continues into the arms. This is called the 
dorsal side, in contradistinction to that next to which the arms are 
located, which is the ventral side or tegmen; and the part of the 
calyx below the origin of the arms is called the dorsal cup, or simply 
the cup, which incloses or supports the visceral organs. 

This cup in the usual crinoid is made up of a base, consisting either 
of a single ring of five, four, three, or two plates (or some of these 
coalesced into a single undivided disk), called basals; or of this 
and another alternating ring below it of five or three plates (also 
sometimes fused into one), called infrabasals; and following the 
basal ring another set of five alternating plates, called radials, with 
sometimes a ring of interradials in line with them. 

The two rings of cup plates — basals and radials — are the funda- 
mental elements of the adult crinoid structure. They are found 
throughout all the major divisions of the class, and of the blastoids 
also. In the typical crinoid these two elements are symmetrically 
arranged in alternating contact with each other, and the radials are 
symmetric among themselves. This is the plan in the great majority 
of fossil, and practically all the existing, crinoids. But to this gen- 
eralized type there are numerous exceptions. 

The general tendency of the crinoids as a class, starting in the 
earliest Paleozoic with the asymmetric form which they inherited 
from cystidean ancestors, was toward that of complete pentamerous 
symmetry. This was attained in the Mesozoic and Recent crinoids 
generally, and in a few genera of the Paleozoic. In most of the 
Paleozoic crinoids an incomplete pentamerous symmetry was 
reached, modified by the bilaterial symmetry due to the presence of 
anal structures. The course of this development was by no means 
one of continual progress. It was marked by numerous recessions 
and sudden changes. 

Two of the major divisions of the crinoids, Camerata and Flexi- 
bilia, and for the most part the third, Inadunata, culminated and 
were extinguished before the end of the Paleozoic. During this vast 
stretch of time manv peculiar modifications of the type as we chiefly 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 3 

know it occurred, the causes of which are unknown, but which serve 
as examples of the infinite variety with which the processes of nature 
go on. Many of these are already well known, and some others it is 
the purpose of this paper to illustrate. No general discussion of 
crinoid morphology is here attempted. For that reference should 
be had to the works of Bather in part 3 of the Lankester Zoology; 
of Austin H. Clark on the Existing Crinoids; of Wachsmuth and 
Springer on the Crinoidea Camerata; of myself on the Crinoidea 
Flexibilia; and to various papers by Jaekel. 

I am simply presenting a number of facts, more or less unrelated, 
bearing upon some of the unusual features and changes above 
alluded to, by which the general progress of the crinoids in geo- 
logical time was characterized; together with discussion of some 
remarkable parallel modifications which I am now able to illustrate 
more completely than was possible heretofore. 

THE COILED BILATERAL STEM 

While the possession of a stem is one of the characters by which 
the crinoids as a class are best known — so much so that a large part 
of the early literature treating of them was devoted mainly to discus- 
sion of the isolated segments of which it is composed — there was in 
some instances a remarkable tendency to get rid of it. This append- 
age probably existed in the larval stage of all crinoids, but in by far 
the greater part of the existing forms, the comatulids, it is cast off at 
approaching maturity, and the adult crinoid becomes a free floater. 
In some, the pentacrinites, it attained a great length; and in some 
(thought to be due to living on reefs in shallow water) the stem is 
very short, or even disappears, fixation being accomplished through 
direct attachment by the fused base. 

In most of the Paleozoic genera the stem was present, sometimes 
attached or anchored by remarkable specialized structures (Scypho- 
crlnus, Ancyrocrinus, etc.) 1 ; in many cases only resting in the soft 
coze of the sea bottom by finely pointed terminals, and often not 
permanently fixed. 2 

The great Paleozoic divisions, Camerata and Flexibilia, and the 
chiefly Paleozoic Inadunata, had stems with but few exceptions, 
such as Edriocrinus in which the base was fused and attached 
directly to other objects or became rounded and free from attach- 
ment, and Agassizocrinus in which a free floating stage in some of 
its species was also attained. The same thing is true of the Mesozoic 
crinoids. 



1 Springer, On the crinoid genus Scyphocrinus, Smiths. Misc. Coll. Publication 2440, 
1917, pp. 9-12. 

2 Dr. Edwin Kirk's instructive paper on Eleutherozoic relmatozoa, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 41, 1911, pp. 1-137. 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

A special form of stem development which I wish to illustrate 
is that in which the usually cylindrical or pentagonal straight stem 
loses its characteristic shape, becomes coiled, and takes on a bilateral 
symmetry, by which for the greater part of its length it is flattened 
or concave at the inner side, with the columnals elliptic or crescentic 
in cross section ; and the cirri, instead of occurring in whorls around 
the column, are borne only in two rows at or near the margins of the 
flattened or concave side, or sometimes at the back. This structure 
is correlated — either as a cause or an effect — with a tendency of the 
crown to bend back upon the stem, and of the stem to coil around it 
in the opposite direction in such a way that the crown may be tightly 
enclosed within the coil and completely enveloped by the cirri. The 
part of the stem proximal to the calyx is circular in section, much re- 
duced in diameter, relatively short as a rule, but variable in length; 
and it bears no cirri. The reversed curve is similar to that of a 
swan's neck, and for convenience the term " neck " may be used for it 
in the discussions. 

This character was evidently protective in origin, as the crown is 
often very small in comparison with the stem; and in some forms, 
where the cirri are short and closely packed, the crown is so sur- 
rounded by the stem structures that it can rarely be seen in the fos- 
sils ; while in others, in which the cirri are more scattered but strong 
and branching, the neck upon which the crown was borne is long, 
slender, and exceedingly brittle, not tightly rolled, but evidently 
loosely enveloped in a fringe formed by the strong cirri. Here it 
must have been very sensitive to disturbance, for in the fossil the 
stem is almost invariably broken off at the slender neck. In those 
forms in which the stem was tightly coiled it could be uncoiled and 
the crown exposed. 

This type of stem is found in otherwise unrelated forms from the 
Silurian to the latest member of the Lower Carboniferous. It occurs 
irregularly, and so far as yet known, without continuity, and without 
any definite or exclusive correlation with other characters. After 
appearing in several Inadunate species in the Niagaran of America, 
and the Wenlockian of England and Sweden, closely followed by 
three in the Lower Devonian and one of uncertain relations in the 
Middle Devonian, the coiled stem structure reappears after a con- 
siderable interval in the Burlington limestone of the Lower Car- 
boniferous, but in a different suborder of the crinoids, the Camerata, 
in one family of which it continues to the end in the upper part of 
the Chester. Generic names have been given based upon these occur- 
rences; but in the Silurian forms, owing to the closely inrolled con- 
dition in which the stems are usually found, the crown is very sel- 
dom seen in a state from which the elements of the calyx can be 
ascertained sufficiently for a proper diagnosis. While there are 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CFJNOIDS SPRINGER O 

some well marked differences in the details of the columnals and 
cirri, which furnish excellent specific characters, it is not practicable 
to correlate them with other characters to form larger groups; and 
as to the stem itself, its superficial aspect in some of the Silurian 
forms closely approximates that in some from the Lower Carboni- 
ferous. 

So far as can be ascertained, the crown in the Silurian and Lower 
Devonian forms is of irregular composition, more or less deformed — 
induced perhaps by the restricted mode of life of the crinoid — and 
of Heterocrinid type. In some of the Carboniferous species the 
crown, while otherwise regular, is somewhat deformed by pressure. 

It would appear probable, therefore, that this peculiar modifica- 
tion of stem structure is a secondary character, arising from some 
special condition of life, which may be repeated independently 
without materially influencing the primary characters upon which 
genera and families are founded, and therefore of minor taxonomic 
importance as compared with the great alteration in the superficial 
appearance of the organism which results from it. 

The Silurian form of the crinoid with coiled stem was first de- 
scribed by Hall in 1852 3 under the name Myelodactylus, based upon 
fragmentary specimens from the Rochester shale which he took to 
be parts of arms. In 1873 Salter 4 described a British species show- 
ing the true relation of the crown to the stem, for which he proposed 
the name Herpetoerinus. Angelin- in the Iconographia, 1878, de- 
scribed three species from Gotland under Hall's name; and in 1893 
Bather, in the Crinoidea of Gotland (p. 36 and following), revised the 
whole subject, redescribing Salter's species, rejecting all of Angelin's, 
and adding three new ones of his own. He gave a full summary of 
all the literature, together with a minute account of the morphology 
of the stem, with elaborate illustrations which for beauty of execu- 
tion and fulness of detail leave nothing to be desired. He adopted 
Salter's name Herpetocrinus, rejecting Hall's Myelodactylus because 
he thought it misleading and based upon incorrect interpretation of 
the structure. In 1895, in an article in the American Geologist (vol. 
16, p. 213) Doctor Bather again discussed Herpetocrinm in con- 
nection with Brachiocrinus, another genus of Hall, which he rightly 
considered to be of the same type, but which he also rejected because, 
as in his first genus, Hall had mistaken his specimens for arm frag- 
ments instead of stem. 

Hall's description of Myelodactylus, however erroneously con- 
ceived as to the nature of the specimens, was accompanied by good 
figures, by which not only the generic type, but also the two species 

3 Paleontology of New York, vol. 2, p. 191. 

4 Catalog fossils in the Geological Museum, Cambridge, p. 118. 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

which he described under it, may be readily recognized. Therefore 
his name will have to stand, under the rules of nomenclature as now 
interpreted. Inasmuch as in the type species of Herpetocrinus, H. 
fletcheri, as redescribed by Bather, the composition of the calyx has 
been definitely shown to be essentially that of the Heterocrinidae, 
but with only four rays, while in at least one of the American spe- 
cies it is now known to be somewhat different, it might be suggested 
that Salter's name should be retained, at least for that species. But 
from the little we know of the crown it is probable that the Silurian 
species in America are similarly deformed, and so the separation of 
genera on this ground is problematic. Therefore I think it the safe 
course, with our present knowledge, to treat all the species under the 
name first published. 

Six American species have been described : M. convolutus Hall 
and HI. brachiatus Hall, from the Rochester shale; M. gorbyi S. A. 
Miller, perhaps from the Waldron ; M. bridgeporteiisis S. A. Miller, 
from the Racine dolomite; M. {Eomyelodactylus) rotundatus 
Foerste, from the Brassfield; M. (Brachiocvinus) nodosarius Hall, 
from the Helderbergian. To these will be added two new species 
from the Niagaran; also one from the Keyser, and one from the 
Linden beds of the Lower Devonian. Furthermore, I have rec- 
ognized from the American rocks of Niagaran age one of Doctor 
Bather's Gotland species of the equivalent Wenlockian, which also 
occurs in England. From data. now available as to the occurrence 
of these several species, it may be said that the Silurian type ranges 
from the early Niagaran through most of its principal formations, 
and continues into the Lower Devonian. It has not thus far been 
recognized from the Middle or Upper Devonian, although a re- 
markable modification of it is now known from the former horizon 
and will be herein described, which is perhaps more nearly related 
to the Lower Carboniferous phase of the coiled stem type. 

Genus MYELODACTYLUS Hall 

Plates 1-5 

Myelodactylus Hall, Pal. New York, vol. 2, 1S52, p. 191. 
Herpet?-oorinus Bather, Crinoidea of Gotland, 1893, p. 36. 
Silurian to Devonian. 

Hall's generic diagnosis, based on the idea that the coiled stem 
was an arm, is of no service, but the form can be recognized from 
the two species which he figured and described. With our present 
knowledge its characters may be stated as follows : 

An Inadunate crinoid with coiled stem, which more or less com- 
pletely envelops the crown. Stem in proximal region evolute, cir- 
cular in section, composed of very thin uniform ossicles; in middle 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 7 

and distal regions involute, enlarging, sometimes diminishing 
again, bilaterally symmetric, elliptic or subcrescentric in section; 
with two rows of jointed cirri along the margins or the back of the 
bilateral part varying in arrangement, which may converge over 
the closely coiled noncirriferous proximal portion like spokes of a 
wheel. Crown of the type of the Heterocrinidae ; without compound 
radials, and rather resembling locrinus than Heterocrinus; rays ir- 
regular, more or less unequal in size, four or five in number; arms 
dichotomous or slightly heterotomous. (Partly adapted from Bather 
under Hevpetocrinus. ) 

As observed by Bather, 5 the chief diagnostic characters within 
the genus are furnished by the stem and its appendages. The 
crown is rarely seen, and owing to pressure resulting from its in- 
rolled habitus the calyx did not have the freedom to develop in the 
usual way, and is therefore more or less deformed. 

Except in the Devonian species, the crown is usually very slender 
and elongate, so that it can lie along the grooved side of the stem, 
between the two rows of cirri, without producing any swelling or 
bulging to indicate its presence. In that condition it is impossible 
to see anything beyond the general outline of the crown, and we are 
therefore unable to analyze its composition. In the two cases in 
which the full contour of the calyx has been seen, one a Silurian and 
the other a Devonian species, the former has four rays and the latter 
five. If this difference were known to be constant, it might furnish 
ground for a subdivision of the genus. But in the presence of so 
remarkable a specialization the crown was doubtless in a plastic con- 
dition, and with the evidence we have, or are likely to obtain, there 
seems to be no other course than to treat these variations as secondary 
occurrences, incident to the cramped condition in which the crown 
habitually grew, which necessarily produced more or less suppres- 
sion or deformation of the parts subject to pressure. 

On the other hand, the stem was a seat of activity unusual in the 
stalked crinoids, and the cirri took on special functions analogous 
to those of the comatulids — that is to say, they became active, per- 
haps prehensile, organs, free to develop according to their condi- 
tions; and their modifications, as in the comatulids, furnish impor- 
tant characters for the discrimination of species. Bather suggests 5 
(p. 46) that these probably broke off any rooted attachment they 
may have formed, and that they clung to corals or other objects by 
their cirri — a mode of life that would furnish the stimulus for nu- 
merous variations. This suggestion is reinforced by my observa- 
tions, showing positively that in some species the stem was free 
from any attachment whatever. 

6 Crinoidea of Gotland, p. 45. 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.. 67 

Eight or ten different plans of structure and arrangement of the 
cirri and columnals, some of them widely different, are seen in the 
material thus far discovered, and in those cases where we are able 
to test them in considerable numbers of specimens it is found that 
they hold good with remarkable constancy. 

The Silurian species of Europe and American fall into two groups 
which are somewhat parallel ; one in which the cirri, with many vari- 
ations, are borne upon the margins formed by the two ends of the 
crescentic or elliptic columnals, which is the most frequent condi- 
tion, and the other in which they spring more or less from the back 
of the stem. 

As usually found, we have for comparison only the coiled proxi- 
mal or middle portion of the stem, the longer uncoiled or broadly 
curved portion being only exceptionally recovered. 

If we trace the course of the stem from the point where the slender 
circular portion proximal to the calyx enlarges and changes to a 
bilateral form with elliptic section, and the reverse curve begins 
(regions 1 and 2 of Bather's description), we find that the involute 
curve usually proceeds for about one to one and a half coils, and 
then the stem does one of two things; either 1, tapers off rapidly to 
a narrow pointed end which clings rather closely to the preceding 
coil; or 2, deviates from this course and goes off in an increasingly 
wide curve (which sometimes become? almost straight) for a con- 
siderable distance, without any marked diminution in width, prob- 
ably to a terminal of attachment. The first we call a " close coil," 
which in some species is all there is ; and the second a ' : loose coil " : 
and when in the discussion of species measurement is given of the 
diameter of coil, it means the same thing in both types, namely, the 
primary coil before the deviation into a broader curve. We can not 
fix a very accurate limit for this distinction, but it serves a conven- 
ient purpose in description. The " close coil " represents the unat- 
tached form; the "loose coil" the form which may have been tem- 
porarily or permanently attached by the stem to the sea bottom or to 
other objects. 

Genotype. — Myelodactylus convolutus Hall. 

Distribution. — Silurian to Lower Devonian; North America, Eng- 
land, Sweden. 

MYELODACTYLUS CONVOLUTUS Hall 

Plate 1, figs. 1-8 

Myelodactylu* convolutus Hall, Pal. New York, vol. 2, 1S52, p. 192, pi. 45, 

figs. 5a, 6, Ga-h. 
Hcrpctocrinus convolutus, Bathke, Crinoidea of Gotland, 1893, p. 48, pi. 2, 

figs. 50-53. 

Coil close in proximal region; open and broadly convolute distal- 
wards. Columnals very short, quadrangular and uniform. Cirri 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 9 

numerous, flat, and closely apposed; regularly paired, one at each 
side of successive columnals along greater part of stem. 

This is one of two thoroughly distinct and well marked forms, 
both described by Hall when proposing the genus, and illustrated by 
good figures. It is the most widely distributed species, and the 
farthest ranging. Bather has described a specimen of it from the 
Wenlockian of Gotland; and in America specimens which can not 
be distinguished from it in the condition as found occur in nearly all 
the formations from the later Clinton through the greater part of 
the Niagaran. Its range may thus be said to be almost coextensive 
with the principal Silurian formations of Europe and America. 

Hall's type of the species was from the Rochester shale at Lock- 
port, New York. It is rather rare at that locality, only four speci- 
mens having been recognized in the abundant material I have from 
the shales, and one from the underlying limestone of late Clinton 
age. It has since been found to occur (or two forms indistinguishable 
from it with our present knowledge) in the Brassfield formation of 
the upper Clinton in Ohio; the Laurel limestone of Indiana; the 
Racine dolomite of the Chicago area ; and in a closely allied species 
in the Brownsport limestone of the later Niagaran. 

I am now able to illustrate the species more fully than was done 
originally, showing the extent of the column distally, the distribu- 
tion of the cirri along the greater part of its length, and some of 
the slender, circular part leading to the calyx, of which we have 
the crown partly visible in one specimen, but not enough to deter- 
mine its structure. As shown by these specimens, the stem beyond 
the close coil is quite long, and the cirri very narrow, flat and closely 
packed, so that as seen from either side each columnal bears a cirrus. 
In the large specimen (pi. 1, fig. 1) the stem extends for 12 cm. 
beyond the close coil, in which it is 4 mm. wide, maintaining this 
width to the incomplete distal end. In the St. Paul specimen (pi. 
1, fig. 7) the stem is broken off where it was beginning to open a 
short distance beyond the close coil, and it is of the full width of 
4 mm., which is probably maintained for a distance of at least 7 cm. 
more. There are five other specimens from the St. Paul locality, 
more or less fragmentary, and in all but one of them the convolutus 
plan of cirri is constant. 

The occurrence of this species in the Laurel limestone at St. Paul, 
Indiana, is an excellent illustration of Foerste's observation 6 that 
"students of the crinoidea are aware of the frequency with which 
species occurring at St. Paul find their nearest relatives in the Wal- 
dron, Brownsport, and Racine, many of them showing Gotlandian 
affinities." 

Ohio Jouru. Sci., vol. 21, Dec. 1920, p. 64. 
23832—26 2 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

I also give for comparison (pi. 1) some figures of the type species 
of Herpetocrinus, H. fletcheri, from the Wenlock limestone at 
Dudley, England, including my own specimen which shows the 
crown to consist of 4 rays 7 ; also Salter's type specimen in the 
Geological Museum at Cambridge, England, with the crown ex- 
posed on one side. In these, and in two other specimens in my col- 
lection, the bead-like form of the slender cirri, which is the chief 
distinctive character separating it from the closely related Amer- 
ican species, is thoroughly shown. There is some irregularity in 
their distribution, as is said by Bather 8 ; and I find more alternation 
in successive columnals than his description indicates. H. -fletcheri 
occurs both in England and Gotland, and for a complete revised de- 
scription see Bather's work previously cited, especially his beautiful 
figures on plate 2, and details of the stem structure on page 41. 

Horizon and locality. — Silurian, Eochester shale, and also the 
later Clinton; Lockport, New York; Brassfield limestone, Xenia, 
Ohio; Kacine dolomite', Chicago; also the Wenlock limestone; 
Dudley, England, and Gotland, Sweden. 

MYELODACTYLUS BREVIS, new species 

Plate 1, figs. 9, 9a 

I figure under this name a solitary specimen from the Browns- 
port formation of the late Niagaran, which agrees with M. convolutus 
in all the diagnostic characters of the columnals and cirri, but differs 
in the extreme shortness of the stem, and the close coil. It has no 
distal extension whatever beyond the tightly rolled coil, as is shown 
by the rapid taper, which is evidently very near the end. While 
the specimen may be sporadic amid the great abundance of the pre- 
valent species of that horizon, yet the agreement with the form from 
the Eochester shale in the essentials of cirri structure is so complete 
that it can hardly be ignored, while at the same time the close coil, 
terminating in a point, is shown by abundant material in another 
form to be a good specific character. 

Horizon and locality. — Silurian, Brownsport formation; Decatur 
county, Tennessee. 

MYELODACTYLUS AMMONIS (Bather) 

Plate 2, figs. 1-9 

Herpetocrvnus ammonia Bather, Crinoidea of Gotland, 1893, p. 49. pi. 2, figs. 
54-63. 

Coil very close, stem short, extending but little beyond the prox- 
imal part of the involute coil ; wide in the middle region and taper- 
ing to a point at the distal end. Cirri numerous, short, flat and 

7 Mentioned by Bather in Crinoidea of Gotland, p. 1S2, under fig. 38. 

8 Crinoidea of Gotland, p. 46. 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CKINOIDS SPRINGER 11 

closely apposed; either regularly paired on alternate columnals, 
or regularly alternating, one from the broad end of successive 
columnals. Crown usually concealed by the coil; its detailed struc- 
ture unknown. 

Among the collections made for me by Professor Pate in the 
Brownsport formation of Decatur county, Tennessee, are upwards of 
rifty specimens belonging to this genus. With a solitary exception 
they all have alternating columnals according to one of two plans: 
either 1, long, hourglass-shaped ossicles as seen from the inner side, 
with a cirrus at each end and a shorter, lenticular, non-cirriferous 
ossicle interposed; or 2, uniform wedge-shaped ossicles, with a 
cirrus springing only from the broad end of each. The cirri are in 
close contact, short, tapering rapidly, when intact meeting at the 
center of the coil, or slightly overlapping at the smaller ends — thus 
filling the entire visible space with a conspicious convergent struc- 
ture. Seen from either side, there is one cirrus for every two 
columnals. The difference between this form and M. convolutus is 
readily apparent. The latter has twice as many cirri, which are 
relatively only half as wide, as the former. In the exception above 
mentioned the specimen differs so decisively in structure that I have 
separated it as M. brevis. 

These specimens fall into two categories: 1, with a short stem, 
closely coiled, the distal end tapering while still in contact with the 
coil, thus indicating that it did not extend much farther, and in 
fact, when not broken off, narrowing to a point ; 2, with stem much 
elongated, extending by broad curves beyond the small proximal coil, 
without noticeable dimunition in width to near the distal end — - 
sometimes becoming almost straight. This difference is not due to 
age, for both large and small individuals have an open coil, while 
those that are closely coiled are sometimes quite robust, although 
generally smaller than the former. 

These forms constitute two well marked subdivisions of the type 
under consideration, each numerously represented among the mate- 
rial from the Decatur County area. In a few specimens where the 
stem is broken off close to the proximal region of the coil the identi- 
fication is uncertain, but in most cases one can determine from the 
condition at the point of fracture whether the stem is beginning to 
taper distalward or not; and the two structures impart a certain 
superficial aspect by which, when once understood, the forms are 
readily recognized. In specimens which are nearly complete the 
difference is apparent at a glance. 

Each of these divisions includes specimens with both types of 
columnals as above described, which I have been unable to correlate 
with any other character for a further and desirable subdivision. 
Bather, when describing his //. cmimonis, recognized two varieties 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

based upon these characters, which he called bijugici?TUS, with the 
hourglass-shaped, and alternicirrus, with the wedge-shaped, ossicles. 
He did not think it advisable to separate them as species, because he 
found the structures somewhat intermingled in his principal type 
specimen, and also in view of the practical difficulty of distinguishing 
them owing to the fact that the stem in both varieties, as seen from 
the outer curve, and also from the side, presents the same appearance, 
it being usually only on the inner curve that any difference is appar- 
ent. I have found the same difficulty, and among the numerous 
specimens now in hand there are several, otherwise well preserved, 
which I should be unable to identify upon this character alone. The 
intermingling of the two varieties is well shown on plates 2 and 3, 
and in one fragment from St. Paul (pi. 3, fig. 12) both are seen to 
exist in the same specimen. 

Out of 22 specimens of this species in which the form of the col- 
umnals can be readily observed, 13 are of the variety bijugicirrus 
and 9 of variety alternicirrus. And among 21 specimens of the 
species with the loose coil, M. extensus, 7 are of variety hijugicirrus, 
and 14 of variety alternicirrus. Thus while the two characters are 
so intermingled as to preclude the basing of species upon them, yet 
on the strength of preponderance in numbers the evidence of these 
varieties may be considered as confirmatory of the separation of the 
two species which we have made upon other grounds. 

I have referred the close coiled form to M. (H.) a??imonis. on the 
strength not only of Bather's statement in the specific diagnosis, but 
of the measurements which he gives on page 50, showing the diminu- 
tion in width of the stem in a distal direction, and of his figure 56 
on plate 2, which bears a striking resemblance to many of my speci- 
mens. For the form with the loose, extended coil I am proposing 
the new species, M. extensus. From the evidence of specimens which 
I have from Dudley, I judge that the two types with the close and 
open coil exist among the English forms also. 

The recognition of this Swedish and English species in the Amer- 
ican rocks of equivalent age adds another fact to the evidence of the 
close relationship between the Silurian faunas of the two regions. 

As a rule the specimens are tightly inrolled, so that the cirri are 
usually better preserved than in the open coiled form. They have 
a very compact, robust, and well-rounded appearance. The stem 
swells from the proximal region to a considerable width (often wider 
than in open coiled specimens of much greater length) at about mid- 
way of the exposed part, and from there diminishes to a narrow point 
at the distal end, which is just beyond the last contact with the pre- 
ceeding coil (pi. 2, fig. 3a). Usually this narrow terminal is broken 
off, but it is present in several specimens (pi. 2, various figures) ; 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 13 

even when detached the taper in width of the stem for some dis- 
tance back is plain to the eye. The diminution is decisively shown 
by measurements. In six specimens having the stem complete to the 
narrow distal end, with diameters of coil from 20 mm. down to 12 
mm., the diminution from the widest median part to the distal end 
is from 5 — 5-^-4 — 1 — 3 — 2.5 mm. down to 1 mm. or less; whereas in 
the five largest specimens of the open-coiled form, with diameters 
in the corresponding part of the coil of from 24 to 14 mm., the aver- 
age maximum width is 3 mm., only reaching 4 mm. in one case ; and 
this width is in most cases maintained with but little diminution so far 
as the stem is preserved. In the largest specimen, with stem extend- 
ing about 8 cm. beyond the coil, the width is still 3 mm. at the in- 
complete distal end. In one of the six close-coiled specimens above 
mentioned, having diameters of 12 and 14 mm., the distal portion 
diminishes in width from 4 mm. to a point in a distance of only two 
and a half times its maximum width. 

In the present species the involute, or bilateral, portion of the stem 
is limited to about one and a half convolutions with diameters rang- 
ing from 9 mm. to a maximum of 24 mm., while in the open-coiled 
form there may be one or two more loose coils, with the stem ex- 
tending still farther in a broad curve, or nearly straight. 

In many of the specimens the two outer longitudinal sutures, rem- 
nants of the primitive five by which the stem was originally divided, 
are very prominent (pi. 2, fig. 2a), and the stem between them is 
often raised into a rounded ridge, as mentioned by Bather under 
H. ammonis? 

There is no doubt that this form, with its abbreviated and root- 
less stem, led a free life ; whereas it is probable that the other form, 
with elongate stem, was sessile, temporarily or permanently. 

In addition to the specimens from the Decatur County area, I 
have about an equal number from the Waldron shale at Newsom, 
Tenn., which I am unable to distinguish from them by any characters 
disclosed in the fossils, and which have a remarkable uniformity in 
the characters above desscribed. Hence notwithstanding the dif- 
ference in horizon, they will with our present knowledge have to be 
referred to the same species. So far as observed, the form with the 
open coil does not occur at the Waldron locality. 

This description is based upon about forty specimens, almost 
equally divided between the two localities. 

Horizon and locality. — Silurian, Brownsport formation; Decatur 
County, Tennessee; and Waldron shale, at Newsom, Tennessee. A 
small fragment from St. Paul, Indiana, shows that this or the fol- 

" Crinoidea of Gotland, p. 51. 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

lowing species exists also in the Laurel formation; it has the cirri 
paired on alternate columnals, the cirriferous ossicles having an 
hour-glass shape as seen from the inner side of the curve, with a 
shorter, lenticular one between them (pi. 2, fig. 5). Also Wenlockian 
Gotland, Sweden, and probably Dudley, England. 

MYELODACTYLUS EXTENSUS, new species 

Plate 3, figs. 1-lSa 

Like M. ammonis, except that the coil is open beyond the proximal 
region; stem elongate and extended for a considerable distance in a 
broad curve toward the distal end. 

This species, differing from the preceding only in the extent and 
mode of termination of the stem, is represented by a series of about 
30 specimens, which for the most part are considerably the largest 
of the two. In diameter of the corresponding coil they range from 
12 mm. to 30 mm., to which must be added the extension of the stem 
after deviating from the coil. In one specimen with the close coil 
about 25 mm. in diameter the total length of the bilateral part of the 
stem is about 16 cm., of which more than half lies beyond the region 
of the coil, without reaching the distal end, and with but little 
diminution; and it is almost straight (pi. 3, fig. 1). In another, in 
which the coil is loosely maintained in large curves, the stem is 
preserved to near the distal end, where it seems to terminate in some 
small radicular cirri (pi. 3, fig. 3). Another specimen has a close 
coil of 12 mm., from which it opens in a broad coil for one and a 
half whorls more for about 12 cm., maintaining a width of about 
3.5 mm. to near the distal end, where it diminishes to 2.5 mm. (pi. 3, 
fig. 5). Another, not figured, has the stem extended beyond the 
point of deviation for a distance of 12 cm. and is still large, having 
diminished in width from 5 mm. in the median part to 4 mm. Besides 
the other specimens with long extension shown on the plate, there 
are three more with incomplete extended part from 4 to 6 cm. long, 
with little or no diminution, thus giving ten specimens in which this 
character is strongly emphasized, in contrast to the still greater 
number belonging to 31. anwwnis in which the stem is restricted to 
the close coil with its pointed distal end. The small size in which 
this form also occurs is shown by figures 10 and 11 of plate 3. 

The open coiled form would seem to be favorable for the discovery 
of the crown; and in view of the fine preservation of many of the 
specimens from the Decatur county locality I fully expected to find 
it. But after diligent search I was only able to uncover it, in 
imperfect condition, in a few specimens, not well enough preserved 
to show the composition of the calyx. I then tried grinding, and 



art 9 UNUSUAL. FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 15 

after several failures succeeded in getting a polished section giving 
the outline of the crown. All that it shows is that the arms are 
long and extremely slender, with calyx evidently of the heterocrinid 
type (pi. 3, fig. 7). To judge by the space it occupies this crown 
may have only four rays. 

On plate 9, figure 10, there is a picture of a round stem spirally 
coiled and tightly wound about another crinoid stem, without any 
trace of bilateralism. It is shown here in order to caution observers 
against being misled by a superficial resemblance, in view of the fact 
that coiled stem fragments like this, attached to other objects, are not 
uncommon in the same Silurian formation of Tennessee which con- 
tains species of Myelodactylus herein described. Such a piece was 
figured by Eoemer in Silurian Fauna des Westlichen Tennessee, 1860 
(pi. 4, figs. 11a, b, c) and discussed on page 57. These spiral stems 
have not been found in connection with the corresponding crown or 
calyx. But this form has nothing whatever to do with the bilateral 
stem of Myelodactylus, and belongs to some entirely different group. 

These two kinds of stem .have formed the subject of an elaborate 
paper by Dr. K. Ehrenberg upon Coiled Stems in the Pelmatozoa 
and their relation to Sessility, 10 which only came to my attention 
after the present memoir was nearly completed. In it he refers to 
another paper devoted especially to Herpetocrinus soon to appear, 
but which I have not seen. 

Doctor Ehrenberg divides the crinoids with coiled stem into two 
general types, the first with nonbilateral stem in which the coiling 
is more or less limited to the distal part — which would be like the 
specimens above mentioned; and the second in which the stem is 
bilateral, and coiled throughout its entire length, such as Myelodac- 
tylus {Herpetocrinus as he prefers to call it) and similar forms. 
The first type, being capable of attachment by its coiled distal end to 
other objects, he considers to be adapted to a sessile mode of life. 
In the second, where the coiling involves the entire stem, and the 
crown is enveloped within it, there is no indication of sessility, but 
it had a vagrant, pelagic habitus, somewhat like that of the Ammon- 
ites. In each type the coiling must be viewed as an adaptation to its 
particular mode of life. 

I do not here attempt to follow the author's discussion of the 
origin of the coiled stem, and its bearing upon the phylogeny of the 
Pelmatozoa, but I hope the new facts now being brought out may 
throw further light upon that phase of the subject. 

Horizon and locality. — Silurian, Brownsport formation of the late 
Niagaran; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

10 Acta Zoologica. Vienna, 1022, vol. 3, p. 271. and following. 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol. 6T 

MYELODACTYLUS BRIDGEPORTENSIS S. A. Miller 

Myelodactylus bridffeportensis, S. A. Miller, Journ. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hint., 
sec. 2, vol. 3, 18S0, p. 141, pi. 4, figs. 2a— e. 

MYELODACTYLUS GORBYI S. A. Miller 

Myelodactylus gorbyi, S. A. Miller, 17th Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, 1891,. 
p. 72, pi. 2, figs. 6, 7. 

When describing these species Mr. Miller still clung to the idea 
that they represented the arms of a crinoid, and his statements there- 
fore throw no light upon their specific characters. Both were de- 
scribed from rather poor material, but under the first one, from 
the Racine dolomite of the Chicago area, there is enough detail in 
the figures to show that it is of the type of M. convolutus, having 
paired cirri on every columnal ; and, so far as appears from the speci- 
mens, it should be referred to that species. As to the second species, 
M. gorbyi, said to be from the Niagara limestone near Nashville, 
Tennessee, the single small type specimen as figured shows no diag- 
nostic character whatever. Nor is there any information to indicate 
its exact horizon — there being more than one Niagara formation in 
the vicinity of Nashville. It possibly was from Newsom, which is 
in that vicinity, but whether it belongs to the same species as the 
specimens from that locality mentioned under M. ammonis, can not 
be ascertained from the figure or description, and the location of the 
type is unknown. 

MYELODACTYLUS ROTUNDATUS (Foerste) 

Eomyelodactylus rotundatus Foerste, Bull. 19, Sei. Lab. Denison Univ., 
p. 19, pi. 1, fig. 8; pi. 2, fig. 3. 

Under the name Eomyelodactylus Foerste has described a speci- 
men from the Brassfield formation of Ohio, equivalent to the late 
Clinton, which has all the characters of M. convolutus. As already 
stated, this species occurs both in its typical horizon, the Rochester 
shale, and the underlying Clinton limestone at Lockport, and there- 
fore may well be expected in the Brassfield. 

MYELODACTYLUS BRACHIATUS Hall 

Plate 4, figs. 1-10 

Myelodactylus brachiatus Hall, Pal. New York, vol. 2, 1852, p. 232, pi. 45, 

figs. la-e. 
Herpetocrinus brachiatus, Bather, Crinoidea of Gotland, 1S93, p. 46. 

Coil open; circular part of stem very long and slender. Cirri 
few, round, limited to the distal region, and branching; springing 
alternately from the back of the stem at intervals of several col- 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 17 

umnals. Crown small, superficially resembling loerinus, but calyx 
elements not fully known. 

Hall's description has scarcely anj^thing of diagnostic value, be- 
ing based, like that of eonvolutus, upon the idea that the fossils be- 
fore him were the arms of a crinoid. But his figures clearly show 
the important fact that the cirri are few, originating at alternate 
intervals from the back of the stem. These characters enable us 
readily to identify the prevalent form of the genus occurring in the 
Rochester shale at Lockport, New York. I have upwards of seventy 
specimens, assembled from the extensive collection of Doctor Ringue- 
berg, and the fruits of three seasons' work in the shales at Lockport 
by Frederick Braun. This material brings out the further remark- 
able fact, unknown to Hall, that the cirri are branching — a charac- 
ter which I believe to be hitherto unknown in any crinoid, fossil or 
recent, except in cases where the cirri belong strictly to the root. 11 

This fact emphasizes the broad distinction between the two 
original species from the type locality, the characters of M. con- 
volutus being in strong contrast to those of M. brachiatus in almost 
every particular. Instead of the cirri being short, flat, numerous, 
and extending well toward the proximal region, as in the former 
species, here there are but few of them, at intervals of several 
columnals, springing from the back instead of the lateral margins, 
and restricted to the distal region of the stem. But what they lack 
in number they make up in size. Notwithstanding the fine preserva- 
tion of many of the specimens, in which the strong, round cirri 
are present to the extent of several branches, it is doubtful if we 
have the cirri preserved to their full length in any of them- But it 
is evident that in many cases — perhaps always — they exceeded in 
length the entire elliptic or crescentic portion of the stem, so that 
with their numerous branches they formed a complete fringe, by 
which when retracted by its slender neck the crown was surrounded 
without being closely infolded as in convolutus and species of 
similar type We have the stem preserved to the distal end, where 
it becomes round and tapers rapidly to a point. 

Among the material obtained by Braun during his campaigns 
at Lockport in the years 1910, 1911, and 1914, were a number of 
specimens in which the thick distal and median portion of the stem 
was seen imbedded in a fine-grained matrix favorable for prepara- 
tion. Upon carefully following this up, I came first to the slender 

"A figure in Goldfuss (Potrof. Germ., vol. 1, 1829, p. 190, pi. 58, T. fig. 7, Z), under 
the heading of Cyathocrinus pinnatus Goldfuss, of a fragment from the Devonian of the 
Rheinland, seems to show a coiled bilateral stem, with two marginal rows of cirri, which 
fork at a distance of several ossicles from the stem. There is nothing to indicate its rela- 
tion to other forms, not even to the other fragments figured under the same name ; and it 
may be an arm trunk of some Melocrinid. 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol. 67 

neck forming the round part, which proved to be unexpectedly long, 
and after executing a doubly reversed curve passed out of the coil 
and finally terminated at the crown, which thus assumed an erect 
position. It is small and fragile, and while the arms are preserved 
to nearly their full length the structure of the calyx can not be fully 
made out, so that beyond its locrinus-like appearance not much 
can be said about it. Encouraged by this favorable beginning in 
the new material, expectation was aroused that we should soon 
have the desired information as to its exact structure. The second 
specimen investigated followed the same course as the first until the 
slender neck of the stem turned outward from the coil, and then it 
suddenly came to an end, broken squarely off, with the crown absent 
And although I worked every specimen, thirty-four in number, in 
which the favorable condition appeared, the same result followed. 
In every one of them the crown was gone — snapped off at time of 
death. This form must have been peculiarly sensitive to disturbance 
or change of conditions, causing it to cast off the crown, as certain 
existing crinoids cast off their arms on being brought to the surface. 

Conformably to the habitus thus described, I do not find in this 
species the close coiling of the stem in the proximal region as in the 
other species. The contrast in thickness between this part of the 
stem and that lower down is very great. The broad curve in the 
latter part is always conspicuous, terminating when sufficiently pre- 
served to show it in a pointed end. 

In a maximum specimen the diameter of the coil is 15 mm. ; length 
of stem from coil to distal end is 30 mm. ; and of the part included 
in the coil about 35 mm., to which must be added that of the circular 
part, 20 mm., making the total length of stem 10 cm. Width of stem 
in middle region 4 mm., in circular proximal part 1 mm. Length 
of an upper cirrus, branching four times, 2.5 cm.; lower cirri, not 
fully preserved, undoubtedly much longer. Maximum number of 
cirri about 12 or 13, at intervals of about 6 or 7 columnals between 
the cirri at each side. The columnals are quadrangular, very short, 
and of uniform length, about .5 to .8 mm. The diameter of an 
average cirrus at its base is 1.5 mm., so that its socket may abut 
upon 2 or 3 columnals. Minimum specimens may have a diameter 
of coil of 7 mm. or less, with other dimensions in proportion. 

This species is comparable to Ilerpetocrinus flabellicirrus Bather, 
from Gotland, in the fact that the cirri spring from the back of the 
stem and are confined to the distal region, but in no other important 
character. In the Gotland species, instead of single cirri at in- 
tervals, there are large cirri separated by several columnals bearing 
successive \y diminishing cirri, arranged so as to form a fan-like 
cluster. Compare Bather's figure 68 of plate 2, with figure 5 of plate 
4 herein. 



\ki 9 UNUSUAL, FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS — SPRINGER 19 

Horizon and locality. — Silurian, Rochester shale; Lockport, Xew 
York, Avhere it is one of the leading crinoid species. No trace of 
it has been seen in other horizons in which the genus occurs. 

MYELODACTYLUS KEYSERENSIS, new species 

Plate 6, figs. 1-3 

Coil open, with stem diminishing but little distalwards. Cirri 
numerous, long, slender, closely apposed, slightly rounded but not 
moniliform; mostly paired on successive columnals. Crown large, 
with long arms branching repeatedly; its bulk producing a notice- 
able swelling of the two rows of closely packed cirri inclosing it. 
Rays 5, irregular, of the Iocrinus type, the anal tube borne on the 
left shoulder of r. post. Rs. 

This species differs from all Silurian forms in the conspicuous 
bulging caused by the large size of the crown. I have nine specimens 
from the Keyser beds, in all of which the presence of the crown is 
indicated by this feature. In size, shape, and distribution of the 
cirri this form does not differ essentially from M. convolutus, but 
the bulkiness of the crown differentiates the two readily. 

In two of the specimens the crown is well exposed, so that its com- 
position may be studied. The swelling is not due to the calyx, but 
appears in the arm region, leading to the inference that it is caused 
by an inflated anal tube or sac, such as occurs in Ohiocrinus, and, 
though rarely seen, in Anomalocrinus. The rays differ greatly in 
size in the one specimen in which they can be fully observed (pi. 6 
figs. 1-lc) ; r. post, and r. ant. being narrow, the other three much 
wider; I. ant. the widest of all, and branching higher up than the 
others. The difference in the development of the rays is connected 
with their relative position in the curvature of the crown. The 
largest one, I. ant., being at the outside of the curve, was freest to 
develop and filled the greatest space; whereas r. post, and r. ant. 
were much cramped at the inner side of the curve, compressed, and 
dwarfed in their growth, especially r. ant., which does not branch 
at all. The first bifurcation in the others is at different heights, 
and beyond that the arms branch five or six times to very fine finials. 

In the two largest specimens, having diameters at the close coil of 
about 30 mm., the stems extend for 5 and 6 cm. bej^ond that, and are 
4.5 and 5.5 mm. in width, without noticeable diminution; in these 
the thickness of the swollen part is 6 and 12.5 mm. respectively, 
being thus about double the width of the stems. In another large 
incomplete specimen the swelling is 15 mm. thick (pi. 6. fig. 3) ; and 
a smaller specimen, with a coil 18 mm. in diameter, has the swelling 
enlarged to 15 mm. 

Horizon and locality. — Lower Devonian, Helderbergian, Keyser 
formation; Keyser, West Virginia. 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol. 07 

MYELODACTYLUS NODOSARIUS (Hall) 

Plate 5, figs. 1-8. 

Brachiocrinus nodosarius Hall, Pal. New York, vol. 3, 1859, p. IIS, pi. 5, 

figs. 5, 6, 7 ; pi. 6, figs. 1, 2, 3. 
Herpctocrinus nodosarius, Bather, Amer. Geol., vol. 16, 1895, pp. 213, 217. — 

Brachiocrinus (Herpetocrinus) nodosarius, Talhot, Amer. Journ. Sri., 

20, 1905, p. 32. — Brachiocrinus nodosarius, Kirk, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. 

vol. 41, 1911, p. 48. — Brachiocrinus nodosarius, Goldring, Devonian 

Crinoids of New York, 1924, p. 332, pi. 41, figs. 1-4. 

Coil open. Stem elongate, extending without sensible diminu- 
tion considerably beyond the coil, terminating in a bulbous enlarge- 
ment; columnals short, uniform. Cirri few, short and thick, com- 
posed of a few rounded cirrals ; monilif orm, thickest about the mid- 
dle, where their diameter often exceeds that of the stem from which 
they spring; alternating, at intervals of usually 1 to 5 columnals. 

The most remarkable thing about this Lower Devonian form is the 
ponderous character of its rounded, bead-like, doubly tapering cirri. 
In this respect it evolved an unparalleled modification, for in no 
other known crinoid are the cirri thicker than the stem on which 
they are borne. Here they are often very much thicker. In three 
specimens with stems 3 mm. wide many of the cirri are 4 mm. in 
width; and in all the ten specimens in hand the cirri are nearly all 
as thick as, or thicker than, the stem. There is considerable irregu- 
larity in the size of the cirri, and one gets the impression of hyper- 
trophy due to some unusual stimulus. 

Some are decidedly swollen in the middle, increasing in size for a 
few ossicles, and then diminish to sharp extremities. Some are about 
equal throughout, and often both kinds are seen in the same speci- 
men ; usually the first cirral is shorter than those directly following 
it. The cirri originate along the curved outer margins of the modi- 
fied stem, alternately at the longer face of successive cuneate col- 
umnals, giving them often the appearance of being opposite, and in 
pairs. Beginning at the distal end of the stem, the first few cirri 
are in close contact, but higher up they are separated by increasing 
intervals of one to five columnals, which are short and equal. Oc- 
casionally the two cirrus-bearing columnals are fused. 

The cirri are few in number, not exceeding eight to ten pairs in 
the longest stems observed, which are 5 to 10 cm. in length, without 
being complete. One of these is almost straight for its entire 
length. The proximal part of the stem, and also the crown, are un- 
known. 

Another character wherein this form is unique among its con- 
geners is that the distal end of the stem terminates in a rounded con- 
dyle having the appearance of a secondary growth after fracture of 



MIT 9 UNUSUAL, FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 21 

the stem from its original attachment. This is not a mere casual 
occurrence; in seven specimens, with the distal end preserved, six 
have a bulbous termination, and the seventh is irregularly enlarged, 
followed by a short tapering appendix. 

The only other known species possessing medially swollen cirri is 
II. flabellicirrus Bather, from Gotland, in which they are thickly 
crowded, in fan-like clusters, and originate at the back side of the 
stem. 

The material available for this investigation consists of eight spec- 
imens in the New York Museum at Albany, most obligingly loaned 
me by Dr. John M. Clarke, in which are included two of Hall's 
types. 12 In addition to these I have had the use of some fragments 
from a different locality showing the full rotundity of the bulbous 
distal end, for which I am indebted to the courtesy of Prof. Charles 
Schuchert of the Yale University Museum. The other specimens 
figured by Hall I have not been able to locate. One of them 13 has 
about 10 cm. of the stem, with the curvature toward the proximal 
coil well shown, but not, however, either the proximal or distal end. 

I see no reason to doubt the conclusion reached by Bather in his 
•discussion of 1895 that, this species is congeneric with those which he 
referred to Ilerpetocrinus. The difference from the typical forms 
in the character of the cirri is of course very great, but not relatively 
more than that of some of the other species, such as flabellicirrus or 
brackiatus, while the general type of stem construction remains the 
same. 

Horizon and locality. — Lower Devonian, Helderbergian, Xew 
Scotland formation; Schoharie, and Helderberg Mountains in Al- 
bany County, New York. 

MYELODACTYLUS SCHUCHERTI, new species 

Plate 5, figs. 9-9c. 

Coil apparently of the close variety; circular part of stem long, 
and relatively thick. Cirri round, short, tapering, somewhat irregu- 
lar in size, paired on successive columnals, which in the cirrus- 
bearing part are uniformty quadrangular, with straight sides. Crown 
unknown. 

Diameter of coil as preserved about 15 mm. Length of main or 
crescentic portion of stem remaining about 40 mm. ; length of 
columnals in that part average 0.5 mm. ; width at place of fracture 
4 mm., diminishing to 3 mm. in the curve next to the neck, and 
then to 2 mm. in the proximal neck, which, as far as preserved, is 

u Paleontology of New York. vol. 3, pi. 5, fig. 5 ; pi. 6, fig. 1. 
13 Idem, pi. 5, fig. 7. 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 6T 

20 mm. long. Columnals in circular neck average .17 mm. long,, 
except where increased by coalescing to twice that length. 

This species is of interest as giving us an additional Devonian 
representative. It is founded upon a single specimen, in excellent 
preservation as to some details, but unfortunately broken so that 
both the distal and proximal portions are wanting. The arrange- 
ment of cirri is upon the plan of M. convolutus, but they are rela- 
tively shorter and coarser. The most striking characters are the 
robustness of the proximal neck, which is about half the diameter of 
the main stem in the next adjoining coil, and the peculiar distribu- 
tion of the columnals of which it is composed. These are extremely 
thin throughout, about .17 mm. on the outer side of the curve, but 
in the portion of the neck which is proximal to the calyx, they seem 
to become coalesced at either side so as to form for every two ossicles 
a single one of double their length. Thus in a side view the colum- 
nals here are about .35 mm. in length at the bottom, and when seen 
from the top one of the ossicles takes on a lenticular form. At some 
point between this part, which is that freely exposed in the figures, 
and that where the reversed curve begins, this doubling in length 
of columnals seems to disappear, so that it is not continuous for the 
whole of the neck. The ends of the enlarged columnals, and the 
form of the lenticular ossicle between them, have nearly the appear- 
ance of those in the variet}/ bijugicirrus, but in fact they have no 
facets and b:ar no relation whatever to cirri. I am unable to give 
any explanation of this singular structure, which is a very definite 
one, as shown by the detailed drawings. 

The species is named in honor of Prof. Charles Schuchert, by 
whom the unique type was collected many years ago in the course of 
researches upon the Helderbergian formations of Tennessee. 

Horizon and locality. — Helderbergian, Linden formation ; Benton 
county, Tennessee. 

AMMONICRINUS, new genus 

Plate G 

Of the type of Myelodactylus in having the crown enveloped by 
a coiled bilateral stem; but without jointed cirri, their place being 
taken by unarticulated solid processes projecting from the two horns 
of the crescentic columnals; and with calyx of Camerate type. 

Genotype. — Ammonicrinus wanneri, new species. 

Distribution. — Middle Devonian; Eifel, Germany. 

AMMONICRINUS WANNERI, new species 

Plate 6, figs. 4-6 

I have proposed this genus and species upon the evidence of two 
very perfect specimens and some fragments from the Middle De- 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CPJNOIDS SPRINGER 23 

vonian of the Eifel, which have been in my possession for many 
years, but hitherto undescribed because I was uncertain of their 
affinities. With the present study of this group it seemed probable 
that these curious fossils belonged here, although they resemble 
nothing in the crinoid line that has ever been seen before. Their 
superficial appearance is that of a coiled shell; but that idea was 
excluded by the fact that they have a jointed structure, and are 
built up of movable segments, coordinated by an axial nerve cord 
lodged in a canal which perforates the coil longitudinally, thus en- 
abling it to open and close. Their systematic relation with the group 
now under consideration was definitely established when upon re- 
moving the projecting processes from the segments on one side there 
was disclosed the calyx of a crinoid tightly enveloped within the coil. 

The extreme width of the segments forming the enclosing struc- 
ture, in proportion to the diameter of the coil, seemed to preclude 
any analogy with the stem of a crinoid; but the facts as brought 
forth by the investigation show conclusively that it can not be any- 
thing else. They disclose a specialization which amounts almost to 
a freak, furnishing a fresh exemplification of the truth that in na- 
ture any modification of an organism may be expected which is not 
a mechanical impossibility. 

A few measurements will show to what an extreme the modifica- 
tion in this form has gone. The coil is tightly closed in both speci- 
mens, with the distal end closely adherent and tapering rapidly to 
a point. It is more or less elliptic in both, with long and short diam- 
eters, respectively, of 18-22 and 15-16 mm. It is composed of rela- 
tively few segments, or columnals, which are of great width and 
thickness, and project on the perimeter of the curve in strong ridges, 
like cogs upon a wheel. In the smaller specimen there are 20 colum- 
nals on the exposed surface, a distance of about 50 mm., and in 
the larger one 24 columnals in a distance of 62 mm. Thus the colum- 
nals are about 2.5 mm. in thickness, or length longitudinal to the 
curve, at the exterior. In coils of Myelodactylus ammonis of like 
diameter there would be about 70 and 85 columnals for correspond- 
ing lengths of curve. 

The width of the columnals is still more extraordinary as com- 
pared with those of any similar form. In the region of greatest 
width in the two specimens they are respectively 10 and 12 mm. 
wide. That is to say, this over-developed or hypertrophied coiled 
stem has a width exceeding half the diameter of the coil. We are 
accustomed to think of the stem of a crinoid as a much elongated 
structure, but here we have a stem of which the width is about one 
sixth of its possible length. 

The most remarkable thing about the organism, however, is the 
marginal appendages, which occupy at either end of the segments 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

the same position as the cirri in Myelodactylus. They are relatively 
of fair length, 5 to 11 mm., and somewhat irregular in shape, al- 
though mostly tapering to a point. Upon the most careful examina- 
tion I am unable to find any sign of articulation, sutural division 
into cirrals, or of any organic structure; yet from the manner in 
which they overlap toward the center, these appendages must have 
had a certain amount of flexibility, to adapt themselves to the move- 
ments of the segments when inrolling. That there was ample facility 
for movement of this kind among the segments is clearly shown 
by their crenellated edges and strong beveling at the back in the 
two principal specimens, and by the presence of a fulcral ridge and 
fossae for muscles and ligaments as shown in the isolated ossicles. 
The axial nerve canal by which they are perforated extends to the 
last of the rapidly narrowing columnals, which are preserved in one 
specimen almost to the very end, and is also seen in the fragments. 

It does not seem possible that articulations and intercirral sutures 
existing in life could have been completely obliterated in these fos- 
sils, which are unusually perfect and well preserved ; but of course if 
the appendages should prove to be jointed structures the generic posi- 
tion might depend upon the calyx, as there would be no essential 
character discoverable to separate it by the stem alone from Myelo- 
dactylus or from Carnptocrinus. 

As to the crown, which has been partially exposed by cutting 
away the appendages at one side, I am unable to ascertain the de- 
tails of its construction. The calyx is strong and thick, and prob- 
ably belongs to the Camerata — perhaps to some form of the Hexa- 
crinidae, which take on many strange modifications. There is a 
suggestion of Arthracantha in the remnants of calyx and arms which 
are seen. 

In general form this species is to be compared with Myelodactylus 
ammonis, which has a similarly short coil, wide, and narrowly ter- 
minated, and in some specimens of which the maximum width of the 
stem is equal to one-third the diameter of the coil. Both were un- 
doubtedly free, this one completely so, as it is hard to see how the 
apparently functionless appendages could have served for clinging 
to other objects. 

From the little we can see of the crown, wdiich bears no re- 
semblance to that of the Heterocrinidae, there seems to be no reason 
to regard this strangely modified form as the end of the Myelo- 
dactylus series. My guess would be that it belongs to the Camerata, 
and might be regarded as the beginning of the Gamptocrinus series. 
From the singular way in which the Carboniferous genus Dichocrinus 
adapts itself to some very broad modifications in the structure of 
stem, arms, and other appendages, it might reasonably be supposed 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 25 

that the prolific genus Hexacrinus among Devonian crinoids would 
do something of the same kind. 14 

This remarkable species is named in honor of Prof. Johannes 
Wanner, of the University of Bonn, an ardent student of the crinoids, 
whose works upon the Echinoderms of the island of Timor have 
brought to light one of the most extraordinary crinoidal faunas ever 
discovered. 

Horizon and locality.— Middle Devonian, Eifel limestone; Priim, 
Eifel, Germany. 

CAMPTOCRINUS Wachsmuth and Springer 

Plates 7, 8 

Camptocrinus Wachsmuth and Springer, North American Crinoidea 
Camerata, 1S97, p. 779. Mississippian : Burlington to Chester. 

Camptocrinus is simply a Dichocrinus with a coiled bilateral stem ; 
or it might be called a Myelodactylus with a Camerate crown. It 
is the Carboniferous representative of the type under consideration. 
Whatever may have been the origin of this extreme stem modifica- 
tion, it developed independently in the two orders of the Crinoidea, 
without the slightest evidence of any evolutionary connection be- 
tween the two genera in which it appeared, and then reappeared 
after the long time interval from the Lower Devonian to the Lower 
Carboniferous. 

The genus Dichocrinus was peculiarly susceptible to secondary 
modifications upon a primitive type, and underwent a number of 
striking changes involving the stem and arms. The stem especially 
was in a plastic condition, yielding a variety of modifications in ad- 
dition to that of the bilateral, coiled feature, which were not cor- 
related with any material changes in the structure of the crown. 
Usually the stem is without cirri (pi. 11, fig. 4), but in some of the 
later forms ordinary cirri are present, in whorls along the greater 
part of the stem. I have some excellent specimens showing this. In 
one species the cirri are developed in numerous crowded whorls, 
limited to the upper part of the stem, and rising far beyond the 
height of the calyx and arms (pi. 11, fig. 7). 

14 There is even some ground for suspecting that the mysterious Edriocrinus might be 
an offshoot from- the Hexacrinidae. The calyx is fundamentally similar — five strong 
radials, with a large anal plate of similar form interposed in line with them. As it is 
now known to be a monocyclic crinoid with four basals (Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, 
1920, p. 443), the analogy in this respect also is not so very remote. The Hexacrinidae 
include forms with two and with three basals, why not four? The secondary modification 
of the base by way of fused basals, often directly fixed without a stem, thought to be a 
result of reef life in shallow waters, reappears in different geological epochs down to tiie 
present time, in wholly unrelated forms ; and there is no reason a priori why it may not 
have occurred independently in the Hexacrinidae. 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

The arrangement of columnals varies from uniformly short 
throughout to alternation with longer ones on different plans. The 
arms vary from 10, the usual number, to 20, 30, and 40; from uni- 
serial to biserial; and from dichotomous to a heterotomous arrange- 
ment. They also in some species take on a recumbent habitus — a 
modification which occurs independently among the Ehodocrinidae, 
Melocrinidae, Batocrinidae and Platycrinidae. A reduction of 
primibrachs to a single small axillary plate forms the genus Talaro- 
crinus, with the calyx elements otherwise similar to Dichocrinus, but 
with incipient changes in the tegmen by the enlargement of the axil- 
lary ambulacral, or radial dome plate, which when developed into 
huge wing-like processes produces the remarkable specialization of 
Pterotocrinus. 

Finally the calyx itself begins to add a new element, in the form 
of additional rings of plates between basals and radials, leading to 
the extraordinary multiplication of such plates which we find in 
Acrocrinus, the latest survivor of the Camerata. 

In the present form, owing to the more solid construction of the 
calyx and the simple character of the arms, there is no such irregular- 
ity or deformity as has been observed in Myelodactylus, only a slight 
distortion at the base due to pressure; and for the same reason the 
crown is more prominent and better exposed. Therefore it is found 
in perfect condition in several of the species, so that it may be fully 
inspected. Throughout the long geological range in which the genus 
persisted — from the Burlington to the later Chester — we find that 
the calyx has undergone little material change, and from that alone 
it will be difficult to differentiate some of the species. In all where 
the arms are known they are ten in number, and usualy uniserial, 
the brachials often passing into cuneate form, and perhaps interlock- 
ing toward the extremities. 

But as in the Silurian type, the specialized stem offers good specific 
characters resulting from modifications upon a new plan. In all 
species, as before, the columnals in the proximal, rounded and non- 
cirriferous region of the stem are very short and uniform; but be- 
yond this, where the stem becomes elliptic, the columnals are of dif- 
ferent lengths, parallel, and have marginal cirri at each end forming 
two rows along the inner or concave side of the stem. These usually 
spring from the suture between paired or doubled nodals, with one, 
two or three internodals interposed, each about the size of the com- 
bined nodal pair. No wedge-formed columnals have been observed. 
By far the most frequent plan is that of duplicate or triplicate cirri, 
of which the outer ones are borne upon facets at the junction of the 
nodal segments, forming clusters which diminish in size inwards. 
The cirrus-facet seems to lie directly above the suture. 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 27 

The peculiar modification in stem structure which is manifested 
in the genus Camptocrinus is itself subject to some singular varia- 
tions, of which one of the most striking seems to be connected with 
an effort toward resumption of the usual arrangement of cirri in 
whorls upon a rounded stem. This tendency is evidenced by the 
presence of incipient, immature, or rudimentary cirri, supplemental 
to those in the marginal rows, usually much dwarfed in size; they 
consist of a few small cirrals, often of only a single ossicle breaking 
through at the suture between the paired nodal segments, rounded 
off distally and without any axial canal through which further 
growth could be innervated. Rarely also it results in fully devel- 
oped, fairly equal cirri in whorls of five, upon a stem which retains 
in part the elliptic section. 

In this genus the form of the coiled stem differs considerably in 
transverse section from that of Myelodactylus ; instead of being 
<?rescentic, with a decided concavity at the inner side as in the latter 
(pi. 1, fig. 6), it is here simply elliptic, with the curvature at the 
inner and outer sides almost alike, sometimes but little flattened and 
tending to become circular (pi. 8, various outline figures). 

In this genus also the rounded proximal part of the stem, or neck, 
is usually materially shorter than in Myelodactylus. 

Distribution. — Mississippian, Burlington to latest Chester; lim- 
ited, so far as hitherto known, to North America, but now found to 
occur in the East Indies, in a formation claimed to be Permian. 

CAMPTOCRINUS PRAENUNTIUS, new species 

Plate 7, fig. 1 

Of large size; stem with broad open coil; round, slender, with 
reversed curvature in the proximal region, much enlarged in the 
middle region, and tapering to the distal end, where it begins to 
assume a bilateral form, with a few short cirri. Crown not closely 
enveloped by the stem; it is of the type of Dichocrinus angustus, 
with ten uniserial arms ; apparently only a single primibrach, as long 
as the usual two. 

This species from the Burlington limestone may be considered 
as the beginning of the modification leading to the fully developed 
Camptocrinus. It is the largest of the known species, the stem hav- 
ing a total length of 19 cm. In the great diminution of the other- 
wise thick stem in the proximal region, its reversed curvature, and 
the position of the crown in relation to it, the habitus of the species 
is thoroughly characteristic of the type; but it lacks the close en- 
velopment of the crown by the stem and cirri, the stem being round 
for the greater part of its length. The cirri occur at the inner side 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM TOL. 67 

of the curve only in the last 5 cm., where the columnals, which are 
of about equal length throughout, become slightly elliptic; they are 
small, not very regularly placed, but mostly on alternate columnals. 
The alternation of paired nodals with one or more large internodals, 
which is so marked a character in the later species, has not appeared 
in this one. 

This form is exceedingly rare, not having been observed by any of 
the early collectors at Burlington — the fine specimen here illustrated 
and another imperfect one being the only examples among the 
numerous collections covering a period of over fifty years at that 
prolific locality. 

Horizon and locality.— Mississippian, Upper Burlington lime- 
stone; Burlington, Iowa. 

CAMPTOCRINUS MYELODACTYLUS Wachsmuth and Springer 

Plate 7, figs. 2-5& 

Camptocrinus myelodactylus Wachsmuth and Springer, North American 
Crinoidea Camerata, 1897, p. 779, pi. 75, figs. 2a and 2b (not fig. 1). 

Coil close in proximal region. Stem long, extending in the middle 
and distal portions into a broad curve, tapering to near the end; 
below the proximal neck, which is relatively short, it is composed of 
pairs of short columnals (nodals) bearing the cirri in marginal 
rows at each end, with a longer one (internodal) interposed between 
them equal in length to the two combined nodals. Cirri strong, 
rounded, rather long; composed of 15 to 20 diminishing cirrals, 
and tapering rapidly from their origin; they are doubled (or 
trebled) from each side of the paired nodals, springing from a large 
facet midway of the pair, with an additional facet or bifurcation 
following behind it. Thus there are along each margin at the con- 
cave side of the stem what appear to be duplicate cirri, separated by 
the interval of the longer internodal columnal. This is the way 
they usually appear in well preserved specimens; but actually there 
is frequently a third cirrus, and perhaps a fourth, each smaller than 
the one preceding, forming a cluster diminishing in size inward. 
The innermost cirri beyond the second are only to be seen after 
most careful preparation under a strong magnifier, being crowded 
inward and covered by the outer ones overlapping owing to the 
curvature of the stem. It was only after patient work, under ex- 
ceptionally favorable conditions of preservation, that the facts were 
ascertained from which the sketches were composed by Mr. Chap- 
man, showing the details of these structures in this and other 
species. 



akt!) UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 29 

The exact mode of succession of these diminishing cirri is rather 
difficult to ascertain; the outer one rests in a good sized facet upon 
the suture between the two short nodals, and each succeeding one 
seems to be articulated upon the first cirral of its predecessor, some- 
what as shown by the sketches on plate 7. 

The occurrence of the cirri in diminishing clusters recalls the 
more elaborate arrangement seen in Bather's Hevpetocrinus flabel- 
licirrus. There is no sign of rudimentary cirri, outside of the 
marginal rows, in ?my of the specimens of this species. The crown 
is imperfectly known, being usually closely enveloped by the cirri, 
as is most of the species of Myelodactylus, but enough is exposed 
in one specimen to show that it belongs to the usual Dichocrinus 
type: it was evidently smaller than in the other Keokuk species. 
Total length of stem in maximum specimen 10.5 cm. with probably 
1.5 cm. missing at the distal end; length of circular neck about 1 cm. ; 
diameter of proximal coil in two specimens having the most com- 
plete stem about one-fourth the total length of stem. 

In connection with the original description three specimens were 
figured, two of which are of the type above described; and it was 
from these two that the description relative to the details of stem and 
cirri was made, it being stated that the cirri were slender, composed 
of about sixteen to eighteen joints ending in a sharp point, and that 
they arose from alternate columnals — overlooking the fact that in 
the two specimens above mentioned the " alternate joint " is a pair 
of short columnals equaling in length the single one interposed. 

The type locality is given as Indian Creek, Montgomery County, 
Indiana, and it is from there that the two specimens, together with 
three others subsequently acquired, were derived. In one of the 
latter the stem is preserved to nearly its full length, showing its 
broad and open curve (pi. 7, fig. 5). The original of Wachsmuth 
and Springer's figure 1 is from another locality and a somewhat 
higher horizon; it has a different arrangement of columnals and 
cirri — a form for which I have proposed the species C. crawfords- 
villensis. While it is true that the description of the crown was made 
from this specimen, there is nothing substantially distinctive about 
it, and as in our present view the decisive specific characters in these 
forms are to be looked for in the stem, that fact may be disregarded. 

In the character of multiple cirri springing from a pair of short 
columnals, this species takes on a plan which became the leading 
character in the later Carboniferous forms. 

Horizon and locality. — Mississippian, Keokuk limestone, lower 
horizon; Indian Creek, Montgomery County, Indiana. 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 6T 

CAMPTOCRINUS CRAWFORDSVILLENSIS, new species 

Plate 8, figs. 1-3 e 

Camptocrinus myclodactylus Wachsmtjth and Springer, North Amcr. 
Crin. Cam., 1897, pi. 75, fig. 1 (not 2a, b). 

Coil open, not closely enveloping the crown. Cirri doubled, or 
rarely trebled, as in the preceding species, or exceptionally single, 
and springing from a pair of short nodal columnals; but instead of 
these alternating with a single longer one, there are 2, 3, or excep- 
tionally 4 internodals interposed between them, each about the size 
of the combined pair. The marginal cirri on either side are long 
and fairly stout, composed of 20 to 25 cirrals; and in addition to 
them there are, especially toward the distal end, remnants of smaller 
secondary cirri at the back of the same columnals, as if forming 
rudimentary whorls; where these appear the stem tends to lose its 
bilateral form and become round. This structure, occurring in a 
different horizon of the Keokuk from that of the last species, is 
constant in three specimens. The stem is not preserved to its full 
length in an}' of them, but extends well beyond the proximal coil. 
The calyx is that of the typical Dichocrinus, elongate with base one 
third the height of the cup. Arms two to the ray, composed of 
rather long, quadrangular ossicles. The crown is relatively larger 
than in the succeeding species. 

Horizon and localthj. — Mississippian, Keokuk limestone, upper 
horizon; Crawfordsville, Montgomery County, Indiana. 

CAMPTOCRINUS PLENICIRRUS, new species 

Plate 7, figs. 6, G« 

This species is proposed for a small specimen associated with the 
preceding which, while of the typical Camptocrinus type in the 
curvature, form and proportions of the stem and its elliptic section, 
has the cirri developed into complete whorls of five, nearly equal in 
size. In the arrangement of columnals, with paired short nodals 
and a single long internodal, it is like C. myelodactylus, but the cirri 
are distributed on a different plan; also it comes from a different 
horizon. From the other Crawfordsville species, last described, it 
differs in the single internodal, instead of two or more, and in the 
short, strongly tapering cirri not arranged in marginal rows. Un- 
fortunately less than half the stem is preserved ; if we had the whole 
of it, I have no doubt we should find it circular toward the distal 
end. The species represents a stage in the modifications of the type 
under consideration in which the cirri have resumed almost the 
distribution of those in a normal crinoid. 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS — SPRINGER 31 

Horizon and locality. — Mississippian, Keokuk limestone, upper 
horizon ; Crawfordsville, Indiana. 

CAMPTOCRINUS MULTICIRRUS, new species 

Plate 8, figs. 4-9 

Camptocrinus cirri fcr Wachsmuth and Springer North Amer. Criu. Cam., 
1897, pi. 76, fig. 13c (not 13a, 6.). 

Stem long, tapering almost to a point, becoming round and very 
slender at the distal end, but throughout the middle region strongly- 
elliptic, and maintaining a nearly uniform width. Cirri doubled 
or in clusters of 3, diminishing inward ; exceptionally single, spring- 
ing from each end of pairs of short nodal columnals alternating 
with a long internodal as in C. myelodactylus ; they are rounded, 
long and slender, composed when complete of upwards of 30 cirrals, 
mostly longer than wide. Besides the prominent marginal cirri in 
two rows at the concave side of the stem, additional cirri occur at 
the back in many places tending to form whorls; these secondary 
cirri are much smaller than the others and appear in a variety of 
rudimentary stages. Some have two, three or four cirrals; many 
have only the first cirral remaining, but pierced by the axial canal, 
indicating that one or more others followed; still others, rather 
numerous, have the first cirral imperfect with no axial canal, but 
rounded off like a terminal ossicle, as if it had just broken through 
without being able to grow farther. These details are fully shown 
by the instructive sketches made from the two remarkably perfect 
specimens figured on plate 8 (figs. 4, 4<7, 6, 6«). The proximal cir- 
cular neck is relatively short, and the crown is not closely enveloped 
by the cirri. The calyx is shorter than in G. crawfordsvillensis, 
especially the basal plates, which are not over one-fourth the height 
of the cup; they are frequently deformed owing to compression by 
the curved stem, so that they are shorter at one side than the other, 
as shown in figure 4 of plate 8. Arms two to the ray, uniserial 
with more or less cuneate ossicles; rather longer than is usual in 
Dichocrinus. 

Dimensions of a maximum specimen: Total length of stem, 12.5 
cm. ; of circular neck 10 mm. ; long diameter of columnal in middle 
portion 2.5 mm. ; short diameter 1.5 mm. ; diameter at circular neck 
1 mm.; at distal end, rounded almost to a point, .5 mm. 

This is the most abundant and widely distributed species of the 
genus, being represented in the collection by upwards of thirty 
specimens from two well separated areas, namely, that of Hunts- 
ville, Alabama, and of Monroe county, Illinois. It occurs in the 
lower part of the Chester, in the Ohara formation at Huntsville, 
and in what is regarded as its equivalent formation at the Illinois 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 67 

locality. Many of the specimens from both localities are beauti- 
fully preserved, having the stem to its full length, with the crown 
plainly showing through the thin fringe of delicate cirri, and some- 
times completely isolated. The multiple arrangement of the cirri on 
alternating pairs of columnals is constant throughout all this ma- 
terial, except that in some specimens near the distal end the col- 
umnals tend to become more nearly equal in length, and the inter- 
vals between the cirri somewhat longer. I am figuring characteristic 
specimens from each of the localities. In none of them is there such 
a close, compact coil in the proximal region as occurs in C. myelo- 
dactylus. 15 

Horizon and locality. — Mississippian, lower part of Chester, 
Ohara and Renault formations; Huntsville, Alabama and Burks- 
ville, Monroe County, Illinois. 

CAMPTOCRINUS CIRRIFER Wachsmuth and Springer 

Plate 8, figs. 10, Wa 

Camptocrlnus cirrifer Wachsmuth and Springer, North American Crin- 
oidea, Camerata, 1S97, p. 7S0, pi. 76, figs. 13a, & (not 13c). 

Like C. 7?iulticirrus, except that the cirri are more attenuate, and 
there is a tendency of the pairs of short columnals bearing the mul- 
tiple cirri to coalesce so as to resemble a single ossicle; also in some 
specimens the rudimentary cirri toward the distal end tend to form 
rather well defined whorls associated with a more rounded stem, 
which may well mark the end of the specialization by which this 
whole type is characterized. 

This species occurs in the upper part of the Chester, the Glen Dean 
formation, the fauna of which is sharply distinguished from that 
of the preceding species. The differences from that species are very 
slight, and if the two occurred in the same formation might well 
be disregarded. But in view of the changes which took place in 
other genera of the echinoderms during the considerable time inter- 
val between the respective formations, it seems best to recognize 

18 Camptocrlnus indoaustr aliens Wanner. 

Die Permischen Krinoiden von Timor, vol. 2, 1924, p. 81, pi. 3, figs. 9-11. This species, 
the description of which appeared subsequent to the preparation of the text hereof, adds 
another to the strictly Lower Carboniferous types which have been found associated with 
the remarkable Permian fauna of the East Indies. The author notes its great similarity 
to C. cirrifer, from which he says a separation is scarcely possible by the characters of 
the calyx and arms, but he thinks the structure of the stem offers sufficient differences to 
justify a new species. But the similarity is even greater than he thought, when compari- 
son is made with the form of C. cirrifer now separated under C. mulMdrrus. For the 
stem character upon which he mainly relies, namely, two short ossicles alternating with 
one longer, is most conspicuous in our species ; and the " small knots " which he mentions 
as occurring along the suture line between the short pair are the remains of budding 
cirri as above described. 



aim!) UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 33 

the modifications, however slight they may appear in the fossils, as 
indicating a definite specific change. 

Wachsmuth and Springer's figure 13c, although not very charac- 
teristic, must go with C. multicirrus in conformity with the horizon 
from which the specimen is derived. 

The extreme tenuity of the cirri in this species is constant in sev- 
eral specimens, in which thej^ often contain as many as forty nar- 
row cirrals, which are longer than wide. 

Horizon and locality. — Mississippian, upper part of the Chester, 
Glen Dean formation; chiefly at Sloan's Valley, Pulaski County, 
Kentucky, but also at Newman's Ridge, Bland County, Virginia. 

THE RECUMBENT ARMS 

Among existing crinoids those taken by the dredge or otherwise 
captured have been found with their arms, when preserved, either 
outstretched or folded together. On the sea bottom, in the case of 
stalked crinoids, both positions may be assumed, depending upon 
whether the crinoid 1, was seeking food, in which case the arms would 
be spread so as to bring the maximum of surface on the ventral side 
into contact with the water containing the organisms upon which 
the crinoid feeds, or 2, was in a state of rest, in which case the arms 
would probably be folded as a matter of protection to the vital organs. 
Which attitude was most frequent, or longest continued, we have no 
means of knowing, but among the specimens as taken out of the water 
both conditions are found. When disturbed by the dredge or tangles, 
many individuals respond to the contact by opening the arms widely, 
while others seem to bring them close together, and still others cast 
them off. 

Among fossil crinoids the second was undoubtedly the most fre- 
quent occurrence, for practically nine out of every ten well preserved 
specimens, deposited so as to become imbedded in soft material, 
have the arms folded. And in certain large groups, such as the 
Flexibilia, they are scarcely ever found in any other condition. 
Therefore it is to be assumed that such was the usual position of the 
fossil crinoids at death. Any other disposition of the arms by 
which they become so firmly retracted as to remain fixed in that 
position after death, and to become fossilized in it, must therefore 
be associated with some structural modification in the articulation 
of the arms by which their motion in an upward direction would 
be restricted. Many instances have been observed in which this is 
apparently the case, and in which the facts are not explained by sup- 
posing that the recumbent arms were due merely to casual move- 
ments by the animal, voluntary or involuntary. It is evident that 
the mechanics of the arm structure was such that the motion of the 
23832—26 8 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.67 

arms upon their hinges was downward rather than upward, and 
that the pendent position, with the dorsal side of the arms pressing 
backward upon the calyx and stem, was the position of rest, or of 
greatest fixity. Then the arms, instead of opening out from the top 
in order to extend themselves and their pinnules for the maximum 
of contact with the water, would be extended from the bottom, the 
ventral side containing the food grooves being already in position for 
complete connection with the currents by means of the pinnules and 
their softer appendages. 

The proof of this is found in the fact that in numerous instances 
the marks of long continued pressure by the arms in habitual posi- 
tions are found upon the outer wall of the calyx and the stem, pro- 
ducing permanent indentations which could not have occurred unless 
the arms had become fixed in that position (pis. 9, fig. 9; 18, fig. 4). 
In the most conspicuous cases of this kind I have observed that the 
recumbent arms are always profusely provided with long and 
thickly studded pinnules, and these, standing out from the curving 
surface of the reversed arms, have all the food-gathering exposure 
that they could obtain in any other way. 

It is also worth noting that the entire group Flexiblia, in which 
the arms are almost invariably found folded together in the fossil 
state, and in which recumbent arms are unknown, are destitute of 
pinnules. 

Neither are the recumbent arms, of the type which I am about to 
describe, found among the Inadunata, whether with pinnules or 
without ; and regardless of the matter of pinnules it is probable that 
the mechanics of the arm joint, both in the Flexibilia and the Ina- 
dunata, precluded the possibility of any such backward and down- 
ward motion as would be required for the arms to become settled in 
that position. 

While it is true that among the Recent crinoids specimens brought 
up by the dredge frequently have the arms curved backwards upon 
the stem, leaving the oral surface open except for its forest of pin- 
nules, this is merely one phase of arm movement in the natural and 
usual condition, due to their enormous flexibility. There is not that 
complete reversal in the habitus of the arm which makes it hang 
downward as if suspended from the roof of the calyx. For that 
the solid dome of the Camerata is needed to afford a firm anchorage 
for the suspended arms, often projecting as it does at the edge of the 
tegmen out over the dorsal wall below it, and at all events furnishing 
a rigid means of support. In typical examples to be mentioned the 
covering plates of adjacent arms are for quite a distance suturally 
connected, thus preventing the usual motion of the arms. 

It is only among the Camerata that such a well supported hinge is 
found ; and here the structure occurs in several of its families, occa- 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPBINGER 35 

sionally, as an independent modification, and in otherwise unrelated 
forms; specifically distinct, and sufficiently rare to fall within our 
category of " unusual forms." It is not even a generic character. 

Hitherto the recumbent type of arms has been observed among the 
following families and genera of the Camerata : 

Family Rhodocrinidae, genus Gilbertsocrinus. 

Family Batocrinidae, genus Barirandeocrinus. 

Family Platycrinidae, genus Eucladocrinus. 

Family Hexacrinidae, genus Dichocrinus. 

Family Hexacrinidae, genus Acroarinus. 

I have now to add a remarkable new species of Macrostylocrinus 
among the Melocrinidae, and another of the typical Platycrinus. 

The oldest example now known, and one of the most characteristic, 
of this type of arms is Barrandeocrinus from the Silurian of the 
island of Gotland — a form with the calyx of the Batocrinidae. It 
exhibits the extreme compactness of the curtain of arms as they press 
firmly against the calyx and stem, leaving distinct impressions due 
to the protracted pressure, as is shown by the beautiful figure drawn 
by Mr. Liljevall from one of the specimens in the Stockholm Museum, 
published by Wachsmuth and Springer in the North American 
Crinoidea Camerata (pi. 8, fig. 1), and reproduced herein, as plate 9, 
figure 6, and by another from a specimen of my own, figure 7, 
showing the calyx completely enveloped by the arms. 

The next in order was a holdover from the Silurian, which did not 
take on the recumbent arm structure until it reappeared under a new 
species in the Devonian, which will now be described. 

Genus MACROSTYLOCRINUS Hall 

Macrostylocrinus Hall, Pal. New York, vol. 2, 1852, p. 203. 
Silurian to Devonian. 

MACROSTYLOCRINUS RECUMBENS, new species 

Plate 9, figs. 1-4 

The genus Macrostylocrinus Hall, of the family Melocrinidae, is 
diagnosed by Wachsmuth and Springer 16 substantially as follows : 

Monocyclic. Lower brachials, with well defined interbrachials between them, 
forming a part of the dorsal cup. Radials in contact all around. Basals 
three, unequal. Interbrachials few. Anal area much the widest, and quite 
distinct; three plates in the first range, the middle one large, supported by 
the sloping shoulders of the two posterior radials, and flanked by a smaller 
one at either side which, together with the first primibrach, rests upon the 
upper face of the radial ; the middle or anal plate is usually followed by one 
or two other anals, longitudinally arranged. Radials very large, their upper 

1,1 North American Crinoidea Camerata, 1897, p. 28H. 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

corners but slightly truncated by the interbrachials. Arms usually ten, long, 
biserial, simple throughout. Tegmen low, composed of numerous irregular 
plates. 

The genus stands out distinctly from all the other Melocrinidae 
by having three basals, and in the anal interradius three plates in 
the first range above the closed radial ring, instead of only one. 
The form is typically Silurian, six species having thus far been 
recognized, of which two are from the Rochester shale, three from 
the Waldron, and one from the Louisville limestone. The speci- 
mens of these species are rather small. The arms, so far as known, 
are two to the ray, rather heavy, and of the normal type. 

When the remarkable Devonian material upon which the present 
species is described was first seen, its generic affinities were not ap- 
parent, because the calyx was completely enveloped in the downward 
hanging arms, and its composition was thereby hidden; there was 
no thought of its belonging to a form of which the superficial ap- 
pearance was so widely different. It was only after removing part 
of the arms from two specimens that I was able to determine the 
essential elements which fixed its position as now recognized. Com- 
parison of the two figures on plate 9 with the foregoing statement 
of generic characters leaves not the slighest doubt that we have here 
a well marked representative of Macro stylo crinus, which on pass- 
ing over from the Silurian to the Devonian has undergone some 
striking changes. 

The outstanding difference from all previously described species 
lies in the number of arms, and their recumbent habitus. Instead 
of being limited to 10, the arms occur in clusters of 5 to the ray, per- 
haps 4 in two of them, given a total of 23 to 25 arms, the bifurca- 
tions being indicated in the tegmen by nodose axillary ambulacrals. 
The mode of articulation is such that their facets are directed 
downwards from underneath a projection, or overhang, from the 
edge of the tegmen, which is thus broader by at least a fourth than 
the calyx at the arm bases. Accordingly the tegmen is left free 
and clear as a smooth roof, and the arms, heavy and closely apposed, 
form a closed fringe or curtain about the calyx, meeting by their 
distal ends around the stem, and having their outer sides thickly 
studded with strong pinnules. They do not, however, in this 
species press closely against the calyx wall so as to leave indentations, 
as in some other forms, but there is an open space between the calyx 
and the dorsal side of the arms, so that in case of fracture in the 
region of the arm bases the calyx may come loose and separate freely 
from the curtain of arms which surrounds it, as actually happened 
with the two largest specimens. 



aet9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 37 

In the series of specimens obtained there are 14 individuals, and 
in all of them, without a single exception, the arms are firmly and 
regularly fixed in the position above described — a fact which seems 
to warrant the conclusion that this habitus is associated with a 
definite structure, and is not a temporary condition due to casual 
movements of highly flexible appendages. 

As to minor details: The anal series is strongly developed in 
this species, forming a more prominent ridge than usual in the 
Silurian species, being especially conspicuous when seen from the 
tegmen. The stem is constructed of very short columnals, one of 
which projects at intervals of five or six, with a beaded perimeter. 

In point of size, this species presents a wide difference from all 
the others, which, as stated, are usually small, the largest, and latest 
in age, M. meeki Lyon, of the later Niagaran, having the calyx 20 
mm. high and 22 mm. wide at the arm bases ; whereas our two speci- 
mens with the calyx exposed are about 25 mm. high and 25 mm. 
wide at the arm bases. Measured from the surface of the tegmen 
to the distal end of the pendent arms where they close around the 
stem, and in width over all at the outside of the pinnules, these 
dimensions are about 35 mm. and 32 mm. respectively. In figure 
1, and in two other specimens not figured, the same measurements 
give 40 mm. in height and 37 mm. in width. 

But this by no means represents the maximum dimensions of the 
species, for among the 14 specimens, all from the same layer and 
locality, are two from which the calyx, including tegmen and arm 
bases, is broken away, that were more than three times as large. 
Only the hollow shell remains, containing the closely apposed arms 
from an irregular fractured edge below the arm bases to the distal 
end. That much of the crown is 12.5 cm. high and 7.5 cm. wide. 
Inasmuch as one-seventh of the individuals attain this great size, 
it is clear that the optimum for this species is far beyond that for 
any of the Silurian forms. 

Horizon and locality. — Lower Devonian, Oriskany; Cumberland, 
Maryland. The specimens occur in a friable calcareous sandstone, 
associated with Edriocrinus, Technocrinus, and numerous other 
forms peculiar to that horizon. The fossils as found have been 
leached by the percolation of water, carrying away the calcareous 
material, and partially replacing it by silica. By this leaching 
the finer surface markings have been obliterated. The series of 
specimens under consideration are part of a large collection made 
by Frank Hartley and acquired by me many years ago; but they 
have remained undescribed until now for want of time. 

Some other occurrences of this nature, not all new species, which 
should be further illustrated, will be here discussed. 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.07 

Genus GILBERTSOCRINUS Phillips 

Devonian to Keokuk. 

GILBERTSOCRINUS DISPANSUS Wachsmuth and Springer 

Plate 10, fig. 1 
GWbertsocrinus dispansus Wachsmuth and Springer. North Amer. Crin- 
Cam., 1897, p. 233. 

In most of the species of this genus in which the arms are known 
they tend to hang downward over the cup, emerging beneath an 
overhang at the edge of the tegmen. One of the species in which 
the arms are not pendent, G. tuberculatum of the Burlington lime- 
stone, is so closely similar to one of the same formation in which they 
are that the two can scarcely be differentiated by other characters. 
In a species from the Keokuk limestone of Indiana, G. dispansus™ 
it now appears from specimens obtained since the description was 
made that sometimes the arms, which are extremely long and slender, 
after extending downward for a part of their length bend backward 
upon themselves and are directed upward toward the tegmen, with 
the result that the ambulacral furrows and pinnules in one part of 
the arm appear to be upon the outside, and in another upon the in- 
side (pi. 10, fig. 1). It is rare to find these two conditions com- 
pletely shown in one specimen, as is fortunately the case in the ono 
I have figured; and their presence separately in different specimens 
has led to some curious theories touching the properties of arms pe- 
culiar to this crinoid. This was probably the occasion of the erro- 
neous figure by Meek and "Worthen in the second volume of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Illinois (p. 220), in which the arms are pictured 
as recumbent over the dorsal cup, but with the ventral side under- 
neath, and as to which the authors say, on page 221 : 

In the above cut the minute true arms of the typical species of Gonias- 
teroidocrinus are seen to branch so as to form nine to each ray. The cut 
shows only their outside, on which we have seen no indications of ambulacral 
furrows ; these may have been obliterated in cleaning the specimen, or possi- 
bly they may present the anomalous character of being on the under side and 
thus differ from those of all other known crinoids. 

Horizon and locality. — Mississippian, Keokuk limestone, lower 
horizon; Indian Creek, Indiana. 

Genus PLATYCRINUS Miller 

Devonian through Lower Carboniferous. 

PLATYCRINUS PENDENS Wachsmuth and Springer 

Plate 9, figs. 5, 5a 

Platycrinus pendens Wachsmuth and Springer, North Amer. Crin. Cam., 
1897, p. G47. 
Among the vast number of species of Platycrinus which were 
treated by Wachsmuth and Springer in the Camerata Monograph, 

17 Wachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., p. 240, pi. 15, figs. 2a-d. 



autO UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 39 

there were none which showed any indication of recumbent arms. In 
the closely related Eucladocrinus the long radial extensions, or tubu- 
lar appendages, frequently show a tendency to bend backward over 
the calyx, but always the true arms are folded over the ventral side ; 
even in cases like that of E. tuberosus 18 , where the tegmen is strongly 
hemispherical, and the arm bases are directed far below the hori- 
zontal, the arms fold in the normal way. The same thing may be 
said of other genera with hemispheric calyx, like Megistocrinus, 
Agaricocrinus, etc. 

In recent years, however, I have obtained two specimens of Platy- 
crinus from the well known locality of Le Grand, Iowa, but at a 
different horizon from that of the numerous species heretofore de- 
scribed, in which the arms are compactly folded backward upon the 
calyx and stem, and apparently fixed in that position, after the man- 
ner of Barrandeocrinus and Acrocrinus. The calyx in both is com- 
pletely enveloped, and can only be partially exposed, considerably 
distorted, in one of them. We know that the species belongs to 
Platycrinus, because both specimens have the twisted, elliptic stem. 
Of other characters little can be said, and the position of the arms 
must distinguish the species. I am giving two views of one speci- 
men ; the other is slightly larger, and equally characteristic as to the 
arms. 

Horizon and locality. — Mississippian, Kinderhook group, lower 
horizon; Le Grand, Iowa. 

Genus DICHOCRINUS Miinster 
Plate 11 

Dichocrinus Wachsmuth and Springer, North Amer. Crin. Cam., 1897, 

p. 753. 
Lower Carboniferous, Kinderhook to Chester. 

Among the changes to which this highly variable genus and its 
allies were subject, the recumbent arm took a strong hold. This was 
illustrated by Wachsmuth and Springer under their species Dicho- 
crinus pendens from the Burlington limestone 19 , and I am now giv- 
ing some additional figures of it, including one of a specimen with 
the complete stem and crown, partly to show the persistence of this 
character, several specimens having now been found, and partly to 
exhibit the Dichocrinus stem as usually seen, in comparison with one 
of its remarkable variations (pi. 11, figs. 4, 7). The first is without 
cirri, except in the form of distal root branches, while the latter has 
cirri in regular whorls, beginning in the upper region of the stem, 
of such an extraordinary length that they completely envelop the 

18 North Amer. Crin. Cam., pi. 72, figs. 4a, 6c. 

19 Idem, p. 774, pi. 78, fig. 15. 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.07 

calyx, and probably the arms, which are broken off. While there is 
no trace either of coiling or bilateralism, yet the peculiar behavior 
of the cirri in this specimen should be considered in connection with 
what was later developed under Camptocrinus. 

Wachsiinuth and Springer at the same time described from the 
Warsaw group another species, Dicliocrinus oblongus 20 , founded 
upon a unique specimen having only the calyx preserved. Speci- 
mens subsequently obtained with the arms attached show that these 
are of the recumbent variety, and I am accordingly illustrating the 
species anew (pi. 11, figs. 5, 6). 

In these two species, however, as I see them now, there does not 
seem to be quite the same structural type, or mode of attachment 
of the arms, that we have in the preceding examples. The arms 
are not so compactly placed, nor connected in the tegmen by their 
covering plates, and their appearance seems more like that of ordi- 
nary bending backward as the result of great flexibility. 

Genus ACROCRINUS Yandell 

Plates 9, 12, and 18 

Acrocrinus Yandell, Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, vol. 20, 1855, p. 135. — 
Wachsmuth and Spbingeb, North Amer. Crin. Cam., 1897, p. 805. — 
Bather, Lankester Zoology, pt. 3, 1900, p. 159. 

Carboniferous, Burlington to Pennsylvanian. 

Of a very different character from those last mentioned are the 
arms of Acroc?*i?ius, the last successor in the family Hexacrinidae, 
which is thoroughly illustrated in the Camerata monograph (pi. 80). 
In this form we have in one species a perfect example of the re- 
cumbent arm structure as I have described it, in which not only 
are the arms compactly placed, in close contact, connected in the 
tegmen so as to restrict motion, directed downward from the edge 
of the tegmen and closing around the stem, but the calyx is marked 
by numerous longitudinal impressions following the course of the 
arms and formed by the continued pressure of the arms from their 
dorsal side. I think there is no doubt that they grew in that way, 
and that the mode of life of this species was to have the arms com- 
pletely recurved with the pinnules on the outside. 

The species in which the recumbent arm occurs, Acrocrinus am- 
phora Wachsmuth and Springer, came from a single colony at 
Huntsville, Alabama, in the Ohara formation of the lower Chester 
(formerly referred to the St. Louis), in which it was fairly abun- 
dant. Upwards of sixty specimens were collected by Wachsmuth, 
and with one or two imperfect exceptions the structure as above set 

20 North Amer. Crin. Cam., p. 759, pi. 78, fig. 9. 



aut9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 41 

forth is constant throughout. But this does not apply to the type 
species, A. shumardi, which is from a higher horizon, the Glen Dean 
formation of the upper Chester; of this five specimens are known, 
and in every one of them the arms are erect, and there is no sign of 
indentations upon the calyx, while the species is well characterized 
otherwise by the less height and greater width of the radial plates. 

Therefore it must be conceded that while this specialization has 
nothing to do with the genus as a controlling character, since in five 
of the genera in which it occurs both types of arms are found, it 
does hold good for the species. 

While reference should be had to the ample illustrations given by 
Wachsmuth and Springer on plate 80 of the Camerata monograph, 
some of which I reproduce, I am for convenience giving some addi- 
tional figures, especially a new one of the rarer species, A. shumardi. 

ADDITIONAL ELEMENTS IN THE CALYX 

In connection with the genera last above discussed, another singu- 
lar modification is to be considered. 

As before stated, the dorsal cup of a crinoid consists primarily of 
a circlet of radials supporting the arms, and one or two rings of 
basals below them, plus interradial structures if present. While the 
latter may or may not be present, and when present are regarded as 
secondary elements which exhibit a wide range of variation in form 
and number, any departure from the normal two, or three, rings of 
primary plates has been considered as extremely exceptional. 
Therefore the occurrence of numerous additional sets or series of 
plates between the radial and basal circlets in Acrocrinus, the last 
survivor of the Camerata, has been regarded as a structure sui gen- 
eris, appearing suddenly at the end of the series, as a reversion to 
their cystid ancestry. 

While such a multiplication of plates is not uncommon among 
the irregular, many-plated cystid types, the definite insertion of an 
extra ring of primary plates in a form of otherwise regular construc- 
tion is to be noted in the Ordovician genus Macrocystella, thus pro- 
ducing a dorsal cup of 4 rings of plates. This modification was not 
followed up in either of the orders of the crinoids. But it is now 
of interest to note that the extensive development of such addi- 
tional plates in Acrocrinus is not the sudden occurrence that we 
have hitherto supposed, but is the culmination of one of the several 
remarkable modifications that took place in the generic types repre- 
sented by Dichocrinus and its derivitives. As evidence of this fact 
I am able to offer well-marked specimens of two species from widely 
different horizons. 
23832—26 1 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 07 

ACROCRINUS PRAECURSOR, new species 

Plate 12, fig. 1 

I have given this name to an isolated specimen from the Burlington 
limestone consisting of the calyx and part of the cuneate arms, some- 
what displaced, at first supposed to be merely an abnormal Dicho- 
crinus. The bisected base and the radials with the interposed anal 
plate are distinct, and in good condition. Between these two primi- 
tive rings of plates is interpolated a wide band of supplementary 
pieces occupying more than half the total height of the dorsal cup. 
Those next to the radials are more than half their size, and form a 
ring alternating with them ; from there down to the basals the plates 
diminish rapidly in size, and the alternation becomes irregular, but 
represents the equivalent of at least three additional rings of plates. 
The smaller size of the lower plates would indicate that they were 
the latest formed. The anal plate, which is fully as large as the 
radials, is succeeded downward by a diminishing vertical series of 
three plates in line with the interbasal suture. 

As compared with species of Dichocrinus in the same formation 
the radials are very much shorter, the space which they ordinarily 
occupy being in part taken by the anomalous additional plates. As 
the relative height of the radials becomes important, the following 
measurements of the type specimen may be noted: total height of 
calyx 9 mm. ; of radials 2.5 mm. ; of basals 1.5 mm. ; of band of sup- 
plementary plates 5 mm. Thus the radials occupy 27 per cent of the 
height of the cup ; whereas in four of the principal species of Dicho- 
cHnus of the Upper Burlington limestone the radials constitute 
from 60 to 66 per cent of the height of the cup; and in no other 
species from any formation do they occupy less than 50 per cent. 
In other words, these are not the radials of Dichocrinus. The arms, 
ten in number, and relatively slender, are somewhat displaced in 
the fossil, and those which appear directly above the anal series do 
not belong there. 

From the fact that no such a specimen has ever been seen before in 
all the numerous collections made at Burlington during more than 
half a century, it might be suggested that this is a mere sporadic 
occurrence. And perhaps it is. Nevertheless it is a definite struc- 
ture, foreshadowing one of the most remarkable derivatives of 
Dichocrinus, and containing all its essential characters; therefore a 
place for it must be found. The question is whether to call it a de- 
layed Dichocrinus or a premature Acrocrinus? This question has 
in fact been answered in advance; for just such a contingency as is 
here presented was provided for by Wachsmuth and Springer in 
the Camerata Monograph, when in discussing these genera we said 
on page 804: 



art9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 43 

The introduction of a narrow belt of supplementary pieces between the 
basals and radials would be sufficient to transform any Dichocrinus into an 
Acrocrinus. 

When along with this is correlated the further fact that the 
radials in this form, by reason of their extreme relative shortness, 
are not the radials of Dichocrinus but of Acrocrinus, the conclusion 
logically follows that it is best placed under the latter genus. 

This means that the tendency to this new specialization by way 
of multiplication of calyx plates began earlier than has been sup- 
posed; and it will be shown by the next following species that its 
development to the extreme stage attained by the typical Acrocrinus 
was by a further gradual process. 

It may be here observed that along with all these various deriva- 
tives of Dichocrinus the strong parent genus continued to carry on 
to the end of the lower Carboniferous, where it is represented by a 
well defined species, D. superstes, occurring in the latest formation 
of the Chester. The only one that survived it was Acrocrinus, which 
held over into the Coal Measures with a degenerate species having 
only six bands of supplementary plates, actually less like the typical 
form than is the species just described. 

Horizon and locality. — Mississippian, Upper Burlington lime- 
stone; Burlington, Iowa. 

ACROCRINUS INTERMEDIUS, new species 

Plate 12, figs. 2-5 

In this species, presenting a further immature or rudimentary 
stage of the genus, we are not obliged to rely upon an isolated indi- 
vidual, but are fortunate in the possession of a series of excellent 
specimens from a single colony, by which all the characters of this 
type are thoroughly illustrated. They were found by Frederick 
Braun while collecting for me in the season of 1913 21 in Monroe 
County, Illinois, as a part of a considerable colony of well preserved 
crinoids from a formation in the lower part of the Chester now des- 
ignated by the Geological Survey of Illinois as the Renault for- 
mation. 

The material consists of two nearly complete specimens, with arms 
and stem well preserved, and two calices which contribute important 
information. All agree in having a band of supplementary plates, 
of either tw r o or of three rings, which diminish downwards, inter- 
calated between the bisected base and the radials: the plates of the 
successive rings above the basals alternate regularly except at the 
posterior side, where there is a vertical series below the anal. Above 

21 Explorations and Fioldwork of the Smithsonian Institution in 1913. Smithson. Misc. 
Coll., vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 14-16. 



44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.67 

the anal plate, and back from the edge, is a pyramid of small plates 
marking an opening through the tegmen. As in the preceding 
species, the radials are relatively short, their average height in the 
four specimens being 32 per cent out of a total of 6 to T mm. The 
calyx is well elongated and conical, with curved sides; height to 
width at the top being as 1.5 to 1, and at the base as 1.5 to .27. The 
species is small, the four specimens varying but little from 6 mm. 
in height of cup. 

The arms are relatively strong, biserial, erect, and closely fringed 
with long pinnules. The stem is composed of rounded, nearly equal 
columnals, about half as long as wide, increasing somewhat in width 
distally; this is not so evident in one of the figures because not well 
exposed in the matrix. 

The striking feature of this series of specimens is the extreme 
regularity of their construction, with the single exception of the 
number of ranges of the supplementary plates ; two of the specimens 
having two ranges, one three, and the fourth, which is considerably 
crushed, apparently has partly both. Thus the addition of the 
inserted plates is a definite structure, somewhat plastic, heralding 
their great development to the twenty circlets of the typical 
Acrocrinus. Presumably the new species preceded the latter in 
time, but our knowledge of the stratigraphy of their occurrence is 
not sufficiently minute to furnish the proof of it. A. shumardi, 
from the Glen Dean formation of the Upper Chester, is, of course, 
later than the present species. A. amphora, from the Ohara forma- 
tion, may be of approximately equivalent age; both of these species 
being from a different region. But there is a third very rare species, 
A. wrnaeformis, in the same mature stage, described by Hall from 
the same region in Illinois as our species, 22 of which there can be no 
doubt, as I found a well marked specimen of it in the same layer 
which produced the types herein described; so that while the ma- 
tured form continued into the later formations, with our present 
knowledge it must be considered that both forms existed together 
at one period. 

As a result of the facts brought out imder the last two heads, 
we have in the concurrent development in the genus Dichocrinus 
and its derivatives of two such striking characters as the recumbent 
arms and an added calyx element, a remarkable example of long 
preparation for an eventual culmination which is to mark the ex- 
tinction of the order to which it belongs. 

Horizon and locality. — Mississippian, lower Chester, Renault for- 
mation ; Burksville, Monroe County. Illinois. 

^Geol. Iowa, pt. 2, 1858, p. 090, pi. 25, figs. 11«. b. 



art 9 UNUSUAL FORMS OF FOSSIL CRINOIDS SPRINGER 45 

The following species are also illustrated for comparison : 

ACROCRINUS SHUMARDI Yandell 

Plate 12, figs 6, 7 

Acrocrinus shumardi Yandell, Amer. Journ. Sci., vol. 20, 1S55, p. 135. — 
Wachsmuth and Springer, North Amor. Crin. Cam., 1S97, p. 806, 
pi. 80, figs. 1-3. 

Upper Chester, Glen Dean formation ; Grayson Comity, Kentucky. 

ACROCRINUS AMPHORA Wachsmuth and Springer 

Plates 9, figs. 8, 9 ; plate 12, figs. 8, 9 ; plate 18, fig. 4 

Aa-ocrinus amphora Wachsmuth and Springer, North Amer. Crin. Cam., 

1897, p. 808, pi. 80, figs. 4-9. 
Lower Chester, Ohara formation ; Huntsville, Alabama. 

ACROCRINUS WORTHENI Wachsmuth 

Plate 12, fig. 10 

Acrocrinus wortheni Wachsmuth, Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. 7, 1882, p. 343, 
pi. 30, fig. 13. — Wachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., 1897, 
p. 807, pi. SO, figs. 10(7, &. 

Coal Measures ; Peoria County, Illinois. 

THE WING-LIKE RADIAL PROCESSES 

There still remains to point out another line of productive modi- 
fication furnished by this fertile genus Dichocrimis, leading to a 
specialization of an entirely different type. In this the major de- 
velopment takes place in the tegmen, at the expense of the arms and 
the dorsal cup. The arms become short and relatively inconspicu- 
ous; the radiajs small and no longer dominating the cup; the two 
fair-sized primibrachs of the parent genus have been reduced to a 
single minute triangular piece, which is often invisible; the large 
anal plate, which was of similar form and size to the radials, is now 
a pentangular or more or less wedge-formed piece, narrowing up- 
ward, sometimes to an apex below the level of the radials. The 
chief developmental activity of the skeleton is concentrated in the 
ambulacral region of the tegmen, where the axillary plate, or radial 
dome plate, is hypertrophied into a variety of forms, some thin and 
knife-like; some thick, rounded, club-shaped, or spatulate; and still 
others bifurcating, until there is produced the wing-like processes 
of Pterotocrinus, structures unlike those seen in any other crinoid. 
They are analogous to the spines of Dorycrinus, but far more spe- 
cialized and complex; their different forms are shown upon plate 
79 of the Camerata monograph. 



46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. «7 

The essential calyx elements of Pterotocrinus are the same as 
those of Dichocrinus, namely, two basals, a ring of radials, and an 
anal plate in line with them. The line of succession between them 
through the genus Talarocrinus, as was stated by Wachsmuth and 
Springer when proposing it, is plain and evident. It is intermediate 
in structure, and partly so in time. While Dichocrinus carries its 
strong and simple calyx through from the Kinderhook to the end of 
the Lower Carboniferous, Talarocrinus as one of its off-shoots begins 
with an isolated species in the Warsaw, and develops mainly in the 
lower Chester; and Pterotocrinus, although first occurring in one of 
the lower formations of the Chester, is characteristically a genus of 
the upper Chester. Talarocrinus was short lived, sharply limited 
in time, and is found by the geologists to be an excellent horizon 
marker. (See pis. 13, 14.) 

Talarocrinus has the same basals, radials, and anal plate as 
Dichocrinus, but drops one primibrach, retaining a small triangular 
axillary. In Pterotocrinus the minute primibrach, sometimes in- 
visible, is followed by single secundibrachs, also axillary, which 
often together with the outer tertibrachs rest almost horizontally 
within the radial facet and are suturally connected with it, so t